Buddhism in Vietnam

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Minh Thanh Pagoda, Ly, Tran Dynasty. Chua Minh Thanh - panoramio.jpg
Minh Thanh Pagoda, , Tran Dynasty.

Buddhism in Vietnam (Đạo Phật or Phật Giáo in Vietnamese), as practised by the ethnic Vietnamese, is mainly of the Mahayana tradition. [1] Buddhism may have first come to Vietnam as early as the 3rd or 2nd century BCE from the Indian subcontinent or from China in the 1st or 2nd century CE. [2] Vietnamese Buddhism has had a syncretic relationship with certain elements of Taoism, Chinese spirituality, and Vietnamese folk religion. [3]

Vietnamese language official and national language of Vietnam

Vietnamese is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language. Spoken natively by an estimated 76 million people, it is the native language of the Vietnamese (Kinh) people, as well as a first or second language for the many ethnic minorities of Vietnam. As a result of Vietnamese emigration and cultural influence, Vietnamese speakers are found throughout the world, notably in East and Southeast Asia, North America, Australia and Western Europe. Vietnamese has also been officially recognized as a minority language in the Czech Republic.

Vietnamese people ethnic group originally from northern Vietnam

The Vietnamese people, also called as Viet people or Kinh people, are a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to present-day northern Vietnam, their nation state. They speak Vietnamese, the most widely spoken Austroasiatic language. They comprised 86% of the population of the country at the 1999 census, and are officially known as Kinh to distinguish them from other ethnic groups in Vietnam. The earliest recorded name for the ancient Vietnamese people appears as Lạc.

Mahayana Branch of Buddhism

Mahāyāna is one of two main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice. This movement added a further set of discourses, and although it was initially small in India, it had long-term historical significance. The Buddhist tradition of Vajrayana is sometimes classified as a part of Mahāyāna Buddhism, but some scholars consider it to be a different branch altogether.



One Pillar Pagoda

The One Pillar Pagoda is a historic Buddhist temple in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam. It is regarded alongside the Perfume Temple, as one of Vietnam's two most iconic temples.

Hanoi Capital of Vietnam

Hanoi is the capital of Vietnam. It covers an area of 3,328.9 square kilometres (1,285 sq mi). With an estimated population of 7.7 million as of 2018, it is the second largest city in Vietnam. The metropolitan area, encompassing nine additional neighbouring provinces, has an estimated population of 16 million. Located in the central area of the Red River Delta, Hanoi is the commercial, cultural, and educational centre of Northern Vietnam. Having an estimated nominal GDP of US$32.8 billion, it is the second most productive economic centre of Vietnam, following Ho Chi Minh City.

Bái Đính Temple

Bái Đính Temple or Bái Đính Temple Spiritual and Cultural Complex is a complex of Buddhist temples on Bai Dinh Mountain in Gia Viễn District, Ninh Bình Province, Vietnam. The compound consists of the original old temple and a newly created larger temple. It is considered the largest complex of Buddhist temples in Vietnam and has become a popular site for Buddhist pilgrimages from across Vietnam.

Dynastic period

There are conflicting theories regarding whether Buddhism first reached Vietnam during the 3rd or 2nd century BCE via delegations from India, or during the 1st or 2nd century from China. [4] In either case, by the end of the second century CE, Vietnam had developed into a major regional Mahayana Buddhist center centering on Luy Lâu in modern Bắc Ninh Province, northeast of the present day capital city of Hanoi. Luy Lâu was the capital of the Han region of Jiaozhi and was a popular place visited by many Indian Buddhist missionary monks en route to China. The monks followed the maritime trade route from the Indian sub-continent to China used by Indian traders. A number of Mahayana sutras and the āgamas were translated into Classical Chinese there, including the Sutra of Forty-two Chapters and the Anapanasati .

Luy Lâu

Luy Lâu (Vietnamese) or Leilou(Chinese: Traditional 羸𨻻,Simplified 羸𨻻,PinyinLéilóu) was the first capital of the Han commandery of Jiaozhi following its 111 BC submission during China's conquest of Nanyue. It was also the headquarters of the larger province of Jiaozhou and the center of China's maritime trade on the Gulf of Tonkin and South China Sea. The old citadel is at Xã Thanh Khương in Thuận Thành in the province of Bắc Ninh.

Bắc Ninh Province Province in Red River Delta, Vietnam

Bắc Ninh is a province of Vietnam, located in the Red River Delta of the northern part of the country. It is situated to the east of the Vietnamese capital, Hanoi, and borders Bắc Giang Province, Hưng Yên Province, Hải Dương Province, Thái Nguyên Province and Hanoi. The province's name derives from Sino-Vietnamese 北寧 and literally means "northern serenity". Bắc Ninh is a smallest province of Việt Nam.

Jiaozhi, was the name for various provinces, commanderies, prefectures, and counties in northern Vietnam from the era of the Hùng kings to the middle of the Third Chinese domination of Vietnam and again during the Fourth Chinese domination (1407–1427).

Jiaozhi was the birthplace of Buddhist missionary Kang Senghui who was of Sogdian origin. [5] [6]

Kang Senghui was a Buddhist monk and translator during the Three Kingdoms period of ancient China. He was born in Jiaozhi. He was the son of a Sogdian merchant, hence the last name of Kang, meaning "one whose forefathers had been people from Kangju", or Sogdia. Kang received a Chinese literary education and was "widely read in the six (Confucian) classics." He also read Sanskrit and was known for his knowledge of the Tripiñaka. He joined the saïgha as a teenager, following the death of his parents. Kang contributed more to the diffusion of Buddhist sutras as a preacher than to their translation into the Chinese language as there are only two collections of avadānas in the canon which are attributed to him. According to legend, the first Buddha relic in China appeared in a vase in 248 C.E. so that Kang Senghui would have something to show a local ruler. Sun Quan, the king of Eastern Wu, would unsuccessfully attempt to destroy the tooth by subjecting it to various tests.

Over the next eighteen centuries, Vietnam and China shared many common features of cultural, philosophical and religious heritage. This was due to geographical proximity to one another and Vietnam being annexed twice by China. Vietnamese Buddhism is thus related to Chinese Buddhism in general, and to some extent reflects the formation of Chinese Buddhism after the Song dynasty. [7] Theravada Buddhism, on the other hand, would become incorporated through the southern annexation of Khmer people and territories.

Chinese Buddhism Buddhism with Chinese characteristics

Chinese Buddhism or Han Buddhism has shaped Chinese culture in a wide variety of areas including art, politics, literature, philosophy, medicine and material culture.

Song dynasty Chinese historical period

The Song dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song following his usurpation of the throne of the Later Zhou, ending the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The Song often came into conflict with the contemporaneous Liao, Western Xia and Jin dynasties to its north. It was eventually conquered by the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Song government was the first in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy. This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder, as well as the first discernment of true north using a compass.

Theravada Branch of Buddhism

Theravāda is the most commonly accepted name of Buddhism's oldest extant school. The school's adherents, termed Theravādins, have preserved their version of the Gautama Buddha's teaching in the Pāli Canon. The Pāli Canon is the only complete Buddhist canon surviving in a classical Indian language, Pāli, which serves as the school's sacred language and lingua franca. For over a millennium, theravādins have endeavored to preserve the dhamma as recorded in their school's texts. In contrast to Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna, Theravāda tends to be conservative in matters of doctrine and monastic discipline.

During the Đinh dynasty (968–980), Buddhism was recognized by the state as an official faith (~971), reflecting the high esteem of Buddhist faith held by the Vietnamese monarchs. [8] The Early Lê dynasty (980–1009) also afforded the same recognition to the Buddhist church. The growth of Buddhism during this time is attributed to the recruitment of erudite monks to the court as the newly independent state needed an ideological basis on which to build a country. Subsequently, this role was ceded to Confucianism. [9]

Đinh dynasty dynasty

The Đinh dynasty was the imperial dynasty of Vietnam starting in 968 when Đinh Tiên Hoàng vanquished the upheavals of Twelve warlords and ended as the son of Đinh Tiên Hoàng, Đinh Phế Đế, ceded the throne to Lê Hoàn in 980.

Early Lê dynasty dynasty

The Early Lê dynasty was a dynasty that ruled Đại Cồ Việt, now Vietnam, from 980 to 1009, following the Đinh dynasty and being succeeded by the Lý dynasty. It comprised the reigns of three emperors and is known for repelling the Song invasion of its nation.

Vietnamese Buddhism reached its zenith during the Lý dynasty (1009–1225) beginning with the founder Lý Thái Tổ, who was raised in a pagoda. [10] All of the kings during the Lý dynasty professed and sanctioned Buddhism as the state religion. This endured with the Trần dynasty (1225–1400) but Buddhism had to share the stage with the emerging growth of Confucianism.

By the 15th century, Buddhism fell out of favor with the court during the Later Lê dynasty, although still popular with the masses. Officials like Lê Quát attacked it as heretical and wasteful. [11] It was not until the 19th century that Buddhism regained some stature under the Nguyễn dynasty who accorded royal support. [12]

A Buddhist revival movement (Chấn hưng Phật giáo) emerged in the 1920s in an effort to reform and strengthen institutional Buddhism, which had lost grounds to the spread of Christianity and the growth of other faiths under French rule. The movement continued into the 1950s. [13]

Republican period

Monument to Thich Quang Duc, who burned himself to death in 1963 in protest against the persecution of Buddhists by South Vietnam's Ngo Dinh Diem administration Venerable Thich Quang Duc Monument where he performed his self-immolation.JPG
Monument to Thích Quảng Đức, who burned himself to death in 1963 in protest against the persecution of Buddhists by South Vietnam's Ngô Đình Diệm administration

From 1954 to 1975, Vietnam was split into North and South Vietnam. In a country where surveys of the religious composition estimated the Buddhist majority to be approximately 50 to 70 percent, [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] President Ngô Đình Diệm's policies generated claims of religious bias. As a member of the Catholic Vietnamese minority, he pursued pro-Catholic policies that antagonized many Buddhists.

In May 1963, in the central city of Huế, where Diệm's elder brother Ngô Đình Thục was the archbishop, Buddhists were prohibited from displaying Buddhist flags during Vesak celebrations [21] yet few days earlier, Catholics were allowed to fly religious flags at a celebration in honour of the newly seated archbishop. This led to widespread protest against the government; troops were sent in and nine civilians were killed in the confrontations. This led to mass rallies against Diệm's government, termed as the Buddhist crisis. The conflicts culminated in Thích Quảng Đức's self-immolation. President Diệm's younger brother Ngô Đình Nhu favored strong-armed tactics and Army of the Republic of Vietnam Special Forces engaged in the Xá Lợi Pagoda raids, killing estimated hundreds.[ citation needed ] Dismayed by the public outrage, the US government withdrew support for the regime. President Diệm was deposed and killed in the 1963 coup. [22] [23]

Political strength of the Buddhists grew in the 1960s as the different schools and orders convene to form the Unified Buddhist Church of Vietnam. Leaders of the Church like Thích Trí Quang had considerable sway in national politics, at times challenging the government.

With the fall of Saigon in 1975, the whole nation came under Communist rule; many religious practices including Buddhism were discouraged. In the North the government had created the United Buddhist Sangha of Vietnam, co-opting the clergy to function under government auspices but in the South, the Unified Buddhist Sangha of Vietnam still held sway and openly challenged the communist government. The Sangha leadership was thus arrested and imprisoned; Sangha properties were seized and the Sangha itself was outlawed. In its place was the newly created Buddhist Sangha of Vietnam, designed as the final union of all Buddhist organizations, now under full state control.

Modern period

The treatment of Buddhists started to ease since Đổi mới in 1986.

Since Đổi Mới (1986) many reforms have allowed Buddhism to be practiced relatively unhindered by the individuals. However no organized sangha is allowed to function independent of the state. It was not until 2007 that Pure Land Buddhism, the most widespread type of Buddhism practiced in Vietnam, was officially recognized as a religion by the government. [24] Thích Quảng Độ the Patriarch of the Unified Buddhist Sangha, once imprisoned, remains under surveillance and restricted in his travels.

Today, Buddhists are found throughout Vietnam, from North to South. Buddhism is the single largest organized religion in Vietnam, with somewhere between 12.2% and 16.4% of the population identifying themselves as Buddhist. [25] [26] Some argued the number to be higher than reported, as many declared themselves as atheists, but still participated in Buddhist activities.

On one hand, though the Communist Party of Vietnam officially promotes atheism, it has usually leaned in favor of Buddhism, as Buddhism is associated with the long and deep history of Vietnam, and also, there have rarely been disputes between Buddhists and the Government; [27] the Communist Government also sees Buddhism as a symbol of Vietnamese patriotism. Buddhist festivals are officially promoted by the Government and restrictions are few, [28] in contrast to its Christian, Muslim and other religious counterparts.

Recently, the Communist regime in Vietnam allowed major Buddhist figures to enter the country. Thích Nhất Hạnh, a major Buddhist figure revered both in Vietnam and worldwide, is among these. [29] In order to distance itself from the fellow communist neighbor China, the Government of Vietnam allows the publishing of books and stories of 14th Dalai Lama, who has a personal friendship with Thích Nhất Hạnh and were commonly critical of the Chinese regime after the 2008 Tibetan unrest, [30] which was seen as an attempt to antagonize the Chinese Government and China as a whole as Beijing considers the Dalai Lama to be a terrorist.


Buddhist Monastery of Tam Bao Son, Harrington, Quebec, Canada QC Harrington4 tango7174.jpg
Buddhist Monastery of Tam Bao Son, Harrington, Quebec, Canada

After the fall of South Vietnam to communism in 1975 at the end of the Vietnam War, the first major Buddhist community appeared in North America. Since this time, the North American Vietnamese Buddhist community has grown to some 160 temples and centers. Proselytizing is not a priority.

The most famous practitioner of synchronized Vietnamese Thiền in the West is Thích Nhất Hạnh who has authored dozens of books and founded the Plum Village Monastery in France together with his colleague, bhikṣuṇī and Zen Master Chân Không. According to Nguyen and Barber, Thích Nhất Hạnh's fame in the Western world as a proponent of engaged Buddhism and a new Thiền style has "no affinity with or any foundation in traditional Vietnamese Buddhist practices" [31] and according to Alexander Soucy (2007) his style of Zen Buddhism is not reflective of actual Vietnamese Buddhism. Thích Nhất Hạnh often recounts about his early Thiền practices in Vietnam in his Dharma talks saying that he continued and developed this practice in the West which has a distinctive Vietnamese Thiền flavor.[ citation needed ]

Thích Nhất Hạnh's Buddhist teachings have started to return to a Vietnam where the Buddhist landscape is now being shaped by the combined Vietnamese and Westernized Buddhism that is focused more on the meditative practices. [32]


Vietnamese art of the pure land of Ksitigarbha. Ksitigarbha Statue Mural Vietnam.jpeg
Vietnamese art of the pure land of Kṣitigarbha.

Followers in Vietnam practice differing traditions without any problem or sense of contradiction. [33] Few Vietnamese Buddhists would identify themselves as a particular kind of Buddhism, as a Christian might identify him or herself by a denomination, for example. Although Vietnamese Buddhism does not have a strong centralized structure, the practice is similar throughout the country at almost any temple.

Gaining merit is the most common and essential practice in Vietnamese Buddhism with a belief that liberation takes place with the help of Buddhas and bodhisattvas. Buddhist monks commonly chant sutras, recite Buddhas’ names (particularly Amitābha), doing repentance and praying for rebirth in the Pure Land. [34]

The Lotus Sutra and the Amitabha Sutra are the most commonly used sutras. [35] Most sutras and texts are in Classical Chinese and are merely recited with Sino-Xenic pronunciations, making them incomprehensible to most practitioners.

Three services are practiced regularly at dawn, noon, and dusk. They include sutra reading with niệm Phật and dhāraṇī recitation and kinh hành (walking meditation). Laypeople at times join the services at the temple and some devout Buddhist practice the services at home. Special services such as Sam Nguyen/Sam Hoi (confession/repentance) takes place on the full moon and new moon each month. Niệm Phật practice is one way of repenting and purifying bad karma. [33]

Buddhist temples also serve a significant role in death rituals and funerals among overseas Vietnamese.


Mahāyāna traditions

Bai Dinh Temple in Ninh Binh Province BaiDinh Dien TamThe.JPG
Bái Đính Temple in Ninh Bình Province
Monks holding a service in Hue Buddhist Monk Service Hue Vietnam.jpeg
Monks holding a service in Huế

The overall doctrinal position of Vietnamese Buddhism is the inclusive system of Tiantai, with the higher metaphysics informed by the Huayan school (Vietnamese : Hoa Nghiêm); however, the orientation of Vietnamese Buddhism is syncretic without making such distinctions. [7] Therefore, modern practice of Vietnamese Buddhism can be very eclectic, including elements from Thiền (Chan Buddhism), Thiên Thai (Tiantai), Tịnh độ Pure Land Buddhism, and popular practices from Vajrayana. [7] According to Charles Prebish, many English language sources contain misconceptions regarding the variety of doctrines and practices in traditional Vietnamese Buddhism: [36]

We will not consider here the misconceptions presented in most English-language materials regarding the distinctness of these schools, and the strong inclination for "syncretism" found in Chinese and Vietnamese Buddhism. Much has been said about the incompatibility of different schools and their difficulty in successfully communicating with each other and combining their doctrines. None of these theories reflects realities in Vietnam (or China) past or present. The followers have no problem practicing the various teachings at the same time.

The methods of Pure Land Buddhism are perhaps the most widespread within Vietnam. It is common for practitioners to recite sutras, chants and dhāraṇīs looking to gain protection through bodhisattvas or dharmapalas. [37] It is a devotional practice where those practicing put their faith in Amitābha (Vietnamese : A-di-đà). Followers believe they will gain rebirth in his pure land by chanting Amitabha's name. A pure land is a Buddha-realm where one can more easily attain enlightenment since suffering does not exist there.

Many religious organizations have not been recognized by the government; however, in 2007, with 1.5 million followers, the Vietnamese Pure Land Buddhism Association (Tịnh Độ Cư Sĩ Phật Hội Việt Nam) received official recognition as an independent and legal religious organization. [24]

Thiền is the Sino-Xenic pronunciation of Chan (Japanese Zen) and is derived ultimately from Sanskrit "dhyāna". The traditional account is that in 580, an Indian monk named Vinitaruci (Vietnamese : Tì-ni-đa-lưu-chi) traveled to Vietnam after completing his studies with Sengcan, the third patriarch of Chan Buddhism. This would be the first appearance of Thiền. The sect that Vinitaruci and his lone Vietnamese disciple founded would become known as the oldest branch of Thiền. After a period of obscurity, the Vinitaruci School became one of the most influential Buddhist groups in Vietnam by the 10th century, particularly under the patriarch Vạn-Hạnh (died 1018). Other early Vietnamese Zen schools included the Vô Ngôn Thông, which was associated with the teaching of Mazu Daoyi, and the Thảo Đường, which incorporated nianfo chanting techniques; both were founded by Chinese monks.

A new Thiền school was founded by King Trần Nhân Tông (1258–1308); called the Trúc Lâm "Bamboo Grove" school, it evinced a deep influence from Confucian and Taoist philosophy. Nevertheless, Trúc Lâm's prestige waned over the following centuries as Confucianism became dominant in the royal court. In the 17th century, a group of Chinese monks led by Nguyên Thiều introduced the Ling school (Lâm Tế). A more native offshoot of Lâm Tế, the Liễu Quán school, was founded in the 18th century and has since been the predominant branch of Vietnamese Zen.

This is the main altar of a Vietnamese Buddhist temple near Seattle. In the front is a statue of Shakyamuni Buddha, the historical founder, while in the back is the "trinity" of Amitabha Buddha. On one side of Amitabha is Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva while on the other is Mahasthamaprapta Bodhisattva. Vietnamese Buddhist temple main altar.jpg
This is the main altar of a Vietnamese Buddhist temple near Seattle. In the front is a statue of Shakyamuni Buddha, the historical founder, while in the back is the "trinity" of Amitabha Buddha. On one side of Amitabha is Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva while on the other is Mahasthamaprapta Bodhisattva.

Some scholars argue that the importance and prevalence of Thiền in Vietnam has been greatly overstated and that it has played more of an elite rhetorical role than a role of practice. [38] The Thiền uyển tập anh (Chinese :禪苑集英, "Collection of Outstanding Figures of the Zen Garden") has been the dominant text used to legitimize Thiền lineages and history within Vietnam. However, Cuong Tu Nguyen's Zen in Medieval Vietnam: A Study and Translation of the Thien Tap Anh (1997) gives a critical review of how the text has been used to create a history of Zen Buddhism that is "fraught with discontinuity". Modern Buddhist practices are not reflective of a Thiền past; in Vietnam, common practices are more focused on ritual and devotion than the Thiền focus on meditation. [39] Nonetheless, Vietnam is seeing a steady growth in Zen today. [32] Two figures who have been responsible for this increased interest in Thiền are Thích Nhất Hạnh, and Thích Thanh Từ, who lives in Da Lat.


South East Asia circa 1010 CE, Dai Viet (Vietnamese) lands in yellow VietnamChampa1.gif
South East Asia circa 1010 CE, Đại Việt (Vietnamese) lands in yellow

The central and southern part of present-day Vietnam were originally inhabited by the Chams and the Khmer people, respectively, who followed both a syncretic Śaiva-Mahayana (see History of Buddhism in Cambodia) and Theravada Buddhism. Đại Việt annexed the land occupied by the Cham during conquests in the 15th century and by the 18th century had also annexed the southern portion of the Khmer Empire, resulting in the current borders of Vietnam. From that time onward, the dominant Đại Việt (Vietnamese) followed the Mahayana tradition while the Khmer continued to practice Theravada.

In the 1920s and 1930s, there were a number of movements in Vietnam for the revival and modernization of Buddhist activities. Together with the re-organization of Mahayana establishments, there developed a growing interest in Theravadin meditation as well as the Pāli Canon. These were then available in French. Among the pioneers who brought Theravada Buddhism to the ethnic Đại Việt was a young veterinary doctor named Lê Văn Giảng. He was born in the South, received higher education in Hanoi, and after graduation, was sent to Phnom Penh, Cambodia, to work for the French government.

During that time he became especially interested in Theravada Buddhist practice. Subsequently, he decided to ordain and took the Dhamma name of Hộ-Tông (Vansarakkhita). In 1940, upon an invitation from a group of lay Buddhists led by Nguyễn Văn Hiểu, he went back to Vietnam in order to help establish the first Theravada temple for Vietnamese Buddhists at Gò Dưa, Thủ Đức (now a district of Hồ Chí Minh City). The temple was named Bửu Quang (Ratana Ramsyarama). The temple was destroyed by French troops in 1947, and was later rebuilt in 1951. At Bửu Quang temple, together with a group of Vietnamese bhikkhus who had received training in Cambodia such as Thiện Luật, Bửu Chơn, Kim Quang and Giới Nghiêm, Hộ Tông began teaching Buddhism in their native Vietnamese. He also translated many Buddhist materials from the Pali Canon, and Theravada became part of Vietnamese Buddhist activity in the country.

In 1949–1950, Hộ Tông together with Nguyễn Văn Hiểu and supporters built a new temple in Saigon (now Hồ Chí Minh City), named Kỳ Viên Tự (Jetavana Vihara). This temple became the centre of Theravada activities in Vietnam, which continued to attract increasing interest among the Vietnamese Buddhists. In 1957, the Vietnamese Theravada Buddhist Sangha Congregation (Giáo Hội Tăng Già Nguyên Thủy Việt Nam) was formally established and recognised by the government, and the Theravada Sangha elected Venerable Hộ Tông as its first President, or Sangharaja.

From Saigon, the Theravada movement spread to other provinces, and soon, a number of Theravada temples for ethnic Viet Buddhists were established in many areas in the South and Central parts of Vietnam. There are 529 Theravada temples throughout the country, of which 19 were located in Hồ Chí Minh City and its vicinity. Besides Bửu Quang and Kỳ Viên temples, other well known temples are Bửu Long, Giác Quang, Tam Bảo (Đà Nẵng), Thiền Lâm and Huyền Không (Huế), and the large Thích Ca Phật Đài in Vũng Tàu. [40]

See also


  1. Cuong Tu Nguyen & A.W. Barber. "Vietnamese Buddhism in North America: Tradition and Acculturation". in Charles S. Prebish and Kenneth K. Tanaka (eds). The Faces of Buddhism in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998, pg 130.
  2. Cuong Tu Nguyen. Zen in Medieval Vietnam: A Study of the Thiền Uyển Tập Anh. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997, pg 9.
  3. Cuong Tu Nguyen & A.W. Barber 1998, pg 132.
  4. Nguyen Tai Thu. The History of Buddhism in Vietnam. 2008.
  5. Tai Thu Nguyen (2008). The History of Buddhism in Vietnam. CRVP. pp. 36–. ISBN   978-1-56518-098-7.
  6. Tai Thu Nguyen (2008). The History of Buddhism in Vietnam. CRVP. pp. 36–. ISBN   978-1-56518-098-7. Archived from the original on 2015-01-31. Retrieved 2017-12-04.
  7. 1 2 3 Prebish, Charles. Tanaka, Kenneth. The Faces of Buddhism in America. 1998. p. 134
  8. Nguyen Tai Thu 2008, pg 77.
  9. Nguyen Tai Thu 2008, pg 75.
  10. Nguyen Tai Tu Nguyen 2008, pg 89.
  11. Việt Nam: Borderless Histories – Page 67 Nhung Tuyet Tran, Anthony Reid – 2006 "In this first formal attack in 1370, a Confucian official named Lê Quát attempted, without much success, to brand Buddhism as heretical and to promote Confucianism. Times had drastically changed by Ngô Sĩ Liên's Lê dynasty."
  12. The Vietnam Review: Volume 3 1997 "Buddhism The close association between kingship and Buddhism established by the Ly founder prevailed until the end of the Trân. That Buddhism was the people's predominant faith is seen in this complaint by the Confucian scholar Lê Quát ."
  13. Elise Anne DeVido. "Buddhism for This World: The Buddhist Revival in Vietnam, 1920 to 1951, and Its Legacy." in Philip Taylor (ed), Modernity and Re-enchantment: Religion in Post-revolutionary Vietnam. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies: Singapore, 2007, p. 251.
  14. The 1966 Buddhist Crisis in South Vietnam Archived 2008-03-04 at the Wayback Machine HistoryNet
  15. Gettleman, pp. 275–76, 366.
  16. Moyar, pp. 215–216.
  17. "South Viet Nam: The Religious Crisis". Time. 1963-06-14.
  18. Tucker, pp. 49, 291, 293.
  19. Maclear, p. 63.
  20. SNIE 53-2-63, "The Situation in South Vietnam, 10 July 1963 Archived April 1, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  21. Topmiller, p. 2.
  22. Karnow, pp. 295–325.
  23. Moyar, pp. 212–250.
  24. 1 2 "Pure Land Buddhism recognised by Gov’t." Viet Nam News. December 27, 2007. Accessed: April 7, 2009.
  25. The Global Religious Landscape 2010 . The Pew Forum.
  26. Home Office: Country Information and Guidance — Vietnam: Religious minority groups . December 2014. Quoting United Nations' "Press Statement on the visit to the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam by the Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief". Hanoi, Viet Nam 31 July 2014. Vietnamese. Quote, p. 8: "[...] According to the official statistics presented by the Government, the overall number of followers of recognized religions is about 24 million out of a population of almost 90 million. Formally recognized religious communities include 11 million Buddhists [...]"
  27. https://kyotoreview.org/issue-19/buddhist-studies-vietnam/
  28. http://www.vietnam-culture.com/vietnam-religion-buddhism.aspx
  29. https://charterforcompassion.org/practicing-peace/inner-peace-quotes-from-zen-buddhist-master-thich-nh-t-h-nh
  30. https://plumvillage.org/letters-from-thay/thich-nhat-hanh-on-tibet-27-march-2008/
  31. Cuong Tu Nguyen & A. W. Barber 1998, p. 131.
  32. 1 2 Alexander Soucy 2007.
  33. 1 2 Cuong Tu Nguyen & A. W. Barber 1998, pg 135.
  34. Cuong Tu Nguyen & A. W. Barber 1998, pg 134.
  35. Cuong Tu Nguyen & A. W. Barber 1998, pg 134 .
  36. Prebish, Charles. Tanaka, Kenneth. The Faces of Buddhism in America. 1998. p. 135
  37. Cuong Tu Nguyen 1997, p. 94.
  38. Alexander Soucy. "Nationalism, Globalism and the Re-establishment of the Trúc Lâm Thien Sect in Northern Vietnam." in Philip Taylor (ed), Modernity and Re-enchantment: Religion in Post Revolutionary Vietnam. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies: Singapore, 2007; Cuong Tu Nguyen 1997, pg 342-3
  39. Alexander Soucy 2007; Cuong Tu Nguyen & A. W. Barber 1998.
  40. http://dr.lib.sjp.ac.lk/bitstream/123456789/1677/1/Therav%C4%81da%20Buddhism%20in%20Vietnam.pdf

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Buddhism in Brazil

With nearly 250,000 Buddhists, Brazil is home to the third largest Buddhist population in the Americas, after the United States and Canada. Buddhism in Brazil consists of practitioners from various Buddhist traditions and schools. A number of Buddhist organisations and groups are also active in Brazil, with nearly 150 temples spread across the states.

The Order of Interbeing is an international Buddhist community of monks, nuns and laypeople in the Plum Village Tradition founded between 1964 and 1966 by Vietnamese Buddhist monk Thích Nhất Hạnh.

The Plum Village Community of Engaged Buddhism, Inc. and its sister organization, the French Congregation Bouddhique Zen Village des Pruniers are the governance bodies of the monasteries, press and fundraising organizations established by the Zen Buddhist monk Thich Nhat Hanh. The name Unified Buddhist Church, which originated in Vietnam, was intended to signify that this tradition practices to embrace all the teachings of the Buddha, whether they belong to the Mahāyāna or Theravāda stream.

Lê Long Đĩnh Emperor of Đại Cồ Việt

Lê Long Đĩnh As known as Lê Ngọa Triều (黎臥朝) was the last emperor of the Anterior Lê Dynasty of Đại Cồ Việt, from 1005 to 1009. After killing his predecessor and brother Lê Long Việt, he took the throne and named his era Cảnh Thụy. His mysterious death at aged 24 led to the fall of Anterior Lê Dynasty, then all of power was seized by House of Lý. In some history book, he was portraited as the debauched, cruel emperor. However, there were still a lot of temples created that people still worship him until now and recently, some historians proved that some rumours about his ruling style was aggrandise, even seen as fabrication.

Thích Nhật Từ Vietnamese philosopher

Ven. Thich Nhat Tu or Thích Nhật Từ in Vietnamese is a Vietnamese Buddhist reformer, an author, a poet, a psychological consultant, and an active social activist in Vietnam. He is committed to propagate Buddha's teachings through education, cultural activities and charitable programs in order to benefit the individuals and the society at large.

Pagoda of the Celestial Lady

The Pagoda of the Celestial Lady is a historic temple in the city of Huế in Vietnam. Its iconic seven-story pagoda is regarded as the unofficial symbol of the city, and the temple has often been the subject of folk rhymes and ca dao about Huế.

Báo Quốc Pagoda is a Buddhist temple in the historic city of Huế in central Vietnam. It was one of the three national pagodas of the city during the time of the Nguyễn Dynasty.

Tịnh Xá Trung Tâm Vietnamese temple

Tịnh Xá Trung Tâm is a Buddhist temple in Ho Chi Minh City, the largest city in Vietnam. It was founded in 1965 and is the spiritual birthplace of the khất sĩ tradition of Vietnamese Buddhism that attempts to recreate the original tradition of the Buddhist sangha by walking barefoot and begging for alms. The temple is located at 7 Nguyễn Trung Trực Street, in Bình Thạnh District. It is known for its weekly Bát Quan Trai Giới retreat, which is staged more frequently than at other institutions in the city, and has a reputation among its followers for rigour and discipline. The attendees of the temple are typically over 40 years of age and are overwhelmingly female.

Vạn Hạnh Zen Temple

Vạn Hạnh Zen Temple is a Zen Buddhist temple in Ho Chi Minh City, the largest city in Vietnam. The temple is located at 716 Nguyễn Kiệm Street on the road between Go Vap and Phu Nhuan districts. It is the location of the main Buddhist training centre for sangha in Vietnam, and is also the office of the Vietnamese Buddhist Research Institute.

Hội Khánh Temple

Hoi Khanh Temple is an historic Buddhist temple built in 1741 in the town of Thủ Dầu Một, Bình Dương Province in southern Vietnam.

Bửu Phong Temple is a historic 17th century Buddhist temple in Đồng Nai Province in southern Vietnam, north of Ho Chi Minh City.

Tuệ Trung Thượng Sĩ (慧中上士) (1230–1291) was an influential Buddhist monk and skilled poet of the Thiền (Zen) tradition during the Tran Dynasty in Vietnam. Tue Trung authored treatises on Pure Land and Thien teachings.

Lâm is a Vietnamese surname. The name is transliterated as Lin in Chinese and Im in Korean.

Trúc Lâm Yên Tử (竹林安子), or simply Trúc Lâm, is a Vietnamese Thiền sect. It is the only native school of Buddhism in Vietnam. The school was founded by Emperor Trần Nhân Tông (1258–1308) showing influence from Confucian and Taoist philosophy. Trúc Lâm's prestige later waned as Confucianism became dominant in the royal court.

Thông Biện (通辯) born Trí Không (d.1134) was a Vietnamese Buddhist historian and zen master whose recorded statements are the earliest written source for the history of Buddhism in Vietnam. He was a student of Viên Chiếu (圓照). He is mentioned in Lives of Eminent Zen Monks (vi) :

Early on, when the Buddha Dharma came to the lower Yangzi region and still had not been established, yet in Luy Lau [in central Jiaozhi] more than twenty precious temples were built, more than five hundred monks were ordained, and fifteen volumes of scriptures were translated from Sanskrit into Chinese. Because of this earlier connection,there already were monks and nuns like Mo Luo Qi Yu, Kang Senghui, Zhi Jiang Liang, and Mou Bo there." Eminent Monks of the Thien Community (1337) text adapted by Dutton (1997) from Nguyễn Tử Cương

Vietnamese Thiền

Thiền Buddhism is the Vietnamese name for Chan Buddhism. Thiền is the Sino-Vietnamese pronunciation of Chan, an abbreviation of the Sanskrit loanword dhyāna "meditation".

Lý Thị Ngọc Kiều, dharma name Diệu Nhân (妙因) was a princess during the Lý Dynasty in Vietnamese history. She was the 17th leader of the Vietnamese Vinītaruci school of Buddhism.


Further reading

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Buddhism in Vietnam at Wikimedia Commons