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The Burmese calendar (Burmese : မြန်မာသက္ကရာဇ်, pronounced [mjəmà θɛʔkəɹɪʔ] , or ကောဇာသက္ကရာဇ်, [kɔ́zà θɛʔkəɹɪʔ] ; Burmese Era (BE) or Myanmar Era (ME)) is a lunisolar calendar in which the months are based on lunar months and years are based on sidereal years. The calendar is largely based on an older version of the Hindu calendar, though unlike the Indian systems, it employs a version of the Metonic cycle. The calendar therefore has to reconcile the sidereal years of the Hindu calendar with the Metonic cycle's near tropical years by adding intercalary months and days at irregular intervals.
The Burmese language is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in Myanmar where it is an official language and the language of the Bamar people, the country's principal ethnic group. Although the Constitution of Myanmar officially recognizes the English name of the language as the Myanmar language, most English speakers continue to refer to the language as Burmese, after Burma, the older name for Myanmar. In 2007, it was spoken as a first language by 33 million, primarily the Bamar (Burman) people and related ethnic groups, and as a second language by 10 million, particularly ethnic minorities in Myanmar and neighboring countries.
A lunisolar calendar is a calendar in many cultures whose date indicates both the Moon phase and the time of the solar year. If the solar year is defined as a tropical year, then a lunisolar calendar will give an indication of the season;if it is taken as a sidereal year, then the calendar will predict the constellation near which the full moon may occur.As with all calendars which divide the year into months there is an additional requirement that the year have a whole number of months. In this case ordinary years consist of twelve months but every second or third year is an embolismic year, which adds a thirteenth intercalary, embolismic, or leap month.
A sidereal year is the time taken by the Earth to orbit the Sun once with respect to the fixed stars. Hence, it is also the time taken for the Sun to return to the same position with respect to the fixed stars after apparently travelling once around the ecliptic. It equals 365.256 363 004 SI days for the J2000.0 epoch.
The calendar has been used continuously in various Burmese states since its purported launch in 640 CE in the Sri Ksetra Kingdom, also called the Pyu era. It was also used as the official calendar in other mainland Southeast Asian kingdoms of Arakan, Lan Na, Xishuangbanna, Lan Xang, Siam, and Cambodia down to the late 19th century.
Sri Ksetra, located along the Irrawaddy River at present-day Hmawza, was once a prominent Pyu settlement. The Pyu occupied several sites across Upper Myanmar, with Sri Ksetra recorded as the largest, the city wall enclosing an area of 1,477 hectares, although a recent survey found it enclosed 1,857 hectares within its monumental brick walls, with an extramural area of a similar size, being the largest Southeast Asian city before Angkor times. Issues surrounding the dating of this site has meant the majority of material is dated between the seventh and ninth centuries AD, however recent scholarship suggests Pyu culture at Sri Ksetra was active centuries before this.
Mainland Southeast Asia is the continental portion of Southeast Asia. It lies east of the Indian subcontinent and south of China and is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the west and the Pacific Ocean to the east. It includes the countries of Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, peninsular Malaysia, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam.
Rakhine State occupies the northern coastline of Myanmar up to the border with Bangladesh and corresponds to the historical Kingdom of Arakan. The history of Rakhine is divided into 7 parts - the independent kingdoms of Dhanyawadi, Waithali, Lemro, Mrauk U, Burmese occupation from 1784 to 1826, British rule from 1826 to 1948 and as a part of independent Burma from 1948.
Today the calendar is used only in Myanmar as the traditional civil calendar, alongside the Buddhist calendar. It is still used to mark traditional holidays such as the Burmese New Year, and other traditional festivals, many of which are Burmese Buddhist in nature.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by India and Bangladesh to its west, Thailand and Laos to its east and China to its north and northeast. Myanmar is the largest of the mainland Southeast Asian states. To its south, about one third of Myanmar's total perimeter of 5,876 km (3,651 mi) forms an uninterrupted coastline of 1,930 km (1,200 mi) along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. The country's 2014 census counted the population to be 51 million people. As of 2017, the population is about 54 million. Myanmar is 676,578 square kilometres in size. Its capital city is Naypyidaw, and its largest city is Yangon (Rangoon). Myanmar has been a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) since 1997.
The civil calendar is the calendar, or possibly one of several calendars, used within a country for civil, official or administrative purposes. The civil calendar is almost always used for general purposes by people and private organizations.
The Buddhist calendar is a set of lunisolar calendars primarily used in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Thailand as well as in Sri Lanka and Chinese populations of Malaysia and Singapore for religious or official occasions. While the calendars share a common lineage, they also have minor but important variations such as intercalation schedules, month names and numbering, use of cycles, etc. In Thailand, the name Buddhist Era is a year numbering system shared by the traditional Thai lunisolar calendar and by the Thai solar calendar.
The Burmese chronicles trace the origin of the Burmese calendar to ancient India with the introduction of the Kali Yuga Era in 3102 BCE. That seminal calendar is said to have been recalibrated by King Añjana (အဉ္စန), the maternal grandfather of the Buddha, in 691 BCE. That calendar in turn was recalibrated and replaced by the Buddhist Era with the starting year of 544 BCE. The Buddhist Era came to be adopted in the early Pyu city-states by the beginning of the Common Era. Then in 78 CE, a new era called the Shalivahana era, also called Sakra Era or Saka Era, was launched in India. Two years later the new era was adopted in the Pyu state of Sri Ksetra, and the era later spread to the rest of the Pyu states.
The royal chronicles of Myanmar are detailed and continuous chronicles of the monarchy of Myanmar (Burma). The chronicles were written on different media such as parabaik paper, palm leaf, and stone; they were composed in different literary styles such as prose, verse, and chronograms. Palm-leaf manuscripts written in prose are those that are commonly referred to as the chronicles. Other royal records include administrative treatises and precedents, legal treatises and precedents, and censuses.
Kali isha Yuga in Hinduism is the last of the four stages the world goes through as part of a 'cycle of yugas' described in the Sanskrit scriptures. The other ages are called Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga, and Dvapara Yuga. Kali Yuga is associated with the demon Kali. The "Kali" of Kali Yuga means "strife", "discord", "quarrel" or "contention". According to Puranic sources, Krishna's departure marks the end of Dvapara Yuga and the start of Kali Yuga, which is dated to 17/18 February 3102 BCE.
Añjana was a king of Koliya dynasty of ancient India, a dynasty that was present around the time of Gautama Buddha, according to Buddhist scriptures. He was the son of the king Devadaha. Anjana had two sons Suppabuddha and Dandapāni, and two daughters Māyā and Pajāpatī. The daughters later became the wives of Suddhodana. Maya was the mother of Gautama Buddha. Anjana had two wives named as Sulakkhanā and Yasodharā and a sister Kaccānā.
According to the chronicles, the Pagan Kingdom at first followed the prevailing Saka Pyu Era, but in 640 CE King Popa Sawrahan (r. 613–640) recalibrated the calendar, naming the new era Kawza Thekkarit (ကောဇာ သက္ကရာဇ် [kɔ́zà θɛʔkəɹɪʔ] ) with a Year Zero starting date of 22 March 638 CE. It was used as the civil calendar, while the Buddhist Era remained in use as the religious calendar.
The Kingdom of Pagan was the first kingdom to unify the regions that would later constitute modern-day Burma (Myanmar). Pagan's 250-year rule over the Irrawaddy valley and its periphery laid the foundation for the ascent of Burmese language and culture, the spread of Burman ethnicity in Upper Burma, and the growth of Theravada Buddhism in Burma and in mainland Southeast Asia.
Popa Sawrahan was the 20th king of Pagan Dynasty of Burma and the first king of Tampavati period of Bagan. He was notable for restarting the Burmese calendar in Bagan history and one of the two Sawrahan kings of Bagan Dynasty.
Scholarship accepts the chronicle narrative regarding the North Indian origin of the calendar and the chronology of adoption in Burma up to the Mahāsakaraj Era. Recent research suggests that the Gupta Era (epochal year of 320 CE) may also have been in use in the Pyu states.Mainstream scholarship, however, holds that the recalibrated calendar was launched at Sri Ksetra, and later adopted by the upstart principality of Pagan.
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire existing from the mid-to-late 3rd century CE to 543 CE. At its zenith, from approximately 319 to 543 CE, it covered much of the Indian subcontinent. This period is considered as the Golden Age of India by some historians. The ruling dynasty of the empire was founded by the king Sri Gupta; the most notable rulers of the dynasty were Chandragupta I, Samudragupta, and Chandragupta II alias Vikramaditya. The 5th-century CE Sanskrit poet Kalidasa credits the Guptas with having conquered about twenty-one kingdoms, both in and outside India, including the kingdoms of Parasikas, the Hunas, the Kambojas, tribes located in the west and east Oxus valleys, the Kinnaras, Kiratas, and others.
The adoption by an ascendant Pagan paved the way for the calendar's adoption elsewhere in the Pagan Empire between the 11th and 13th centuries. The calendar first came to be used in peripheral regions or neighbouring states such as Arakan in the west and various Shan states in modern northern Thailand and Laos in the east, which adopted the calendar alongside folklore connected with the Burmese New Year.According to the Chiang Mai Chronicles and the Chaing Saen Chronicles, Chiang Mai and Chiang Saen and their tributary states of middle and upper Tai country (except Lamphun and Sukhothai) submitted to King Anawrahta and adopted the calendar in the mid-11th century in place of Mahāsakaraj, the standard calendar of the Khmer Empire. However, scholarship says the earliest evidence of Burmese calendar in modern Thailand dates only to the mid-13th century.
While the use of the calendar appears to have spread southward to Sukhothai and eastward to Laotian states in the following centuries,the official adoption farther south by the Ayutthaya Kingdom and farther east by Lan Xang came only after King Bayinnaung's conquests of those kingdoms in the 16th century. Subsequent Siamese kingdoms retained the Burmese calendar as the official calendar under the name of Chulasakarat (Pali: Culāsakaraj) until 1889. The Siamese adoption turned out to be the main catalyst for the calendar's usage in Cambodia, a periodic vassal of Siam between the 16th and 19th centuries. Likewise, the calendar spread to the Chittagong region of Bengal, which was dominated by the Arakanese Mrauk-U Kingdom from the 15th to 17th centuries.
The calculation system of the Burmese calendar was originally based on Thuriya Theiddanta (သူရိယသိဒ္ဓန္တ [θùɹḭja̰ θeiʔdàɴta̰] , which is believed to be chiefly based on the "original" Surya Siddhanta system of ancient India (i.e. Ardharatrika school). One key difference from Indian systems was that the Burmese system followed a 19-year intercalation schedule (Metonic cycle). It is unclear from where, when or how the Metonic system was introduced; hypotheses range from China to Europe.
The Burmese system thus uses a "strange" combination of sidereal years from the Indian calendar with the Metonic cycle, which is better for tropical years than sidereal years, so necessitating intercalation adjustments to reconcile the differences.Furthermore, the Burmese system did not incorporate advances in Indian calculation methods of the sidereal year until the mid-19th century. (The original Thuriya Theiddanta system is 0.56 second a year slower (and more accurate) than later Indian systems. )
The earliest attempts on record to change the calendar were superficial. On the 800th anniversary of the calendar (29 March 1438), King Mohnyin Thado recalibrated the calendar to Year 2 (with Year Zero beginning on 18 March 1436).But the king died just over a year after the launch, and the new era died out a few years later. The next proposed change came in March 1638 from King Prasat Thong of Siam who in preparation of the upcoming millennial anniversary (10 April 1638) wanted to make a change to the governing animals of the months. As the practice was not prevalent in Burma, the proposal was rejected by King Thalun.
Meanwhile, the growing cumulative discrepancy between the civil solar and luni-solar years attracted increasing attention. In the 1100th anniversary year (1738 CE) a new system of calculation was proposed that aimed to correct the errors of the original system, but the Toungoo court did not take any action. The present Surya Siddhanta (i.e., Saura school) was introduced to the Konbaung court in 1786, and was translated into Burmese after about 50 years.Finally, a new system called Thandeikta was proposed by Nyaunggan Sayadaw, a Buddhist monk, in Year 1200 (1838 CE).
The new system was a hybrid between the original and the updated Surya schools. Unlike the new Surya, Thandeikta does not adopt the system of apparent reckoning; mean years and mean months are still used. It also retains the practice of placing the intercalary month always next to Waso and the intercalary day always at the end of Nayon, and only in a year which has an intercalary month. But Thandeikta follows the new Surya in small alterations of the length of the year and the month. The prevailing Metonic schedule was modified, and intercalary months were so fixed as to prevent further divergence between the solar and luni-solar years. With the support of Princess Sekkya Dewi, who later became the chief queen of King Mindon, the new system was fully adopted in 1853. The first adjustment to then existing Metonic Cycle was made by putting an intercalary month in 1201 ME (1839 CE) instead of 1202 ME (1840).
While the new system has seemingly narrowed the gap between the calendar's solar and lunar years, it has not made the calendar more accurate when compared against the actual tropical year. Indeed, it is slightly worse than the old system. (The Thandeikta solar year is about 23 minutes 51.4304 seconds ahead of the mean solar year whereas Makaranta is about 23 minutes 50.8704 seconds ahead.)As a result, the calendar has kept on drifting away from the actual solar year. The calendarists have periodically resorted to modifying its intercalation schedule, based on apparent reckoning, to keep pace, at the expense of making publishing future calendars more than a few years out all but impossible.
In sum, at various times the calendar has used at least three slightly different methods of calculation to determine the insertion times of the intercalary day and month.
|Thuriya Theiddanta||Prior to 1215 ME (to 1853 CE)||Metonic cycle determines intercalary day and month insertion points|
|Thandeikta||1215–1311 ME (1853–1950 CE)||Modified Metonic cycle: # of excess days in the first 4 months determines intercalary day and month insertion points|
|Current||1312 ME (1950 CE) to present||Current system used by Myanmar Calendar Advisory Board; Modified Metonic cycle: # of excess days in the first 8 months determines intercalary day and month insertion points|
The calendar fell out of the official status in several mainland Southeast Asian kingdoms in the second half of the 19th century with the arrival of the European colonialism. The Gregorian calendar replaced the Burmese calendar in Cambodia in 1863, Burma in 1885 and Laos in 1889.In 1889, the only remaining independent kingdom in Southeast Asia, Siam, also replaced the Burmese calendar and switched to the Gregorian calendar as the official civil calendar and Ratanakosin Era (with 1782 CE as Year 1) as the traditional lunisolar calendar.
Today, the calendar is used purely for cultural and religious festivals in Myanmar. Thailand has moved on to its own version of Buddhist calendar since 1941 although the Chulasakarat era dates remain the most commonly used and preferred form of entry by the academia for historical studies.The Chittagong Magi-San calendar, identical to the Arakanese calendar, is still used by certain ethnic minorities of Bangladesh.
The calendar recognises two types of day: astronomical and civil. The mean Burmese astronomical day is from midnight to midnight, and represents 1/30th of a synodic month or 23 hours, 37 minutes and 28.08 seconds. The civil day comprises two halves, the first half beginning at sunrise and the second half at sunset. In practice, four points of the astronomical and civil day (sunrise, noon, sunset, and midnight) were used as reference points. The civil day is divided into 8 baho (ဗဟို [bəhò] ) (3 hours) or 60 nayi (နာရီ [nàjì] ) (24 minutes), each baho equalling 7.5 nayi. In the past, a gong (မောင်း [máʊɴ] ) was struck every nayi while a drum (စည် [sì] ) and a large bell (ခေါင်းလောင်း [kʰáʊɴ láʊɴ] ) were struck to mark every baho.
|Day||1 o'clock||နံနက် တစ်ချက်တီး||midway between sunrise and midday|
|2 o'clock||နေ့ နှစ်ချက်တီး||noon (midday)|
|3 o'clock||နေ့ သုံးချက်တီး||midway between noon and sunset|
|4 o'clock||နေ့ လေးချက်တီး||sunset|
|Night||1 o'clock||ည တစ်ချက်တီး||midway between sunset and midnight|
|2 o'clock||ည နှစ်ချက်တီး||midnight|
|3 o'clock||ည သုံးချက်တီး||midway between midnight and sunrise|
|4 o'clock||နံနက် လေးချက်တီး||sunrise|
Although the popular usage never extended beyond baho and nayi measurements, the calendar consists of time units down to the millisecond level.
|Unit||Sub-units||Approximate equivalent time|
|8 baho||1 day|
|7.5 nayi||3 hours|
|4 pat||24 minutes|
|15 bizana||6 minutes|
|6 pyan||24 seconds|
|10 khaya||4 seconds|
|12 khana||0.4 second|
|4 laya||0.03333 second|
|1.25 anukhaya||0.00833 second|
|<base unit>||0.00667 second|
Only the following are used in calendrical calculations:
|Unit||Sub-units||Approximate equivalent time|
|yet||60 nayi||1 day|
|nayi||60 bizana||24 minutes|
|bizana||60 khaya||24 seconds|
|khaya||60 anukhaya||0.4 second|
|anukhaya||<base unit>||0.00667 second|
Therefore, modern time units can be expressed as:
|Unit||Approximate equivalent Burmese units|
The civil week consists of seven days. It was also customary to denote the week of the day with by its preassigned numerical value between zero and six. The names Taninganwe (Sunday) and Taninla (Monday) are derived from Old Burmese but the rest from Sanskrit.
The calendar recognises two types of months: synodic month and sidereal month. နက္ခတ် [nɛʔkʰaʔ] ; from Sanskrit nakshatra), alongside the 12 signs of the zodiac, are used for astrological calculations. (The calendar also recognises a solar month called Thuriya Matha, which is defined as 1/12th of a year. But the solar month varies by the type of year such as tropical year, sidereal year, etc.) Basically, in Myanmar calendar, one month spans the period in which the moon gradually become into its full circle and then gradually disappears, completing its one oscillation of appearance; the words for "moon" and "month" are the same "la(လ)" in Myanmar.The Synodic months are used to compose the years while the 27 lunar sidereal days (
|Type||Mean # of days per Thuriya Theiddanta||Mean # of days per Thandeikta|
| Synodic lunar month |
| Sidereal month |
The days of the month are counted in two halves, waxing (လဆန်း [la̰záɴ] ) and waning (လဆုတ် [la̰zoʊʔ] ). The 15th of the waxing (လပြည့် [la̰bjḛ] ) is the civil full moon day. The civil new moon day (လကွယ် [la̰ɡwɛ̀] ) is the last day of the month (14th or 15th waning). The mean and real (true) New Moons rarely coincide. The mean New Moon often precedes the real New Moon.
|1 to 15||from New Moon to Full Moon|
|Full Moon |
|1 to 14 or 15||from Full Moon to New Moon|
|New Moon |
As the Synodic lunar month is approximately 29.5 days, the calendar uses alternating months of 29 and 30 days. The 29-day months are called yet-ma-son la (ရက်မစုံလ), and the 30-day months are called yet-son la (ရက်စုံလ). Unlike in other Southeast Asian traditions, the Burmese calendar uses Burmese names for the month names. Although the names sound foreign in origin to modern Burmese ears, all but three are derived from Old Burmese. The three exceptions—Mleta/Myweta (မ္လယ်တာ / မြွယ်တာ), Nanka (နံကာ), Thantu (သန်တူ)—which all fall during the Buddhist Lent, have been replaced by newer Burmese names (Waso, Wagaung, Thadingyut), which used to mean just the Full Moon days of the three months.
|Burmese||Mon||# of days |
| Tagu |
| Kason |
| Nayon |
| Waso |
| Wagaung |
သ္ဍဲသဳ, /hədoa sɔe/
| Tawthalin |
| Thadingyut |
| Tazaungmon |
| Nadaw |
| Pyatho |
| Tabodwe |
| Tabaung |
In great leap years, the month of Nayon gets an extra intercalary day called yet-lun (ရက်လွန်) or yet-ngin (ရက်ငင်) and has 30 days. In the Arakanese calendar, the month of Tagu gets the extra intercalary day in great leap years.
The calendar recognises three types of astronomical year: tropical year, sidereal year and anomalistic year.
|Year Name||Description||# of mean solar days by original Surya||# of mean solar days by Thandeikta|
|Thawanamatha Hnit |
|Nekkhattamahta Hnit |
|Thuriyamatha Hnit |
The Burmese calendar is a lunisolar calendar in which the months are based on lunar months and years are based on solar years. One of its primary objectives is to regulate the lunar part that it will keep pace with the solar part. The lunar months, normally twelve of them, consist alternately of 29 days and 30 days, such that a normal lunar year will contain 354 days, as opposed to the solar year of ~365.25 days. Therefore, some form of addition to the lunar year (of intercalation) is necessary. The overall basis for it is provided by cycles of 57 years. Eleven extra days are inserted in every 57 years, and seven extra months of 30 days are inserted in every 19 years (21 months in 57 years). This provides 20819 complete days to both calendars.
As such, the calendar adds an intercalary month (ဝါထပ် [wà daʔ] ) in leap years (ဝါငယ်ထပ်နှစ် [wàŋɛ̀daʔ n̥ɪʔ] ) and sometimes also an intercalary day (ရက်ငင် [jɛʔ ŋɪ̀ɴ] ) in great leap years (ဝါကြီးထပ်နှစ် [wàdʑídaʔ n̥ɪʔ] ). The intercalary month not only corrects the length of the year but also corrects the accumulating error of the month to extent of half a day. The average length of the month is further corrected by adding a day to Nayon at irregular intervals—a little more than seven times in two cycles (39 years). The intercalary day is never inserted except in a year which has an intercalary month. The Hindu calendar inserts an intercalary month at any time of year as soon as the accumulated fractions amount to one month. The Burmese calendar however always inserts the intercalary month at the same time of the year, after the summer solstice while the Arakanese calendar inserts it after the vernal equinox.
The actual calendar year (Wawharamatha Hnit, ဝေါဟာရမာသနှစ်) consists of 354, 384 or 385 days.
|Month||Regular year||Small leap year||Big leap year|
The Thai Chulasakarat calendar uses a slightly different method to place the intercalary day. Instead of it in a leap year as in the Burmese system, the Thai system places it in a separate year. Thus, the Thai small leap year has 355 days while the Thai great leap year has 384 days.Both systems arrive at the same number of days in a 19-year cycle however. Furthermore, in contrast to Indian calendars, the Burmese calendar follows a Metonic cycle in which intercalary months are inserted on a set schedule. However, because the Burmese calendar has to adjust for the use of Indian-calendar-derived sidereal years with the Metonic cycle's tropical years, maintaining a set Metonic cycle has been a challenge.
The calendar seems to have employed several schedules to determine which of the 19 years will be intercalary years. To find out which year will have an intercalary month, divide the Burmese year by 19. The quotient is the expired cycles. The remainder, if tallies with the set sequence number of the prevailing Metonic cycle, then it will be an intercalary year.
|System||Intercalary years in 19-year cycle|
|Pre-1740||2, 5, 8, 10, 13, 16, 18|
|1740||2, 5, 7, 10, 13, 15, 18|
|1892||1, 4, 7, 9, 12, 15, 18|
|1990s||1, 4, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18|
Since the main purpose of Burmese calendar is to keep pace with the solar year, the new year is always marked by the solar year, which falls at the time when the Sun enters Aries.The date, which at the present falls on the 16 or 17 April, has slowly drifted over the centuries. In the 20th century, the New Year's Day fell on 15 or 16 April but in the 17th century, it fell on 9 or 10 April.
As a result, the New Year's Day of Burmese calendar does not have to fall on the first day of the first month of Tagu; in fact, it almost never does fall on the first waxing of Tagu. Tagu is almost always divided into two parts Hnaung Tagu (နှောင်းတန်ခူး [n̥áʊɴ dəɡú] ; "Late Tagu"), before the New Year's Day and Oo Tagu (ဦးတန်ခူး [ʔú dəɡú] ; "Early Tagu") on and after the New Year's Day. In some years, the year was so behind the solar year that the new year falls in Kason and both Hnaung Tagu and Hnaung Kason (နှောင်းကဆုန် [n̥áʊɴ kəsʰòʊɴ] ; "Late Kason") exist. Therefore, just saying "Tagu of 1373 ME" is not complete as "Oo Tagu of 1373" corresponds to 2011 CE while "Hnaung Tagu of 1373" corresponds to 2012 CE.
The calendar used to employ a 12-year Jovian cycle that redeployed the lunar month names and attached them to the years.The Burmese cycle is not the more familiar Jovian cycle of India with 60 years in it. The practice existed in the Pagan period but had died out by the 17th century.
Burmese tradition recognises the following eras. The Buddhist Era and Kawza Era are still in use in Myanmar.
|Burmese name||Description||Year 0 date|
|Maha Thekkarit |
|Anjanasakaraj||10 March 691 BCE|
|Thathana Thekkarit |
|Buddhist Era||13 May 544 BCE|
|Pyu (Saka) Era |
|Shalivahana era (Mahāsakaraj in Thailand)||17 March 78 CE|
|Kawza Thekkarit |
|Current Burmese calendar |
|22 March 638|
|Mohnyin Thekkarit |
|18 March 1436|
The Burmese calendar uses lunar months but tries to keep pace with the solar year. The present Thandeikta system's solar year is about 23 minutes 51.43 seconds ahead of the actual mean tropical year of 365.241289 days. The older Makaranta system was actually slightly more accurate, with 23 minutes 50.87 seconds ahead of the actual year.The table below shows how Thandeikta purports to achieve a narrower difference (hence better accuracy) over Makaranta.
|19 solar years||6939.91625 days||6939.9163731466 days|
|235 lunations||6939.687005 days||6939.68816731 days|
|Difference||0.229245 day||0.2282058366 day|
The gain in accuracy is 0.0010391634 day (89.78371776 seconds) over 19 years, or about 4.72546 seconds a year. However, this gain is illusory as Thandeikta achieves the gain by redefining the mean lunar month (lunation), which is then more accurate and the solar year, which is less accurate. The table below shows the solar years of both systems in comparison with the actual mean tropical year. Thandeikta is 0.56 second a year less accurate than Makaranta.
|19 solar years per own definition||6939.91625 days||6939.9163731466 days|
|Actual 19 tropical years||6939.601591 days||6939.601591 days|
|Difference over 19 years||0.314659 day||0.3147821466 day|
|Difference over per year||23.84784 minutes |
|23.85717322 minutes |
In sum, both systems are about 24 minutes per year ahead of the actual tropical year; the systems' methods of intercalation fixes only their internal error; and Thandeikta slightly accelerates the annual drift. The accumulating error means the New Year's Day which used to fall near the vernal equinox at its launch in 638 now falls on 17 April in 2013—a drift of 15 days, (after adjusting to the Julian and Gregorian calendar switch). Burmese calendarists have dealt with the issue by using apparent reckoning and periodically modifying the intercalation schedule in the Metonic cycle. One major downside of this approach is that it is not possible to publish future calendars more than a few years (often even a year) ahead.
The Burmese zodiac, like the Western zodiac, is divided into 12 signs called yathi (ရာသီ [jàðì] ). The Burmese signs are identical to Indian and Western signs as they were derived from Indian and ultimately Western zodiac. Each yathi is divided into 30 degrees (အင်္သာ [ɪ̀ɴðà] ); each degree into 60 minutes (လိတ္တာ [leiʔtà] ); and each minute into 60 seconds (ဝိလိတ္တာ [wḭleiʔtà] ).
|Sanskrit||Latin||Ruling planet |
The zodiac month consists of 27 days, approximating the mean sidereal month of 27.321661 days. Thus each zodiac day, called nekkhat, represents a lunar mansion, or a segment of the ecliptic along which the moon revolves around the earth. Though the names are Burmese adaptations of Sanskrit names, the Burmese system is not the same as the modern Indian system. The Burmese system uses unequal spaces for each segment (from 5° to 26°), and the first segment, Athawani, begins at 350° longitude. The modern Indian system uses equal segments of 13° 20' (360° divided by 27), and the first segment, Asvini, begins at 0°. The list below follows the Thandeikta system.
|11||Pyobba Baragonni |
|12||Ottara Baragonni |
|20||Pyobba Than |
|21||Ottara Than |
|25||Pyobba Parabaik |
|26||Ottara Parabaik |
The Burmese zodiac recognises eight signs in a seven-day week.
|Aditya||Sunday||Sun|| Garuda |
|Chandra||Monday||Moon|| Tiger |
|Angaraka||Tuesday||Mars|| Lion |
|Budha||Wednesday a.m.||Mercury||Tusked elephant |
|Rahu||Wednesday p.m.||Lunar node||Tuskless elephant |
|Bṛhaspati||Thursday||Jupiter|| Rat |
|Shukra||Friday||Venus||Guinea pig |
|Shani||Saturday||Saturn|| Nāga |
The Burmese calendar has a number of variants inside present-day Myanmar as well as outside. The variants outside Myanmar are still in use albeit under a different year numbering system.
According to Arakanese (Rakhine) tradition, the calendar was launched by King Thuriya Thehta of Dhanyawaddy Dynasty. At least down to the early 20th century, the Arakanese calendar used the Makaranta system although the Burmese calendar had moved to the Thandeikta system since the mid-19th century. In the Arakanese calendar, the month of Tagu gets the extra intercalary day in great leap years.Moreover, in Arakanese tradition, only the New Year's Day is observed. The Arakanese calendar under the name of Magi-San is still used by the Magh people of Bangladesh.
The Burmese calendar first came to be adopted in present-day northern Thailand in the mid-13th century, and in central Thailand by the second half of the 16th century. Although then mainland kingdoms of Lan Na, Lan Xang, Siam, and later Cambodia adopted the Burmese epoch starting at 638 CE, each region retained its own traditions and/or introduced its own modifications afterwards. For example, the Kengtung, Lan Na, Lan Xang, and Sukhothai calendars still retained the use of numbering the months even though the Burmese calendar stopped using the numbered months alongside the month names. The use of numbering system may have predated the introduction of the Burmese calendar in any case since each region had its own numbering system. The first numbered month in Kengtung, Lan Na, Lan Xang and Sukhothai calendars is Tazaungmon (Karttika), Thadingyut (Asvina), (Nadaw) Margasirsha, and (Nadaw) Margasirsha, respectively.This means reading ancient texts and inscriptions in Thailand requires constant vigilance, not just in making sure one is correctly operating for the correct region, but also for variations within regions itself when incursions cause a variation in practice. (Note: The Sukhothai and Lan Xang numbering systems and the now abandoned Burmese numbering system are the same. )
Likewise, Cambodian and Thai systems have retained the practice of giving animal names to the years from a cycle of 12.The practice also existed in Burma in the Pagan period but later died out.
Moreover, Chulasakarat uses three similar but not identical types of lunar years used by the Burmese calendar.Each calendar has the same regular year of 354 days and a leap year of 384 days. However, whereas the Burmese calendar adds the intercalary day only in a leap cycle according to its Metonic cycle, the Siamese calendar adds the intercalary day to a regular year. The Siamese calendar does add the extra day in the same place (Jyestha/Nayon), however.
|Calendar||Regular||Small leap year||Big leap year|
Lastly, the calculation methods also diverged in the mid-19th century when Konbaung Dynasty switched to the Thandeikta method, which is 0.56 second per year longer than the old system.
The traditional Dai calendar of Dai people of Xishuangbanna in China is largely based on the Burmese calendar although it may have some Chinese influences.
The Burmese calendar is still used to determine a number of public holidays in Myanmar.
|Event name||Burmese calendar date||International date|
|Full moon of Tabaung||Full moon of Tabaung||March–April|
|Burmese New Year Festival||Almost always in Tagu, sometimes in Kason||13–17 April|
|Buddha Day||Full moon of Kason||May–June|
|Start of Buddhist Lent||Full moon of Waso||June–July|
|End of Buddhist Lent||Full moon of Thadingyut||October–November|
|Tazaungdaing Festival||Full moon of Tazaungmon||November–December|
|National Day||10th waning of Tazaungmon||November–December|
A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial or administrative purposes. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A date is the designation of a single, specific day within such a system. A calendar is also a physical record of such a system. A calendar can also mean a list of planned events, such as a court calendar or a partly or fully chronological list of documents, such as a calendar of wills.
Intercalation or embolism in timekeeping is the insertion of a leap day, week, or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases. Lunisolar calendars may require intercalations of both days and months.
A month is a unit of time, used with calendars, which is approximately as long as a natural period related to the motion of the Moon; month and Moon are cognates. The traditional concept arose with the cycle of Moon phases; such months (lunations) are synodic months and last approximately 29.53 days. From excavated tally sticks, researchers have deduced that people counted days in relation to the Moon's phases as early as the Paleolithic age. Synodic months, based on the Moon's orbital period with respect to the Earth-Sun line, are still the basis of many calendars today, and are used to divide the year.
For astronomy and calendar studies, the Metonic cycle or Enneadecaeteris is a period of an almost exact 19 years that is nearly a common multiple of the solar year and the synodic (lunar) month. The Greek astronomer Meton of Athens observed that a period of 19 years is almost exactly equal to 235 synodic months and, rounded to full days, counts 6,940 days. The difference between the two periods is only a few hours, depending on the definition of the year.
A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the season or almost equivalently the apparent position of the Sun relative to the stars. The Gregorian calendar, widely accepted as standard in the world, is an example of a solar calendar. The main other type of calendar is a lunar calendar, whose months correspond to cycles of Moon phases. The months of the Gregorian calendar do not correspond to cycles of Moon phase.
The Thai lunar calendar, or Tai calendar, is a lunisolar Buddhist calendar. It is used for calculating lunar-regulated holy days. Based on the SuriyaYatra, with likely influence from the traditional Hindu Surya Siddhanta, it has its own unique structure that does not require the Surya Siddhanta to calculate. Lunisolar calendars combine lunar and solar calendars for a nominal year of 12 months. An extra day or an extra 30-day month is intercalated at irregular intervals.
The Thai solar calendar was adopted by King Chulalongkorn in 1888 CE as the Siamese version of the Gregorian calendar, replacing the Thai lunar calendar as the legal calendar in Thailand. Years are now counted in the Buddhist Era (B.E.): พุทธศักราช, พ.ศ., which is 543 years ahead of the Gregorian calendar.
Hindu calendar is a collective term for the various lunisolar calendars traditionally used in the Indian subcontinent. They adopt a similar underlying concept for timekeeping, but differ in their relative emphasis to moon cycle or the sun cycle and the names of months and when they consider the New Year to start. Of the various regional calendars, the most studied and known Hindu calendars are the Shalivahana Shaka found in South India, Vikram Samvat (Bikrami) found in North and Central regions of India, Tamil calendar used in Tamil Nadu, and the Bengali calendar used in the Bengal – all of which emphasize the lunar cycle. Their new year starts in spring. In contrast, in regions such as Kerala, the solar cycle is emphasized and this is called the Malayalam calendar, their new year starts in autumn, and these have origins in the second half of the 1st millennium CE. A Hindu calendar is sometimes referred to as Panchanga (पञ्चाङ्ग).
The Bahá'í Calendar, also called the Badíʿ Calendar, is a solar calendar with years composed of 19 months of 19 days each (361 days) plus an extra period of "Intercalary Days". Years begin at Naw-Rúz, on the day of the vernal equinox in Tehran, Iran, coinciding with March 20 or 21.
The epact used to be described by medieval computists as the age of the Moon in days on 22 March; in the newer Gregorian calendar, however, the epact is reckoned as the age of the ecclesiastical moon on 1 January. Its principal use is in determining the date of Easter by computistical methods. It varies from year to year, because of the difference between the solar year of 365–366 days and the lunar year of 354–355 days.
The history of calendars, that is, of people creating and using methods for keeping track of days and larger divisions of time, covers a practice with ancient roots.
Calendar reform or calendrical reform, is any significant revision of a calendar system. The term sometimes is used instead for a proposal to switch to a different calendar design.
Vikram Samvat ;
The Burmese zodiac is the traditional Burmese system of astronomy and astrology. While it is still an important component of the Burmese calendar, today, the zodiac is closely identified with Burmese astrology, called Bedin (ဗေဒင်). Largely derived from Hindu astronomy and Vedic astrology, the Burmese zodiac consists of not only the same 12 signs of the Western zodiac but also 27 lunar mansions of the month and eight weekday signs.
Chula Sakarat or Chulasakarat is a lunisolar calendar derived from the Burmese calendar, whose variants were in use by most mainland Southeast Asian kingdoms down to the late 19th century. The calendar is largely based on an older version of the Hindu calendar though unlike the Indian systems, it employs a version of the Metonic cycle. The calendar therefore has to reconcile the sidereal years of the Hindu calendar with Metonic cycle's tropical years by adding intercalary months and intercalary days on irregular intervals.
Nisan-years is an ancient calendar system used around Mesopotamia. Its area of usage covers Elam, Persia, Media, Syria and Israel/Judea. Its beginning was from prehistorical era. Ever since Mesopotamia had historical writings, even before the Old Babylonian Empire of Hammurabi, its calendar used the Nisan-years.
A Small Mahzor is a 19-year cycle in the lunisolar calendar system used by the Jewish people. It is similar to, but slightly different in usage with, the Greek Metonic cycle.
The Balinese saka calendar is one of two calendars used on the Indonesian island of Bali. Unlike the 210-day pawukon calendar, it is based on the phases of the Moon, and is approximately the same length as the Gregorian year.