Bus terminus

Last updated

A bus terminus is a designated place where a bus or coach starts or ends its scheduled route. The terminus is the designated place that a timetable is timed from. Termini can be located at bus stations, interchanges, bus garages or bus stops. Termini can both start and end at the same place, or may be in different locations for starting and finishing a route. Termini may or may not coincide with the use of bus stands.

Contents

Size of termini

The Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus in India. Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus.jpg
The Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus in India.

For operational reasons and passenger routes to be their bus garage, where the legal terminus is just outside or nearby. For the purposes of integration of different public transport modes, termini may also be located as part of a transportation hub or 'interchange' or alongside other major amenities such as universities, shopping centres or hospitals. Minor termini may be a bus stop or loop in a residential street, used by very few or just one.

Operational considerations

While it may be of prime importance to the passenger, the location of a terminus may be made for reasons other than convenience of passengers.

Competitive interests

In rare cases, where the bus operator is commercially separate from the bus station owner, the bus company may choose to terminate services outside the station, so as not to incur usage fees. Additionally, counter to the idea of integration, competing bus operators may use different locations as intermediate termini, to discourage passengers use of competitors services.

Turning

A factor in the location of a terminus is how to turn the bus around to start the route in the other direction, which may be difficult in areas where road space is an issue, or the road layout prevents U-turns. This does not apply for true circle routes, where buses simply operate permanently in the clockwise or anti-clockwise direction. Termini in bus stations will often include reversing/run-around space, negating the turning issue.

Layover

Toronto Coach Terminal (closed in 2021), was a typical bus terminal in North America Toronto Bus Terminal.JPG
Toronto Coach Terminal (closed in 2021), was a typical bus terminal in North America

Another consideration about the location of a terminus is the need to lay over before resuming in service.

In busy locations, such as main streets or bus stations, allowing the bus the space to lay over may not be appropriate, and the bus may have to run out of service, to a quieter layover point, before returning to the terminus to start the route again.

To allow layover at a terminus, many routes run through busy centres terminating either side in quiet termini, where a bus can lay over without causing an obstruction. In the one-stop case, this can cause problems for passengers when an apparently in-service bus parks at a bus stop with the doors closed, waiting until the timetabled departure time, or when an arriving bus is not forming a departing service. This can be mitigated by using a bus stand. In the two-stop type, the arrival stop can be used as the layover point.

Layover time is time built into a schedule between arrival at the end of a route and the departure for the return trip, used for the recovery of delays and preparation for the return trip.

Driver change

Terminus location may be positioned to allow driver changes, although this may be less of a factor than the location of the bus garage. Centrally located termini may be more convenient for driver changes. Some operators operate pool cars to allow drivers to drive to and wait at a quiet terminus, swapping the car with the bus when it arrives.

Types of terminus

Kifissos Bus Terminal, Greece Kifissos Terminal.jpeg
Kifissos Bus Terminal, Greece
Bus platforms at Tikkurila's travel centre in Vantaa, Finland Tikkurilan matkakeskuksen bussilaiturit 2015-01-07.jpg
Bus platforms at Tikkurila's travel centre in Vantaa, Finland

One stop

Many routes avoid the need to accommodate turning by having the end of the route form a small circuit as an official part of the route. The terminus is designated as one stop on this circuit, with the bus starting and finishing in the same orientation. This is often necessary in many town centres with one-way traffic systems.

Space permitting, the terminus may be a purpose built run-around Bus turnout, which allows the bus to change direction simply by entering and leaving the turnout. Often the infrastructure for this remains from a previous tram or trolleybus system.

In rare cases, to allow a one stop terminus, routes may be arranged to start and finish at the same terminus, with buses arriving as one scheduled route, and leaving as a different route. This can also be done to allow a formal midpoint to split up a long route, reducing the knock-on effect of delays.

Two stop

As opposed to a one stop arrangement, some routes that need to reverse direction at a terminus will start and finish in different stops, and the pair of stops locations forms the terminus. This necessitates running the bus out of service along other streets in order to position in the bus for the reverse direction. In the UK, this is often achieved by locating the terminus near a roundabout.

In this case, the arrival point can be designated as a 'set down only' stop, where passengers are not permitted to board.

Route terminus variations

Ap Lei Chau Estate Bus Terminus, Hong Kong Ap Lei Chau Estate Bus Terminus (facade).jpg
Ap Lei Chau Estate Bus Terminus, Hong Kong

Often one bus route will follow a core main route, but towards the termini, the bus may branch off and terminate in different locations. This may be indicated by different route numbers, or with the same route number but a different destination name on the headsign/rollsign.

Routes may also have a number of different termini on the same numbered route, again shown only by different destinations. These may be used at different times according to operational need, usually to reflect different demand at the different times of the day.

See also

Related Research Articles

Bus stop Designated area for passengers to board or disembark busses

A bus stop is a designated place where buses stop for passengers to get on and off the bus. The construction of bus stops tends to reflect the level of usage, where stops at busy locations may have shelters, seating, and possibly electronic passenger information systems; less busy stops may use a simple pole and flag to mark the location. Bus stops are, in some locations, clustered together into transport hubs allowing interchange between routes from nearby stops and with other public transport modes to maximise convenience.

Bus station Bus interchange larger than a bus stop

A bus station or a bus interchange is a structure where city or intercity buses stop to pick up and drop off passengers. While the term bus depot can also be used to refer to a bus station, it generally refers to a bus garage. A bus station is larger than a bus stop, which is usually simply a place on the roadside, where buses can stop. It may be intended as a terminal station for a number of routes, or as a transfer station where the routes continue.

Wye (rail)

In railroad structures, and rail terminology, a wye or triangular junction is a triangular joining arrangement of three rail lines with a railroad switch at each corner connecting to each incoming line. A turning wye is a specific case.

Share taxi Mode of transport which falls between a taxicab and a bus

A share taxi is a mode of transport which falls between a taxicab and a bus. These vehicles for hire are typically smaller than buses and usually take passengers on a fixed or semi-fixed route without timetables, but instead departing when all seats are filled. They may stop anywhere to pick up or drop off their passengers. Often found in developing countries, the vehicles used as share taxis range from four-seat cars to minibuses. They are often owner-operated.

Société de transport de Montréal Public transportation organization in Montreal

The Société de transport de Montréal is a public transport agency that operates transit bus and rapid transit services in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Established in 1861 as the "Montreal City Passenger Railway Company", it has grown to comprise four subway lines with a total of 68 stations, as well as over 186 bus routes and 23 night routes. The STM was created in 2002 to replace the Société de transport de la communauté urbaine de Montréal (STCUM). The STM operates the most heavily used urban mass transit system in Canada, and one of the most heavily used rapid transit systems in North America. As of 2011, the average daily ridership is 2,524,500 passengers: 1,403,700 by bus, 1,111,700 by rapid transit and 9,200 by paratransit service.

Richmond station (California) Rapid transit and railway station in San Francisco Bay Area

The Richmond Transit Center is a Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) and Amtrak station located in Richmond, California. Richmond is the north terminus of BART service on the Berryessa/​North San José–​Richmond Line and Richmond–​Millbrae + SFO Line; it is a stop for Amtrak's Capitol Corridor, San Joaquin, and California Zephyr routes. It is one of two transfer points between BART and Amtrak, along with Oakland Coliseum station.

Request stop Type of transport stop

In public transport, a request stop, flag stop, or whistle stop is a stop or station at which buses or trains respectively stop only on request; that is, only if there are passengers or freight to be picked up or dropped off. In this way, stops with low passenger counts can be incorporated into a route without introducing unnecessary delay. Vehicles may also save fuel by continuing through a station when there is no need to stop.

Sacramento Valley Station

Sacramento Valley Station (SAC) is an Amtrak railway station in the city of Sacramento, California, at 401 I Street on the corner of Fifth Street. It is the seventh busiest Amtrak station in the country, and the second busiest in the Western United States with thousands of riders a day and over a million passengers per year. Today, it is served by 38 daily Amtrak and Amtrak California trains and many Amtrak Thruway Motorcoaches. It is also the western terminus of the Sacramento RT Gold Line light rail system and the Route 30 bus serving Sacramento State University.

Khoy County County in West Azerbaijan, Iran

Khoy County is a county in West Azerbaijan Province in Iran. At the 2006 census, the county's population (including those portions later split off to form Chaypareh County was 365,573, in 85,550 families; excluding those portions, the population was 323,348, in 75,464 families. The capital of the county is Khoy.

Route 40 (MTA Maryland)

Route 40 is a limited stop bus route, identified as a "QuickBus", operated by the Maryland Transit Administration in Baltimore and its suburbs. The line currently runs from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services in Woodlawn to Middle River, both in Baltimore County, Maryland with selected trips terminating at Downtown Baltimore City Hall, passing through the west and east sides and the downtown area of Baltimore City. Service operates every 12 minutes during rush hour, and every 15 minutes at most other times during its hours of operation. The line serves the corridors of Edmondson Avenue in West Baltimore, including the communities of Edmondson Village, Allendale, and Rosemont, and Fayette Street and Eastern Avenue in East Baltimore, serving Patterson Park, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center and Essex.

Layover Transport term

In scheduled transportation, a layover is a point where a vehicle stops, with passengers possibly changing vehicles. In public transit, this typically takes a few minutes at a trip terminal. For air travel, where layovers are longer, passengers will exit the vehicle and wait in the terminal, often to board another vehicle traveling elsewhere.

In public transportation, schedule adherence or on-time performance (OTP) refers to the level of success of the service remaining on the published schedule. On time performance, sometimes referred to as on time running, is normally expressed as a percentage, with a higher percentage meaning more vehicles are on time. The level of on time performance for many transport systems is a very important measure of the effectiveness of the system.

Dead mileage

Dead mileage, dead running, light running or deadheading in public transport and empty leg in air charter is when a revenue-gaining vehicle operates without carrying or accepting passengers, such as when coming from a garage to begin its first trip of the day. In this case, the vehicle is said to be deadheading.

A bus stand, also called a bus bay, or bus stance, is a designated parking location where a bus or coach waits out of service between scheduled public transport services. 'Bus stand' is also often an alternative name for specific bus stops inside a bus station.

Public transport bus service Road transport using buses

Public transport bus services are generally based on regular operation of transit buses along a route calling at agreed bus stops according to a published public transport timetable.

Train station Railway facility where trains regularly stop to load or unload passengers and/or freight

A train station, railway station, railroad station or depot is a railway facility or area where trains regularly stop to load or unload passengers, freight or both. It generally consists of at least one track-side platform and a station building (depot) providing such ancillary services as ticket sales, waiting rooms and baggage/freight service. If a station is on a single-track line, it often has a passing loop to facilitate traffic movements.

In public transport, a short turn, short working or turn-back is an earlier terminus on a bus or rail line that is used on some scheduled trips that do not operate along the full length of the route. Some agencies, such as the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, use the term "cut route" to mean the same thing.

Dufferin Gate Loop Bus station and streetcar turning loop in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Dufferin Gate Loop, also known as Dufferin Loop, is a Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) bus station and turning loop for streetcars near the southern end of Dufferin Street in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. During the Canadian National Exhibition (CNE), the loop becomes a primary access point for visitors entering Exhibition Place via the Dufferin Gates. This west entrance to the CNE can be reached by the Dufferin Street bridges across the Lakeshore West railway corridor and Gardiner Expressway.

City Point Bus Terminal

City Point Bus Terminal is a bus station in South Boston, Massachusetts. It serves MBTA bus routes 7, 9, 10 and 11. From 2004 to 2009, it was the terminus of Silver Line route SL3.

ParkShuttle

The ParkShuttle is an electrically-driven, autonomous shuttle service that runs between Kralingse Zoom metro station in Rotterdam to the Rivium business park in Capelle aan den IJssel. The system first opened 1999 and has been extended since. It has three stops in Rivium, a stop Fascinatio and finally at Kralingse Zoom metro station. In 2021 six third-generation vehicles entered service.

References