|Buddleja coriacea foliage, |
Longstock Park Nursery
Buddleja coriacea is a variable species endemic to the high Andes from the Cordillera Blanca in Peru to Lake Titicaca in Bolivia. It grows on dry to semi-humid rocky soils at elevations of 3,000–4,350 m, where temperatures range from -3° to 15° C. and the winds are both strong and persistent. [ permanent dead link ] The species was first named and described by Rémy in 1847.
The Cordillera Blanca is a mountain range in Peru that is part of the larger Andes range and extends for 200 kilometres (124 mi) between 8°08' and 9°58'S and 77°00' and 77°52'W, in a northwesterly direction. It includes several peaks over 6,000 metres (19,690 ft) high and 722 individual glaciers. The highest mountain in Peru, Huascarán, at 6,768 metres (22,205 ft) high, is located there.
Lake Titicaca is a large, deep lake in the Andes on the border of Bolivia and Peru, often called the "highest navigable lake" in the world. By volume of water and by surface area, it is the largest lake in South America. Lake Maracaibo has a larger surface area, but it is a tidal bay, not a lake.
The Celsius scale, also known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI). As an SI derived unit, it is used by all countries except the United States, the Bahamas, Belize, the Cayman Islands and Liberia. It is named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who developed a similar temperature scale. The degree Celsius (°C) can refer to a specific temperature on the Celsius scale or a unit to indicate a difference between two temperatures or an uncertainty. Before being renamed to honor Anders Celsius in 1948, the unit was called centigrade, from the Latin centum, which means 100, and gradus, which means steps.
B. coriacea typically makes a densely crowned, sprawling trioecious shrub or tree, branching almost at ground level. Usually growing to less than 4 m in height in the wild, it can occasionally reach 12 m, with stems up to 40 cm in diameter; the bark is fissured. The species is chiefly distinguished by its small, thick, leathery leaves, 1–4 cm long by 0.5–1.5 cm wide, with 3–4 mm petioles. The upper surfaces of the leaves are dark-green and glabrous, contrasting with the undersides which are covered in a cinnamon-brown indumentum. The scented inflorescences comprise 3–8 pairs of head-like cymes, 0.9–1.2 cm in diameter, of 8–12 flowers, the corollas 4.5–6 mm in length, deep yellow to orange-yellow, becoming orange-red with age. Flowering occurs throughout the year, but most commonly between December and June. Ploidy: 2n = 76 (tetraploid).
In botany, the petiole is the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem. Outgrowths appearing on each side of the petiole in some species are called stipules. Leaves lacking a petiole are called sessile or epetiolate.
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum. Cinnamon is used mainly as an aromatic condiment and flavouring additive in a wide variety of cuisines, sweet and savoury dishes, breakfast cereals, snackfoods, tea and traditional foods. The aroma and flavour of cinnamon derive from its essential oil and principal component, cinnamaldehyde, as well as numerous other constituents, including eugenol.
In biology, an indumentum is a covering of trichomes on a plant or of bristles of an insect.
B. coriacea is cultivated in the high Andes as a field windbreak, as a source of humus for soil improvement, and as high quality, rotproof timber for use in building construction and manufacture of agricultural tools.The shrub was introduced to horticulture in the UK circa 1994, and specimens are held as part of the NCCPG national collection at the Longstock Park Nursery, near Stockbridge. Although not entirely hardy in the UK, the shrub can survive most winters with a modicum of protection; overwinter waterlogging regarded as a greater danger to the plant. The shrub has never been known to flower in the UK owing to either the insufficient intensity or duration of sunlight. Hardiness: USDA zone 9.
Longstock Park is in the civil parish of Longstock in the Test Valley district of Hampshire, England, and forms part of the Leckford Estate, wholly owned by the John Lewis Partnership. Formerly Longstock Manor, of medieval origins, the park was purchased by Sir Joshua East in 1849. On his death, the park passed to his sons Alfred and Arthur. In 1914, the park became the home of the Beddington family until 1945, when it was sold to John Spedan Lewis, founder of the John Lewis Partnership. Lewis lived at Longstock House throughout his retirement until his death in 1963, after which the house became a retreat for the company's executives. The park is today home to a retail horticultural emporium, the Longstock Park Nursery, and also accommodates an arboretum and water gardens.
Stockbridge is a small town and civil parish in the Test Valley district of Hampshire, England. It is one of the smallest towns in the United Kingdom with a population of 592 as of the 2011 census. It sits astride the River Test and at the foot of Stockbridge Down.
A hardiness zone is a geographic area defined to encompass a certain range of climatic conditions relevant to plant growth and survival.
The species is believed to commonly hybridize with B. montana and B. incana in the wild.
Buddleja montana is a species endemic to the rocky hillsides of the cordilleras of Peru at altitudes of 2,700 – 4,000 m, extending into Bolivia; it was named and described by Britton in 1898. The Latin specific epithet montana refers to mountains or coming from mountains.
Buddleja incana is a species of shrub or tree in the family Scrophulariaceae. It is native to the Andes.
Buddleja saligna, the false, or bastard, olive, is almost endemic to South Africa where it has a wide distribution. It occurs most often in ravines and against outcrops, and is distributed from coastal elevations to the central plateau at elevations of < 2000 m. The species was first described and named by Willdenow in 1809.
Buddleja albiflora is a deciduous shrub native to the mountains of central China, where it grows on shrub-clad slopes at altitudes of between 1,000 and 2,000 m. Named rather carelessly by Hemsley, the species was discovered by Henry, and introduced to western cultivation by Wilson in 1900.
Buddleja agathosma is endemic to western Yunnan, China. Originally identified as B. agathosma by Ludwig Diels, it was sunk as Buddleja crispa by Leeuwenberg in 1979, and treated as such in the subsequent Flora of China published in 1996. However, the shrub remains widely known by its former epithet in horticulture.
Buddleja glomerata is a shrub endemic to the mountains of the Karoo desert in South Africa, where it grows among boulders on dry hillsides. The species was first described and named by Heinrich Wendland in 1825. The shrub has a number of common names locally, the most popular being 'Karoo Sagewood'.
Buddleja cordata is endemic to Mexico, growing along forest edges and water courses at elevations of 1500–3000 m; it has also naturalized in parts of Ethiopia. The species was first described and named by Kunth in 1818.
Buddleja crotonoides is a shrub with a wide distribution, from California south to Nicaragua. The shrub grows at elevations of 2,000–2,500 m in oak woods and on scree in association with Arbutus xalapiensis, Pinus sp., and Crataegus mexicana. B. crotonoides was first named and described by Gray in 1847.
Buddleja forrestii is a deciduous shrub or small tree widely distributed from India to western China. First described by Diels in 1912, he named the species for plant hunter George Forrest, who discovered the plant in Yunnan in 1904 and introduced it to Western cultivation.
Buddleja loricata is a hardy evergreen shrub endemic to South Africa and Mozambique, where it grows on mountain slopes at elevations above 1,800 m. The shrub has only recently been introduced to cultivation in Europe.
Buddleja araucana is endemic to the semi-deserts and steppes of Patagonia, from southern Mendoza to Río Negro and Neuquen provinces in Argentina, and adjacent Chile. The species was first described and named by Philippi in 1873, it was introduced to cultivation by the British gardener and plant collector Harold Comber as a form B. globosa in 1925.
Buddleja marrubiifolia, commonly known as the woolly butterflybush, is a perennial shrub which is endemic to the Chihuahuan Desert from southern Texas to San Luis Potosí in Mexico, where it grows on limestone and gypsum soils in canyons and arroyos at elevations of 600 to 2,250 m elevation. The species was first named and described by George Bentham in 1846.
Buddleja paniculata is endemic to a wide upland area from northern India to Bhutan, growing along forest margins, in thickets, and on rocky slopes at elevations of 500 – 3000 m. The species was named by Wallich and introduced to the UK in 1823 as seed sent by Major Madden from the Himalaya to the Glasnevin Botanic Garden.
Buddleja stachyoides is the most widespread member of the genus in South America, endemic to woodland edges, roadsides and riversides in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Introduced to the UK as B. australis in 1822, when the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh grew it from seed received from a Russian source, the plant was described and renamed B. stachyoides by Chamisso & von Schlechtendal in 1827.
Buddleja davidii 'Camkeep' is a cultivar raised by Elizabeth Keep at the East Malling Research Station in Kent, England. The shrub was accorded the Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit in 2010.
Buddleja davidii 'Markeep' is a cultivar raised by Elizabeth Keep at the East Malling Research Station in Kent, England.
Buddleja davidii 'Peakeep' is a cultivar raised by Elizabeth Keep at the East Malling Research Station in Kent, England, before 2002.
Buddleja davidii 'Autumn Beauty' is a British cultivar distinguished solely by its comparatively late flowering, from August through to October. The shrub was cloned from a plant grown from seed sent from Beijing to Paignton Zoo, one of the four NCCPG national buddleja collection holders. The atypical phenology of the shrub has cast doubt on its taxonomy as a variety or form of Buddleja davidii, however its flowers, foliage and structure are all very similar to the species.
Buddleja × lewisiana 'Margaret Pike' is a cultivar of the hybrid Buddleja madagascariensis × Buddleja asiatica raised by A V Pike at Hever Castle, England, in 1951. The shrub was accorded the Award of Merit (AM) by the Royal Horticultural Society in 1953, followed by the First Class Certificate (FCC) in 1954.
Buddleja × wardii is a naturally occurring hybrid of Buddleja alternifolia and Buddleja crispa discovered and collected by Frank Kingdon-Ward in 1924 from the mountain riverbanks of south-eastern Xizang at altitudes of 3000–3600 m; B. alternifolia and B. crispa are the only other Buddleja species found in the area. The shrub was named for Ward by Cecil Marquand in 1929. White-flowering plants under this name were collected in Tibet by Keith Rushforth and introduced to commerce in the UK in 2013.
Buddleja macrostachya is a large deciduous shrub or small tree with a vast distribution, from Xizang (Tibet) through western China, Bhutan, Sikkim, northern India, Bangladesh, Myanmar (Burma), to Thailand and Vietnam, growing in scrub on mountain slopes to an altitude of 3,200 m, and along rivers in forests. The species was named and described by Wallich ex Bentham in 1835.
Escallonia resinosa is an evergreen shrub or tree native to the Andean forests of Peru, Bolivia and southern Ecuador from 2600 to 4200 meters above sea level. A component of high Andean forests, it is regarded as an important source of raw materials for the Andean peoples.