|Buffalo National River|
Buffalo National River, Arkansas
|Length||153 miles (246 km)|
|⁃ location||https://waterdata.usgs.gov/ar/nwis/uv/?site_no=07056700&PARAmeter_cd=00065,00060 Harriet, AR|
|⁃ average||1,355 cu/ft. per sec.|
|Designated||April 22, 1992|
The Buffalo River, located in Northern Arkansas, was the first National River to be designated in the United States. The Buffalo River is 153 miles (246 km) long. The lower 135 miles (217 km) flow within the boundaries of an area managed by the National Park Service, where the stream is designated the Buffalo National River. The river flows through Newton, Searcy, Marion, and Baxter Counties, from west to east. The river originates in the highest part of Boston Mountains of the Ozarks, flows out onto the Springfield Plateau near the historic community of Erbie, and finally crosses a portion of the Salem Plateau just before joining the White River. The Park is home to the state's only elk herd. The upper section of the river in the Ozark National Forest is managed by the U.S. Forest Service and is designated as a National Scenic River and a National Wild River; that section is not part of the area managed as a park by the Park Service, but is managed as a part of the Ozark National Forest.
The Buffalo National River was established by an Act of Congress on March 1, 1972, ending the recurring plans of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to construct one or more dams on the river. The National River designation protects natural rivers from industrial uses, impoundments and other obstructions that may change the natural character of the river or disrupt the natural habitat for the flora and fauna that live in or near the river. Three segments totaling 11,978 acres (48.47 km2) were designated the Buffalo National River Wilderness in 1975.
At a point about 15 miles (24 km) above the Park boundary in Newton County, Arkansas, the Buffalo River begins as the Main Prong of Big Buffalo Creek. The river flows north through Boxley to Ponca, where it then begins an eastward trek across northern Arkansas to its confluence with the White River on the Marion-Baxter County line. Advanced canoeists and kayakers often refer to the 15-mile (24 km) section upriver from Boxley as the Hailstone River. This extremely challenging section of the river is floatable only during periods of high water and should be attempted only by those with solid whitewater skills.
Along the upper river, the gradient is steep and the water is fast, leveling and slowing as the river runs its course. The upper section has most of the whitewater rapids to be found along the river, and features dramatic topography including sink holes and caves, springs, and waterfalls, over 500-foot (150 m) tall sandstone and limestone bluffs, and many rock formations. At one point, a 0.65-mile (1.05 km) hike from the river up a narrow, boxed canyon leads to a 209-foot (64 m) waterfall, Hemmed-In-Hollow Falls, the highest of its kind between the Southern Appalachians and the Rockies. The river's current also gives life to well over 300 species of fish, insects, freshwater mussels, and aquatic plants.
The Buffalo National River is a popular camping, canoeing, and fishing destination. Visitors may bring their own canoes or rent from several independent concessioners. Camping is generally allowed throughout the park with the following exceptions: the Hemmed-in-Hollow area, on Big Bluff, in historical structures, on private property within the park, or within 100 feet (30 m) of any trail or watercourse. Camping is, however, permitted on gravel bars and sand bars along the river. In addition, the National Park Service has a number of "developed" campgrounds along the river.
The National Park Service headquarters for the Buffalo National River is located in Harrison, Arkansas.
Scouting in Arkansas has a long history, from 1913 to the present day, serving thousands of youth in programs that suit the environment in which they live.
Harrison is a city in Boone County, Arkansas, United States. It is the county seat of Boone County. It is named after General Marcus LaRue Harrison, a surveyor who laid out the city along Crooked Creek at Stifler Springs. According to 2017 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city was 13,079, up from 12,943 at the 2010 census and it is the 30th largest city in Arkansas based on official 2017 estimates from the US Census Bureau. Harrison is the principal city of the Harrison Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Boone and Newton counties.
The Ouachita National Forest is a National Forest that lies in the western portion of Arkansas and portions of eastern Oklahoma.
The Boston Mountains is a Level III ecoregion designated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. states of Arkansas and Oklahoma. Part of the Ozark Mountains, the Boston Mountains are a deeply dissected plateau. The ecoregion is steeper than the adjacent Springfield Plateau to the north, and bordered on the south by the Arkansas Valley. The Oklahoma portion of the range is locally referred to as the Cookson Hills.
The Ozark Highlands Trail roams 218 miles (351 km) through parts of seven counties in northwest Arkansas. It stretches from Lake Fort Smith State Park, across the Ozark National Forest, to the Buffalo National River. The trail passes through some of the most remote and scenic portions of the Ozark Mountains, like the Hurricane Creek Wilderness Area. It also crosses White Rock Mountain, Hare Mountain, the Marinoni Scenic Area, and many other scenic spots.
The Ozark – St. Francis National Forest is a United States National Forest that is located in the state of Arkansas. It is composed of two separate forests, Ozark National Forest in the Ozark Mountains; and St. Francis National Forest on Crowley's Ridge. Each forest has distinct biological, topographical, and geological differences.
The St. Francis River is a tributary of the Mississippi River, about 426 miles (686 km) long, in southeastern Missouri and northeastern Arkansas in the United States. The river drains a mostly rural area and forms part of the Missouri-Arkansas state line along the western side of the Missouri Bootheel.
The Beaverhead–Deerlodge National Forest is the largest of the National Forests in Montana, United States. Covering 3.36 million acres (13,600 km2), the forest is broken into nine separate sections and stretches across eight counties in the southwestern area of the state. President Theodore Roosevelt named the two forests in 1908 and they were merged in 1996. Forest headquarters are located in Dillon, Montana. In Roosevelt's original legislation, the Deerlodge National Forest was called the Big Hole Forest Reserve. He created this reserve because the Anaconda Copper Mining Company, based in Butte, Montana, had begun to clearcut the upper Big Hole River watershed. The subsequent erosion, exacerbated by smoke pollution from the Anaconda smelter, was devastating the region. Ranchers and conservationists alike complained to Roosevelt, who made several trips to the area. (Munday 2001)
Highway 16 is an east–west state highway in Arkansas. The route begins in Siloam Springs at US Highway 412 (US 412) and Highway 59 and runs east through Fayetteville and the Ozark National Forest to US Highway 67 Business (US 67B) in Searcy. Highway 16 was created during the 1926 Arkansas state highway numbering, and today serves as a narrow, winding, 2-lane road except for overlaps of 10 miles (16 km) through Fayetteville. Much of the highway winds through the Ozarks, including the Ozark National Forest, where a portion of the highway is designated as an Arkansas Scenic Byway. The route has a short spur route in Siloam Springs designated as Highway 16 Spur.
Highway 21 is a north–south state highway in north central Arkansas. The route of 99.14 miles (159.55 km) runs from US Route 64 (US 64) in Clarksville north across US 62 to Missouri Route 13 at the Missouri state line The route is entirely a two-lane route with the exception of a brief concurrency with US 62 in Berryville.
The Buffalo River Trail is a hiking and backpacking trail that follows the path of the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. It consists of two separate sections that are referred to as the Western and Eastern sections. The Western Section is from Boxley Valley to Pruitt. The Eastern Section is under development with completed segments from Woolum Ford to Highway 65 bridge at Tyler Bend and South Maumee to Highway 14. The Ozark Highlands Trail joins the Eastern Section of the Buffalo River Trail at Woolum Ford so it is officially designated the Buffalo River/Ozark Highlands Trail.
Highway 103 is a designation for two north–south state highways in north central Arkansas. One segment of 23.86 miles (38.40 km) runs north from Marina Road and Lakeview Drive in Clarksville to Highway 215 in the Ozark National Forest. A second route of 39.81 miles (64.07 km) begins at Highway 43 in the Buffalo National River area administered by the National Park Service and runs north across US Highway 412 (US 412) to Highway 21 in Oak Grove.
Hemmed-In-Hollow Falls is a single-drop waterfall located within the Ponca Wilderness Area of the Buffalo National River in northern Arkansas. The height of the falls is 209 feet. According to the National Park Service, it is the "Tallest waterfall between the Rockies and the Appalachians."
The geography of Arkansas varies widely. The state is covered by mountains, river valleys, forests, lakes, and bayous in addition to the cities of Arkansas. Hot Springs National Park features bubbling springs of hot water, formerly sought across the country for their healing properties. Crowley's Ridge is a geological anomaly rising above the surrounding lowlands of the Mississippi embayment.
The Big Buffalo Valley Historic District, also known as the Boxley Valley Historic District, is notable as a cultural landscape in Buffalo National River. It comprises the Boxley Valley in northern Arkansas, near the town of Ponca. The valley includes a number of family-operated farms, primarily dating between 1870 and 1930. The farms are situated on either side of the road that parallels the river, Highway 43. Many of these farms are still operated by the descendants of the original homesteaders. However, of fifty residences in the valley, thirty were vacant in 1987, at the time of historic designation.
Highway 123 is a designation for two state highways in Arkansas. One route begins at Salmon Lane in Boone County and runs 1.63 miles (2.62 km) north to US Highway 65 Business (US 65B) in Harrison. A second route begins at Highway 103 in Clarksville and runs 67.74 miles (109.02 km) northeast to US 65 and US 65B in Western Grove. A suffixed route, designated Highway 123Y runs near Lurton, giving non-truck travelers access to Highway 7. All three routes are maintained by the Arkansas Department of Transportation (ArDOT).
Highway 268 is a designation for two state highways in Marion County. One route of 3.00 miles (4.83 km) runs from Highway 14 to Marion County Road 227 and CR 259. A second route in south Marion County runs 2.78 miles (4.47 km) from Highway 14 to the Buffalo National River. Both routes are maintained by the Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department (AHTD).
Ponca is an unincorporated community in Newton County, Arkansas, United States. Ponca is located on Arkansas Highway 43, 10 miles (16 km) west of Jasper. Ponca has a post office with ZIP code 72670. Ponca is well known for its access to the Buffalo National River, which is a hub for naturalist as well as photography and hiking tourism. Ponca is also known for the regular sightings of elk, which reside in the Boxley Valley.
Upper Buffalo Wilderness is located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. Created by an act of Congress in 1974, the wilderness covers an area of 12,108 acres (49 km²). Contained within Ozark-St. Francis National Forest, the wilderness is managed by the U.S. Forest Service. Contained in the wilderness is Hawksbill Crag, a very popular hiking destination.
Hurricane Creek is a tributary to the Big Piney Creek, a river in Ozark-St. Francis National Forest in the state of Arkansas, which is a tributary of the Arkansas River and which is, in turn, part of the Mississippi River System. It is managed by the United States Forest Service and categorized as one the Wild and Scenic Rivers of the United States.
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