Last updated
Burlesque on Ben-Hur, c. 1900 The High Rollers Extravaganza Co. - Bend Her - c.1900.jpg
Burlesque on Ben-Hur , c.1900

A burlesque is a literary, dramatic or musical work intended to cause laughter by caricaturing the manner or spirit of serious works, or by ludicrous treatment of their subjects. [1] The word derives from the Italian burlesco , which, in turn, is derived from the Italian burla – a joke, ridicule or mockery. [2] [3]


Burlesque overlaps with caricature, parody and travesty, and, in its theatrical form, with extravaganza, as presented during the Victorian era. [4] The word "burlesque" has been used in English in this literary and theatrical sense since the late 17th century. It has been applied retrospectively to works of Chaucer and Shakespeare and to the Graeco-Roman classics. [5] Contrasting examples of literary burlesque are Alexander Pope's The Rape of the Lock and Samuel Butler's Hudibras . An example of musical burlesque is Richard Strauss's 1890 Burleske for piano and orchestra. Examples of theatrical burlesques include W. S. Gilbert's Robert the Devil and the A. C. TorrMeyer Lutz shows, including Ruy Blas and the Blasé Roué .

A later use of the term, particularly in the United States, refers to performances in a variety show format. These were popular from the 1860s to the 1940s, often in cabarets and clubs, as well as theatres, and featured bawdy comedy and female striptease. Some Hollywood films attempted to recreate the spirit of these performances from the 1930s to the 1960s, or included burlesque-style scenes within dramatic films, such as 1972's Cabaret and 1979's All That Jazz , among others. There has been a resurgence of interest in this format since the 1990s. [6] [7]

Literary origins and development

Arabella Fermor, target of The Rape of the Lock Arabella-Fermor-crop.jpg
Arabella Fermor, target of The Rape of the Lock

The word first appears in a title in Francesco Berni's Opere burlesche of the early 16th century, works that had circulated widely in manuscript before they were printed. For a time, burlesque verses were known as poesie bernesca in his honour. "Burlesque" as a literary term became widespread in 17th century Italy and France, and subsequently England, where it referred to a grotesque imitation of the dignified or pathetic. [8] Shakespeare's Pyramus and Thisbe scene in Midsummer Night's Dream and the general mocking of romance in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Knight of the Burning Pestle were early examples of such imitation. [9]

In 17th century Spain, playwright and poet Miguel de Cervantes ridiculed medieval romance in his many satirical works. Among Cervantes' works are Exemplary Novels and the Eight Comedies and Eight New Interludes published in 1615. [10] The term burlesque has been applied retrospectively to works of Chaucer and Shakespeare and to the Graeco-Roman classics. [5]

Burlesque was intentionally ridiculous in that it imitated several styles and combined imitations of certain authors and artists with absurd descriptions. In this, the term was often used interchangeably with "pastiche", "parody", and the 17th and 18th century genre of the "mock-heroic". [11] Burlesque depended on the reader's (or listener's) knowledge of the subject to make its intended effect, and a high degree of literacy was taken for granted. [12]

17th and 18th century burlesque was divided into two types: High burlesque refers to a burlesque imitation where a literary, elevated manner was applied to a commonplace or comically inappropriate subject matter as, for example, in the literary parody and the mock-heroic. One of the most commonly cited examples of high burlesque is Alexander Pope's "sly, knowing and courtly" The Rape of the Lock . [13] Low burlesque applied an irreverent, mocking style to a serious subject; an example is Samuel Butler's poem Hudibras , which described the misadventures of a Puritan knight in satiric doggerel verse, using a colloquial idiom. Butler's addition to his comic poem of an ethical subtext made his caricatures into satire. [14]

In more recent times, burlesque true to its literary origins is still performed in revues and sketches. [9] Tom Stoppard's 1974 play Travesties is an example of a full-length play drawing on the burlesque tradition. [15]

In music

Classical music

Beginning in the early 18th century, the term burlesque was used throughout Europe to describe musical works in which serious and comic elements were juxtaposed or combined to achieve a grotesque effect. [16] As derived from literature and theatre, "burlesque" was used, and is still used, in music to indicate a bright or high-spirited mood, sometimes in contrast to seriousness. [16]

In this sense of farce and exaggeration rather than parody, it appears frequently on the German-language stage between the middle of the 19th century and the 1920s. Burlesque operettas were written by Johann Strauss II (Die lustigen Weiber von Wien, 1868), [17] Ziehrer (Mahomed's Paradies, 1866; Das Orakel zu Delfi, 1872; Cleopatra, oder Durch drei Jahrtausende, 1875; In fünfzig Jahren, 1911) [18] and Bruno Granichstaedten (Casimirs Himmelfahrt, 1911). French references to burlesque are less common than German, though Grétry composed for a "drame burlesque" (Matroco, 1777). [19] Stravinsky called his 1916 one-act chamber opera-ballet Renard (The Fox) a "Histoire burlesque chantée et jouée" (burlesque tale sung and played) and his 1911 ballet Petrushka a "burlesque in four scenes". A later example is the 1927 burlesque operetta by Ernst Krenek entitled Schwergewicht (Heavyweight) (1927).

Some orchestral and chamber works have also been designated as burlesques, of which two early examples are the Ouverture-Suite Burlesque de Quixotte, TWV 55, by Telemann and the Sinfonia Burlesca by Leopold Mozart (1760). Another often-performed piece is Richard Strauss's 1890 Burleske for piano and orchestra. [16] Other examples include the following:

Burlesque can be used to describe particular movements of instrumental musical compositions, often involving dance rhythms. Examples are the Burlesca, in Partita No. 3 for keyboard (BWV 827) by Bach, the "Rondo-Burleske" third movement of Symphony No. 9 by Mahler, and the "Burlesque" fourth movement of Shostakovich's Violin Concerto No. 1. [20]


The use of burlesque has not been confined to classical music. Well-known ragtime travesties include Russian Rag , by George L. Cobb, which is based on Rachmaninoff's Prelude in C-sharp minor, and Harry Alford's Lucy's Sextette based on the sextet, 'Chi mi frena in tal momento?', from Lucia di Lammermoor by Donizetti. [21]

Victorian theatrical burlesque

Florence St. John in Carmen up to Data Florence St. John.jpg
Florence St. John in Carmen up to Data

Victorian burlesque, sometimes known as "travesty" or "extravaganza", [22] was popular in London theatres between the 1830s and the 1890s. It took the form of musical theatre parody in which a well-known opera, play or ballet was adapted into a broad comic play, usually a musical play, often risqué in style, mocking the theatrical and musical conventions and styles of the original work, and quoting or pastiching text or music from the original work. The comedy often stemmed from the incongruity and absurdity of the classical subjects, with realistic historical dress and settings, being juxtaposed with the modern activities portrayed by the actors. Madame Vestris produced burlesques at the Olympic Theatre beginning in 1831 with Olympic Revels by J. R. Planché. [23] Other authors of burlesques included H. J. Byron, G. R. Sims, F. C. Burnand, W. S. Gilbert and Fred Leslie. [24]

Sheet music from Faust up to Date Faustupto.jpg
Sheet music from Faust up to Date

Victorian burlesque related to and in part derived from traditional English pantomime "with the addition of gags and 'turns'." [25] In the early burlesques, following the example of ballad opera, the words of the songs were written to popular music; [26] later burlesques mixed the music of opera, operetta, music hall and revue, and some of the more ambitious shows had original music composed for them. This English style of burlesque was successfully introduced to New York in the 1840s. [27]

Programme: Ruy Blas and the Blase Roue Ruy-blas-programme-crop.jpg
Programme: Ruy Blas and the Blasé Roué

Some of the most frequent subjects for burlesque were the plays of Shakespeare and grand opera. [28] [29] The dialogue was generally written in rhyming couplets, liberally peppered with bad puns. [25] A typical example from a burlesque of Macbeth : Macbeth and Banquo enter under an umbrella, and the witches greet them with "Hail! hail! hail!" Macbeth asks Banquo, "What mean these salutations, noble thane?" and is told, "These showers of 'Hail' anticipate your 'reign'". [29] A staple of burlesque was the display of attractive women in travesty roles, dressed in tights to show off their legs, but the plays themselves were seldom more than modestly risqué. [25]

Burlesque became the speciality of certain London theatres, including the Gaiety and Royal Strand Theatre from the 1860s to the early 1890s. Until the 1870s, burlesques were often one-act pieces running less than an hour and using pastiches and parodies of popular songs, opera arias and other music that the audience would readily recognize. The house stars included Nellie Farren, John D'Auban, Edward Terry and Fred Leslie. [24] [30] From about 1880, Victorian burlesques grew longer, until they were a whole evening's entertainment rather than part of a double- or triple-bill. [24] In the early 1890s, these burlesques went out of fashion in London, and the focus of the Gaiety and other burlesque theatres changed to the new more wholesome but less literary genre of Edwardian musical comedy. [31]

American burlesque

Advertisement for a burlesque troupe, 1898 Bon-Ton Burlesquers2.jpg
Advertisement for a burlesque troupe, 1898

American burlesque shows were originally an offshoot of Victorian burlesque. The English genre had been successfully staged in New York from the 1840s, and it was popularised by a visiting British burlesque troupe, Lydia Thompson and the "British Blondes", beginning in 1868. [32] New York burlesque shows soon incorporated elements and the structure of the popular minstrel shows. They consisted of three parts: first, songs and ribald comic sketches by low comedians; second, assorted olios and male acts, such as acrobats, magicians and solo singers; and third, chorus numbers and sometimes a burlesque in the English style on politics or a current play. The entertainment was usually concluded by an exotic dancer or a wrestling or boxing match. [33]

Gypsy Rose Lee Gypsy Rose Lee NYWTS 1.jpg
Gypsy Rose Lee

The entertainments were given in clubs and cabarets, as well as music halls and theatres. By the early 20th century, there were two national circuits of burlesque shows competing with the vaudeville circuit, as well as resident companies in New York, such as Minsky's at the Winter Garden. [33] The transition from burlesque on the old lines to striptease was gradual. At first, soubrettes showed off their figures while singing and dancing; some were less active but compensated by appearing in elaborate stage costumes. [34] The strippers gradually supplanted the singing and dancing soubrettes; by 1932 there were at least 150 strip principals in the US. [34] Star strippers included Sally Rand, Gypsy Rose Lee, Tempest Storm, Lili St. Cyr, Blaze Starr, Ann Corio and Margie Hart, who was celebrated enough to be mentioned in song lyrics by Lorenz Hart and Cole Porter. [34] By the late 1930s, burlesque shows would have up to six strippers supported by one or two comics and a master of ceremonies. Comics who appeared in burlesque early in their careers included Fanny Brice, Mae West, Eddie Cantor, Abbott and Costello, W. C. Fields, Jackie Gleason, Danny Thomas, Al Jolson, Bert Lahr, Phil Silvers, Sid Caesar, Danny Kaye, Red Skelton and Sophie Tucker. [34]

Michelle L'amour, 2005 Miss Exotic World MichelleLAmourFanDance2641.jpg
Michelle L'amour, 2005 Miss Exotic World

The uninhibited atmosphere of burlesque establishments owed much to the free flow of alcoholic liquor, and the enforcement of Prohibition was a serious blow. [35] In New York, Mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia clamped down on burlesque, effectively putting it out of business by the early 1940s. [36] It lingered on elsewhere in the US, increasingly neglected, and by the 1970s, with nudity commonplace in theatres, reached "its final shabby demise." [37] Both during its declining years and afterwards there have been films that sought to capture American burlesque, including Lady of Burlesque (1943), [38] Striporama (1953), [39] and The Night They Raided Minsky's (1968). [40]

The "Stage Door Johnnies", Burlesque Hall of Fame, Las Vegas, 2011 Stage Door Johnnies.jpg
The "Stage Door Johnnies", Burlesque Hall of Fame, Las Vegas, 2011

In recent decades, there has been a revival of burlesque, sometimes called Neo-Burlesque, [36] on both sides of the Atlantic. [41] A new generation, nostalgic for the spectacle and perceived glamour of the classic American burlesque, developed a cult following for the art in the early 1990s at Billie Madley's "Cinema" and later at the "Dutch Weismann's Follies" revues in New York City, "The Velvet Hammer" troupe in Los Angeles and The Shim-Shamettes in New Orleans. Ivan Kane's Royal Jelly Burlesque Nightclub at Revel Atlantic City opened in 2012. [42] Notable Neo-burlesque performers include Dita Von Teese, and Julie Atlas Muz and Agitprop groups like Cabaret Red Light incorporated political satire and performance art into their burlesque shows. Annual conventions such as the Vancouver International Burlesque Festival and the Miss Exotic World Pageant are held. [43] [44]

See also


  1. "Burlesque", Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, accessed 16 February 2011 (subscription required)
  2. In theatrical use, a burla was "a comic interlude or practical joke introduced, usually extempore, into a performance by the servant masks of the commedia dell'arte ... developed at will into a small independent 'turn', the characters returning at its conclusion to the main theme of the plot". See Hartnoll, Phyllis and Peter Found. "Burla", The Concise Oxford Companion to the Theatre, Oxford University Press, 1996. Oxford Reference Online, accessed 16 February 2011 (subscription required)
  3. "Burlesque News – The Growth of Burlesque", New York Clipper , Vol. 62, No. 31, September 12, 1914, p. 18 (accessed February 28, 2017, via MyHeritage)
  4. Fowler, H. W., rev. Sir Ernest Gowers (1965). Modern English Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 68 and 96
  5. 1 2 Baldick, Chris. "Burlesque", The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms, Oxford University Press, 2008. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press, accessed 16 February 2011 (subscription required)
  6. Sankar-Gorton, Eliza (30 April 2015). "Burlesque Is Back and Here Is What You Need to Know About It". The Huffington Post . Retrieved 7 May 2015.
  7. Petkovic, John (28 November 2010). "Burlesque: Then and now, a timeline of performers from Lili St. Cyr to Dita VonTeese". www.cleveland.com. The Plain Dealer . Retrieved 7 May 2015.
  8. Fredric Woodbridge Wilson: "Burlesque", Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed December 04, 2008), (subscription access) Archived 2008-05-16 at the Wayback Machine
  9. 1 2 Stanton, p. 50
  10. Burlesque, MSN Encarta, accessed 18 June 2012
  11. Sanders, p. 291
  12. Speaight, George. "All froth and bubble", The Times Literary Supplement , 1 October 1976, p. 1233
  13. Sanders, pp. 290–91
  14. Hudibras was so popular that it became the subject of parody itself. See Sanders, p. 255.
  15. Stanton, p. 50; and Hunter, Jim (1982) Tom Stoppard's Plays. London: Faber and Faber, ISBN   0-571-11903-4, pp. 23–33, 141–146 and 237–242
  16. 1 2 3 Kennedy, Michael (2006), The Oxford Dictionary of Music, p. 134
  17. Lamb, Andrew (1992), "Strauss, Johann" in The New Grove Dictionary of Opera , ed. Stanley Sadie (London) ISBN   0-333-73432-7
  18. Lamb, Andrew (1992), "Ziehrer, C. M." in The New Grove Dictionary of Opera , ed. Stanley Sadie (London) ISBN   0-333-73432-7
  19. Charlton, David and M. Elizabeth C. Bartlet, "Grétry, André-Ernest-Modeste: Works," Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, accessed 24 February 2011 (subscription required)
  20. McGregor, Andrew, "Dmitri Shostakovich Violin Concertos 1 & 2 Review", BBC Music, accessed 24 February 2011
  21. Harrison, Max (2006): Rachmaninoff: Life, Works, Recordings p 229
  22. According to the Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians , "the various genre terms were always applied freely", and by the 1860s their use had become "arbitrary and capricious": see "Burlesque," Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, accessed 3 February 2011 (subscription required). In an 1896 article on Burlesque in The Theatre, the three terms are used interchangeably: see Adams, W. Davenport. "Burlesque: Old v. New", The Theatre, 1 March 1896, pp. 144–45
  23. Adams, W. Davenport. A Book of Burlesque (London: Henry and Co., 1891), p. 44
  24. 1 2 3 "Theatrical Humour in the Seventies", The Times , 20 February 1914, p. 9
  25. 1 2 3 Schwandt, Erich et al. "Burlesque", Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, accessed 3 February 2011 (subscription required)
  26. Moss, Harold Gene. "Popular Music and the Ballad Opera", Journal of the American Musicological Society, Vol. 26, No. 3 (Autumn, 1973), pp. 365–82, University of California Press, accessed 2 February 2011 (subscription required)
  27. Rogers, Delmer D. "Public Music Performances in New York City from 1800 to 1850", Anuario Interamericano de Investigacion Musical, Vol. 6 (1970), pp. 5–50, accessed 2 February 2011 (subscription required)
  28. Marvin, Roberta Montemorra. "Verdian Opera Burlesqued: A Glimpse into Mid-Victorian Theatrical Culture", Cambridge Opera Journal, Vol. 15, No. 1 (March 2003), pp. 33–66, Cambridge University Press, accessed 2 February 2011 (subscription required)
  29. 1 2 Wells, Stanley. "Shakespearian Burlesques", Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 16, No. 1 (Winter, 1965), pp. 49–61, Folger Shakespeare Library in association with George Washington University, accessed 2 February 2011 (subscription required)
  30. "Mr. D'Auban's 'Startrap' Jumps". The Times, 17 April 1922, p. 17
  31. Gänzl, Kurt. "Edwardes, George Joseph (1855–1915)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, accessed 3 February 2011 (subscription required)
  32. Hoffos, Signe and Moulder, Bob. "Desperately Seeking Lydia" and "Appreciating Lydia", Archived 2011-05-13 at the Wayback Machine The Friends of Kensal Green Cemetery Magazine, Vol. 43, Autumn 2006, pp. 1–7
  33. 1 2 "Burlesque show", Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Library Edition, accessed 16 February 2011 (subscription required)
  34. 1 2 3 4 Humez, Nick. "Burlesque". St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture, ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast, Gale Virtual Reference Library, accessed 16 February 2011 (subscription required)
  35. Hartnoll, Phyllis and Peter Found. "Burlesque, American", The Concise Oxford Companion to the Theatre, Oxford University Press, 1996. Oxford Reference Online, accessed 16 February 2011 (subscription required)
  36. 1 2 Caldwell, Mark. "The Almost Naked City", The New York Times , 18 May 2008, accessed 19 September 2009
  37. Allen, p. xi
  38. "New Films In London", The Times, 2 August 1943, p. 8
  39. Striporama Internet Movie Database, accessed 17 February 2011
  40. Slonimsky, Nicholas, "Burlesque show", Baker's Dictionary of Music, Schirmer Reference, New York, 1997, accessed 16 February 2010 (subscription required)
  41. Newman, Martin. "Burlesque ventures out of the West End and into... Camden Town", The Mirror, 18 February 2012
  42. Oliverie, Kristin. "Burlesque Is the Word at Atlantic City's Revel", The Daily Meal, accessed 18 June 2012
  43. Sohn, Amy. Teasy Does It, New York Magazine Archived 2008-07-20 at the Wayback Machine , 21 May 2005, accessed 24 February 2011
  44. Clodfelter, Tim. "This ain't your granddad's burlesque – but he sure wouldn't mind watching" Archived 2009-10-07 at archive.today . Winston-Salem Journal, 31 January 2008, accessed 24 February 2011

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ambroise Thomas</span> French composer and music educator

Charles Louis Ambroise Thomas was a French composer and teacher, best known for his operas Mignon (1866) and Hamlet (1868).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ferdinand Hérold</span> French composer (1791–1833)

Louis Joseph Ferdinand Herold, better known as Ferdinand Hérold, was a French composer. He was celebrated in his lifetime for his operas, of which he composed more than twenty, but he also wrote ballet music, works for piano and choral pieces. He is best known today for the ballet La Fille mal gardée and the overture to the opera Zampa.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Travesti (theatre)</span> Portrayal of a stage character by a performer of a different sex

Travesti is a theatrical character in an opera, play, or ballet performed by a performer of the opposite sex.

Parody music, or musical parody, involves changing or copying existing musical ideas, and/or lyrics, or copying the particular style of a composer or performer, or even a general style of music.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">F. C. Burnand</span> British comic writer and dramatist (1836–1917)

Sir Francis Cowley Burnand, usually known as F. C. Burnand, was an English comic writer and prolific playwright, best known today as the librettist of Arthur Sullivan's opera Cox and Box.

The patter song is characterised by a moderately fast to very fast tempo with a rapid succession of rhythmic patterns in which each syllable of text corresponds to one note. It is a staple of comic opera, especially Gilbert and Sullivan, but it has also been used in musical theatre and elsewhere.

A travesty is an absurd or grotesque misrepresentation, a parody, or grossly inferior imitation. In literary or theatrical contexts it may refer to:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ivan Caryll</span> Belgian-born British-American composer

Félix Marie Henri Tilkin, better known by his pen name Ivan Caryll, was a Belgian-born composer of operettas and Edwardian musical comedies in the English language, who made his career in London and later New York. He composed some forty musical comedies and operettas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alfred Cellier</span> 19th-century English composer and conductor

Alfred Cellier was an English composer, orchestrator and conductor.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thomas German Reed</span> English theatrical manager, composer, musical director, actor and singer

Thomas German Reed, known after 1844 as simply German Reed was an English composer, musical director, actor, singer and theatrical manager of the Victorian era. He was best known for creating the German Reed Entertainments, together with his actress wife, a genre of musical plays that made theatre-going respectable at a time when the stage was considered disreputable.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Victorian burlesque</span> Theatrical genre

Victorian burlesque, sometimes known as travesty or extravaganza, is a genre of theatrical entertainment that was popular in Victorian England and in the New York theatre of the mid-19th century. It is a form of parody in which a well-known opera or piece of classical theatre or ballet is adapted into a broad comic play, usually a musical play, usually risqué in style, mocking the theatrical and musical conventions and styles of the original work, and often quoting or pastiching text or music from the original work. Victorian burlesque is one of several forms of burlesque.

This is a selected list of W. S. Gilbert's works, including all that have their own Wikipedia articles. For a complete list of Gilbert's dramatic works, see List of W. S. Gilbert dramatic works.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kurt Gänzl</span> New Zealand writer, historian and former casting director

Kurt-Friedrich Gänzl is a New Zealand writer, historian and former casting director and singer best known for his books about musical theatre.

A parody is a creative work designed to imitate, comment on, and/or mock its subject by means of satirical or ironic imitation. Often its subject is an original work or some aspect of it, but a parody can also be about a real-life person, event, or movement. Literary scholar Professor Simon Dentith defines parody as "any cultural practice which provides a relatively polemical allusive imitation of another cultural production or practice". The literary theorist Linda Hutcheon said "parody ... is imitation, not always at the expense of the parodied text." Parody may be found in art or culture, including literature, music, theater, television and film, animation, and gaming. Some parody is practiced in theater.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">J. B. Steane</span>

John Barry Steane was an English music critic, musicologist, literary scholar and teacher, with a particular interest in singing and the human voice. His 36-year career as a schoolmaster overlapped with his career as a music critic and author of books on Elizabethan drama, and opera and concert singers.

Andrew Martin Lamb is an English writer, music historian, lecturer and broadcaster, known for his expertise in light music and musical theatre. In addition to his musical work, Lamb maintained a full-time career as an actuary and investment manager.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">American burlesque</span> Genre of variety show

American burlesque is a genre of variety show derived from elements of Victorian burlesque, music hall, and minstrel shows. Burlesque became popular in the United States in the late 1860s and slowly evolved to feature ribald comedy and female nudity. By the late 1920s, the striptease element overshadowed the comedy and subjected burlesque to extensive local legislation. Burlesque gradually lost its popularity, beginning in the 1940s. A number of producers sought to capitalize on nostalgia for the entertainment by recreating burlesque on the stage and in Hollywood films from the 1930s to the 1960s. There has been a resurgence of interest in this format since the 1990s.

The original use of the term "parody" in music referred to re-use for wholly serious purposes of existing music. In popular music that sense of "parody" is still applicable to the use of folk music in the serious songs of such writers as Bob Dylan, but in general, "parody" in popular music refers to the humorous distortion of musical ideas or lyrics or general style of music.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Theatre music</span> Music composed or adapted for performance in theatres

Theatre music refers to a wide range of music composed or adapted for performance in theatres. Genres of theatre music include opera, ballet and several forms of musical theatre, from pantomime to operetta and modern stage musicals and revues. Another form of theatre music is incidental music, which, as in radio, film and television, is used to accompany the action or to separate the scenes of a play. The physical embodiment of the music is called a score, which includes the music and, if there are lyrics, it also shows the lyrics.