Burgundy

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Burgundy

Bourgogne
Flag of Bourgogne.svg
Flag
Arms of the Duke of Burgundy (1364-1404).svg
Coat of arms
Bourgogne in France.svg
Coordinates: 47°00′N4°30′E / 47.000°N 4.500°E / 47.000; 4.500 Coordinates: 47°00′N4°30′E / 47.000°N 4.500°E / 47.000; 4.500
CountryFlag of France.svg France
Dissolved1 January 2016
Prefecture Dijon
Departments
Government
   President François Patriat (PS)
Area
  Total31,582 km2 (12,194 sq mi)
Population
 (2008-01-01)
  Total1,631,000
  Density52/km2 (130/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
ISO 3166 code FR-D
GDP  (2012)[ citation needed ] Ranked 16th
Total€42.7 billion (US$55.0 bn)
Per capita€25,996 (US$33,436)
NUTS Region FR2
Website www.xn--rgion-bourgogne-bnb.fr (archive)

Burgundy ( /ˈbɜːrɡəndi/ ; French: Bourgogne [buʁɡɔɲ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of east-central France. It is named for the Burgundians, an East Germanic people who moved westwards beyond the Rhine during the late Roman period. [1]

Contents

The name Burgundy has historically denoted numerous political entities, including kingdoms and duchies spanning territory from the Mediterranean to the Low Countries.[ not verified in body ] Since the inception of the French departmental system in 1790, Burgundy has referred to the geographic area comprising the four departments of Côte-d'Or, Saône-et-Loire, Yonne, and Nièvre. [2]

In 2016, Burgundy and the historical region of Franche-Comté merged for administrative purposes into the new region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. [3]

History

The Vix Krater, a Greek wine-mixing vessel found in the Vix Grave Cratere de Vix 0023.jpg
The Vix Krater, a Greek wine-mixing vessel found in the Vix Grave
Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the province Arms of the Duke of Burgundy (1364-1404).svg
Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the province

The first recorded inhabitants of the area that became Burgundy were various tribes of Gallic Celts, the most prominent of which were the semi-republican Aedui who were eventually incorporated into the Roman Empire following the defeat of the Gauls in the Battle of Alesia. [4] Gallo-Roman culture flourished during the Roman period.

During the 4th century, the Burgundians, a Germanic people who may have originated on the Baltic island of Bornholm, settled in the western Alps. They founded the Kingdom of the Burgundians, which was conquered in the 6th century by another Germanic tribe, the Franks. [5]

Map of France showing Burgundy and provincial boundaries in 1789 Burgundy province.png
Map of France showing Burgundy and provincial boundaries in 1789

Under Frankish dominion, the Kingdom of Burgundy continued for several centuries.

Later, the region was divided between the Duchy of Burgundy (to the west) and the Free County of Burgundy (to the east). The Duchy of Burgundy is the better-known of the two, later becoming the French province of Burgundy, while the County of Burgundy became the French province of Franche-Comté.

Burgundy's modern existence is rooted in the dissolution of the Frankish Empire. In the 880s, there were four Burgundies: the duchy, the county, and the kingdoms of Upper Burgundy and Lower Burgundy.

During the Middle Ages, Burgundy was home to some of the most important Western churches and monasteries, including those of Cluny, Cîteaux, and Vézelay. Cluny, founded in 910, exerted a strong influence in Europe for centuries. The first Cistercian abbey was founded in 1098 in Cîteaux. Over the next century, hundreds of Cistercian abbeys were founded throughout Europe, in a large part due to the charisma and influence of Bernard of Clairvaux. The Abbey of Fontenay, a UNESCO World Heritage site, is today the best-preserved Cistercian abbey in Burgundy. The Abbey of Vézelay, also a UNESCO site, is still a starting point for pilgrimages to Santiago de Compostela. [6] Cluny was almost totally destroyed during the French Revolution. [7]

During the Hundred Years' War, King John II of France gave the duchy to his youngest son, Philip the Bold. The duchy soon became a major rival to the crown. The court in Dijon outshone the French court both economically and culturally. Phillip the Bold's grandson Philip the Good acquired Namur, Hainaut, Brabant, and Holland in modern Belgium and the Netherlands. In 1477, at the battle of Nancy during the Burgundian Wars, the last duke Charles the Bold was killed in battle, and the Duchy itself was annexed by France and became a province. However, the northern part of the empire was taken by the Austrian Habsburgs. [8]

With the French Revolution in the end of the 18th century, the administrative units of the provinces disappeared, but were reconstituted as regions during the Fifth Republic in the 1970s. The modern-day administrative region comprises most of the former duchy.

Geography

Map of Burgundy Carte de la Bourgogne (Relief).svg
Map of Burgundy

The region of Burgundy is both larger than the old Duchy of Burgundy and smaller than the area ruled by the Dukes of Burgundy, from the modern Netherlands to the border of Auvergne. Today, Burgundy is made up of the old provinces:

Major communities

Dijon, Place du Bareuzai Place du Bareuzai.jpg
Dijon, Place du Bareuzai

Climate

The climate of this region is essentially oceanic (Cfb in Köppen classification), with a continental influence (sometimes called a "half-continental climate").[ citation needed ]

Politics

The regional council of Burgundy was the legislative assembly of the region, located in the capital city Dijon at 17 boulevard de la Trémouille until its merger to form the regional council of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté.

Culture

Chardonnay vineyards in the south of Cote de Beaune surrounding the town of Meursault Meursault,Burgundy.jpg
Chardonnay vineyards in the south of Côte de Beaune surrounding the town of Meursault
Chateau de La Clayette Chateau de la Clayette vu de la rive du lac.jpg
Château de La Clayette

Burgundy is one of France's main wine-producing areas. It is well known for both its red and white wines, mostly made from Pinot noir and Chardonnay grapes, respectively, although other grape varieties can be found, including Gamay, Aligote, Pinot blanc, and Sauvignon blanc. The region is divided into the Côte-d'Or, where the most expensive and prized Burgundies are found, and Beaujolais, Chablis, the Côte Chalonnaise and Mâcon. The reputation and quality of the top wines, together with the fact that they are often produced in small quantities, has led to high demand and high prices, with some Burgundies ranking among the most expensive wines in the world. [9]

With regard to cuisine, the region is famous for Dijon mustard, Charolais beef, Bresse chicken, the Burgundian dishes coq au vin and beef bourguignon, and époisses cheese. [10]

Tourist sites of Burgundy include the Rock of Solutré, the Hospices de Beaune, the Ducal Palace in Dijon, and many Renaissance and medieval châteaus, castles, churches and abbeys. [11]

Earlier, the southeastern part of Burgundy was heavily industrial, with coal mines near Montceau-les-Mines and iron foundries and crystal works in Le Creusot. These industries declined in the second half of the twentieth century.

Related Research Articles

History of Burgundy

The history of Burgundy stretches back to the times when the region was inhabited in turn by Celts, Romans (Gallo-Romans), and in the 5th century, the Roman allies the Burgundians, a Germanic people originating in Bornholm, who settled there and established the Kingdom of the Burgundians.

Franche-Comté Region of France

Franche-Comté is a cultural and historical region of eastern France. It is composed of the modern departments of Doubs, Jura, Haute-Saône and the Territoire de Belfort. In 2016, its population was 1,180,397.

Côte-dOr Department of France in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté

Côte-d'Or is a department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region of Northeastern France. In 2016, it had a population of 533,213. Its prefecture is Dijon and subprefectures are Beaune and Montbard.

Jura (department) Department of France in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté

Jura is a department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in Eastern France. Named after the Jura Mountains, its prefecture is Lons-le-Saunier and subprefectures are Dole and Saint-Claude. In 2016, it had a population of 260,517.

Nièvre Department of France

Nièvre is a department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in the centre of France named after the River Nièvre.

Saône-et-Loire Department of France in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté

Saône-et-Loire is a department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region of central-eastern France. Named after the Saône and Loire between which it lies, it had a population of 555,023 in 2016. Its prefecture is Mâcon and subprefectures are Autun, Chalon-sur-Saône, Charolles and Louhans.

Yonne Department of France

Yonne is a French department named after the river Yonne. It is one of the eight constituent departments of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté and is located in the northwest of the region, bordering Île-de-France. It was created in 1790 during the French Revolution. Its prefecture (capital) is Auxerre and its postcode number is 89.

Mâcon Prefecture and commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Mâcon, historically anglicised as Mascon, is a city in east-central France. It is the prefecture of the department of Saône-et-Loire in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. Mâcon is home to near 34,000 residents, who are referred to in French as Mâconnais. The city gave its name to the nearby vineyards and wine 'appellation'.

Burgundy wine wine made in the Burgundy region in eastern France

Burgundy wine is wine made in the Burgundy region in eastern France, in the valleys and slopes west of the Saône, a tributary of the Rhône. The most famous wines produced here—those commonly referred to as "Burgundies"—are dry red wines made from pinot noir grapes and white wines made from chardonnay grapes.

Nuits-Saint-Georges Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Nuits-Saint-Georges is a commune in the arrondissement of Beaune of the Côte-d'Or department in eastern France. It lies in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region.

Gevrey-Chambertin Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Gevrey-Chambertin is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department of France in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in eastern France.

Meursault Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Meursault is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department and region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France.

Charolles Subprefecture and commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Charolles is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France. Since 2004 is Charolles part of the Charolais-Brionnais Country.

Bouzeron Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Bouzeron is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France.

Mercurey Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Mercurey is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region of eastern France.

Athée, Côte-dOr Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Athée is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region of eastern France.

Buxy Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Buxy is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France.

France 3 Bourgogne

France 3 Bourgogne is one of France 3's regional services broadcasting to people in the Burgundy region. It was founded in 1965 as FR3 Bourgogne Franche-Comté. The service is headquartered in Dijon, the city of the region. The channel is available in French and Burgundian audio tracks. France 3 Bourgogne also produces content as well.

Bourgogne-Franche-Comté Administrative region of France

Bourgogne-Franche-Comté is a region in Eastern France created by the 2014 territorial reform of French regions, from a merger of Burgundy and Franche-Comté. The new region came into existence on 1 January 2016, after the regional elections of December 2015, electing 100 members to the regional council of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté.

References

  1. Poupardin, René, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Burgundy"  . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  2. Masson, Jean-Louis (1984). Provinces, départements, régions: L'organisation administrative de la France d'hier à demain (in French). Éditions Fernand Lanore. p. 201website= Google Livres (French Google Books site). ISBN   9782851570031 . Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  3. "LOI n° 2015-29 du 16 janvier 2015 relative à la délimitation des régions, aux élections régionales et départementales et modifiant le calendrier électoral". Legifrance (in French). Secrétariat général du Gouvernement. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  4. "Battle of Alesia | Facts, Summary, & Combatants". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
  5. S, Alen. "Kingdom of the Burgundy (406-534)". Short history website. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  6. "Burgundy". Paris Digest. 2018. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  7. "Cluny, The second Rome". Interkultur Paris. 21 March 2020. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  8. "The Duchy of Burgundy, Medieval Powerhouse | eHISTORY". ehistory.osu.edu. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  9. https://www.visitfrenchwine.com/en/vineyard/visit-the-vineyards-of-bourgogne-wine-tourism
  10. https://us.france.fr/en/news/article/burgundy
  11. http://ee.france.fr/en/discover/burgundy-5

Further reading