Bystrzyca Kłodzka

Last updated
Bystrzyca Kłodzka
2014 Bystrzyca Klodzka, stare miasto 11.jpg
Town panorama
Poland adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Bystrzyca Kłodzka
Lower Silesian Voivodeship location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Bystrzyca Kłodzka
Coordinates: 50°18′N16°39′E / 50.300°N 16.650°E / 50.300; 16.650
Country Flag of Poland.svg  Poland
Voivodeship POL woj dolnoslaskie FLAG 2009.svg  Lower Silesian
County Kłodzko
Gmina Bystrzyca Kłodzka
Established11th century
Town rights13th century
Government
  MayorRenata Lucyna Surma
Area
  Total10.74 km2 (4.15 sq mi)
Elevation
340 m (1,120 ft)
Population
 (2019-06-30 [1] )
  Total10,134
  Density940/km2 (2,400/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
57-500
Area code(s) +48 74
Car plates DKL
Website http://www.bystrzycaklodzka.pl

Bystrzyca Kłodzka [bɨsˈtʂɨt͡sa ˈkwɔt͡ska] (German : Habelschwerdt, Czech : Kladská Bystřice) is a historic town in Kłodzko County, in Lower Silesian Voivodeship in southwestern Poland. It is the administrative seat of Gmina Bystrzyca Kłodzka. The old town of Bystrzyca is famous for its many historical buildings and is a popular tourist destination.

Contents

Geography

Old town and Nysa river 2016 Nysa Klodzka w Bystrzycy Klodzkiej 2.jpg
Old town and Nysa river

Bystrzyca Kłodzka lies in the Kłodzko Valley near the confluence of the Eastern Neisse (Nysa Kłodzka) and Bystrzyca Łomnicka rivers, at the feet of the Bystrzyckie Mountains, a range of the Central Sudetes. Part of the Kladsko Land historical region, it is located about 20 km (12 mi) south of Kłodzko.

History

The area of today's Bystrzyca Kłodzka has been inhabited at least for six millennia. During the times of the Roman Empire the Celts established numerous permanent settlements in the area of Kłodzko along the ancient Amber Road. There are also numerous archaeological excavations of Lusatian culture remnants in the area.

Middle Ages

The town of Habelschwerdt was founded in the mid-13th century by German colonists on estates held by the Bohemian noble Havel of Markvartice (Gallus of Lämberg ), husband of Saint Zdislava Berka. They settled next to the Slavic village of Bystřice, located on the important trade route leading along the Neisse river from Wrocław (Breslau) in Silesia through the Sudetes to Prague. The citizens were granted town privileges according to the so-called Western Law (a variant of Magdeburg rights). On 4 July 1319, the Luxembourg king John of Bohemia granted the settlement the vast autonomy of an immediate royal city and the right to construct city walls.

Defensive walls Bystrzyca Klodzka, mury obronne, 17.JPG
Defensive walls

The first noted mayor of Habelschwerdt was Jakob Rücker. The town was constructed almost from scratch and started to grow rapidly. First the city walls were erected with three gates and several towers. Then the market square was planned on a slope and the town hall was constructed. Most of the Gothic architecture was preserved and the town is now considered one of the classical examples of mediaeval architecture. City rights were confirmed by King John's son, Charles IV in 1348 and Habelschwerdt was granted with several other privileges, among them the right to trade with salt, spices and fabric.

The town was incorporated into the County of Kladsko (Grafschaft Glatz), an immediate fief of the Bohemian Crown and shared the fate of the nearby city of Kłodzko (Kladsko, Glatz). It developed rapidly until the advent of the Hussite Wars in the early 15th century. The wars left the town depopulated by plagues, partially burnt and demolished by several consecutive floods. It was plundered by the forces of the Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus on his 1469 campaign against King George of Poděbrady. In 1475 a great fire destroyed the town completely.

Modern times

City hall Bystrzyca Klodzka, ratusz, 05.JPG
City hall

After the Lands of the Bohemian Crown had passed to the Habsburg Monarchy, the area became a fief of the ruling Habsburg dynasty in 1567, though the local counts retained their powers. Habelschwerdt and the surrounding villages were gradually repopulated, mostly with settlers from Central Germany and Lesser Poland. It was not until the 16th century when the local economy went back on tracks, while the Protestant Reformation led to a strengthening of radical movements such as Schwenckfelder and Anabaptist groups. Because of major Lutheran influences it became one of the regional centres of Protestantism.

In the late 16th century a new city hall was built and many of the town houses were rebuilt in a Renaissance style. The town also built several facilities like paved roads and a sewer system. However, the Thirty Years' War and stern measures of the Counter-Reformation damaged the city and ended the period of prosperity.

During the Second Silesian War, Hungarian troops and Pandurs again devastated the town. On 14 February 1745, Prussian troops under General Hans von Lehwaldt defeated the Austrian Habsburg forces of Georg Oliver von Wallis nearby. After the Silesian Wars, Habelschwerdt, together with the County of Kladsko and most of Silesia, came under Prussian rule according to the 1763 Treaty of Hubertusburg. In the War of the Bavarian Succession, skirmishers from Austrian army commanded by Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser fought there against the Prussian garrison, and one of the blockhouses caught fire, resulting in the destruction of most of the town in mid-January 1779. [2] During the Napoleonic Wars, the town was occupied by French forces and housed a garrison of the Grande Armée until 1813.

St Michael Archangel Church 2014 Kosciol sw. Michala Archaniola w Bystrzycy Klodzkiej 01.JPG
St Michael Archangel Church

By 1818 the County of Kladsko was formally dissolved and Habelschwerdt was incorporated into the Prussian Province of Silesia. Although it was made the administrative seat of a rural district (Landkreis), comprising the southeastern parts of the former county, it was also struck by high taxes. It was not until the mid-19th century when the town fully recovered. The city hall was yet again rebuilt, the city moat and parts of the walls were leveled and the settlement expanded into new areas. After 1877, Habelschwerdt was connected to Glatz and Breslau by a railroad. In 1885, Habelschwerdt had a population of 5,597, while by 1939 it rose to 6,877. The end of the 19th century saw the whole Kłodzko Valley (Glatzer Kessel) turned into one of the most popular tourist regions. Countless hotels, sanatoria and spa were opened to the public in the nearby towns of Glatz, Bad Reinerz (present-day Duszniki-Zdrój) and Bad Landeck (Lądek-Zdrój), as well as in the town itself. The area of former Kladsko county became a popular place among the rich bourgeoisie of Breslau, Berlin, Vienna and Kraków.

During World War II Habelschwerdt was spared the fate of other German cities that were levelled to the ground. There were no important industrial centres in the area, and most of the Kłodzko Valley was not captured by the Red Army until after the capitulation of Germany. After the war the region was placed under Polish administration by the Potsdam Agreement under territorial changes demanded by the Soviet Union. Most of the remaining German population fled or was expelled and replaced with Poles, including many expelled from Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union.

On 28 June 1972 the Catholic parishes of Bystrzyca Kłodzka were reassigned from the traditional Hradec Králové diocese (est. 1664; Ecclesiastical Province of Bohemia) to the Archdiocese of Wrocław. [3] Between 1975 and 1998 Bystrzyca belonged to Wałbrzych Voivodeship. It continues to be one of the principal mountain resorts of the area. Thanks to its historical landmarks as well as virgin landscapes, Bystrzyca Kłodzka remains one of the most popular centers for tourism and winter sports in Lower Silesia.

Notable people

Holy Trinity Column 2015 Kolumna Trojcy Swietej w Bystrzycy Klodzkiej 01.JPG
Holy Trinity Column

Twin towns – sister cities

See twin towns of Gmina Bystrzyca Kłodzka.

Related Research Articles

Province of Silesia province

The Province of Silesia was a province of Prussia from 1815 to 1919. The Silesia region was part of the Prussian realm since 1740 and established as an official province in 1815, then became part of the German Empire in 1871. In 1919, as part of the Free State of Prussia within Weimar Germany, Silesia was divided into the provinces of Upper Silesia and Lower Silesia. Silesia was reunified briefly from 1938 to 1941 as a province of Nazi Germany before being divided back into Upper Silesia and Lower Silesia.

Nowa Ruda Place in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland

Nowa Ruda is a town in south-western Poland near the Czech border, lying on the Włodzica river in the central Sudetes mountain range. As of 2019 it had 22,067 inhabitants. The town is located in Kłodzko County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship. It is the seat of the rural district of Gmina Nowa Ruda, but is not part of its territory.

Kłodzko Place in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland

Kłodzko is a town in south-western Poland, in the region of Lower Silesia. It is situated in the centre of the Kłodzko Valley, on the Eastern Neisse river.

Province of Lower Silesia province of Prussia

The Province of Lower Silesia was a province of the Free State of Prussia from 1919 to 1945. Between 1938 and 1941 it was reunited with Upper Silesia as the Province of Silesia. The capital of Lower Silesia was Breslau. The province was further divided into two administrative regions (Regierungsbezirke), Breslau and Liegnitz.

Eastern Neisse river in Poland

The Eastern Neisse, also known by its Polish name of Nysa Kłodzka, is a river in southwestern Poland, a left tributary of the Oder, with a length of 188 km and a basin area of 4,570 km².

Kłodzko County County in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland

Kłodzko County is a unit of territorial administration and local government (powiat) in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, south-western Poland. It came into being on January 1, 1999, as a result of the Polish local government reforms passed in 1998.

Czech lands historical regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia

The Czech lands or the Bohemian lands are the three historical regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia. Together the three have formed the Czech part of Czechoslovakia since 1918 and the Czech Republic since 1 January 1969, which became independent on 1 January 1993.

Middle Silesia

Middle Silesia was a colloquial designation for the Regierungsbezirk Breslau subdivision in the Prussian province of Silesia from 1813 to 1945. It comprised the eastern parts of the historic Lower Silesia region and the former County of Kladsko, both conquered by Prussia in 1742.

History of Silesia

In the second half of the 2nd millennium B.C., Silesia belonged to the Lusatian culture. About 500 BC Scyths arrived, and later Celts in the South and Southwest. During the 1st century BC Silingi and other Germanic people settled in Silesia. For this period we have written reports of antique authors who included the area. Slavs arrived in this territory around the 6th century. The first known states in Silesia were those of Greater Moravia and Bohemia. In the 10th century, Mieszko I incorporated Silesia into Civitas Schinesghe, a Polish state. It remained part of Poland until the Fragmentation of Poland. Afterwards it was divided between Piast dukes, descendants of Władysław II the Exile, High Duke of Poland.

Austrian Silesia former autonomous region of the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Austrian Empire

Austrian Silesia, officially the Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia, was an autonomous region of the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Habsburg Monarchy. It is largely coterminous with the present-day region of Czech Silesia and was, historically, part of the larger Silesia region.

Lower Silesia historical region of Germany and Poland

Lower Silesia is the northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia; Upper Silesia is to the southeast.

Radków Place in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland

Radków is a town in Kłodzko County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland. It is the seat of the administrative district (gmina) called Gmina Radków, close to the Czech border. As at 2006, the town has a population of 2,460.

Lewin Kłodzki Village in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland

Lewin Kłodzki is a village in the Sudetes, in Kłodzko County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland, near the border with the Czech Republic. It is the seat of the administrative district (gmina) called Gmina Lewin Kłodzki.

Duchy of Münsterberg

The Duchy of Münsterberg or Duchy of Ziębice was one of the Duchies of Silesia, with a capital in Münsterberg (Ziębice). Existing from 1321/1322 to 1742, it was located in what came to be referred to as Lower Silesia. Its territory is similar to modern Ząbkowice Śląskie County in Poland.

Regions of Poland

Polish regions are regions located within the present-day Poland without being identified in its administrative division.

Kłodzko Land

Kłodzko Land is a historical region in southwestern Poland.

County of Kladsko countship

The County of Kladsko was a historical administrative unit within Bohemia as a part of the Kingdom of Bohemia and later in the Kingdom of Prussia with its capital at Kłodzko (Kladsko) on the Nysa river. The territory comprises the Kłodzko Land with the Kłodzko Valley in center within the Sudetes mountain range and roughly corresponds with the present-day Kłodzko County in the Polish Lower Silesian Voivodeship.

Henry I, Duke of Münsterberg-Oels Czech prince

Henry the Elder of Münsterberg was an Imperial Count and Count of Kladsko. He was also Duke of Silesian duchies Münsterberg and Oels and 1465–1472 Duke of Opava. At times, he served as the Landeshauptmann and governor of Bohemia.

Lordship of Hummel

The Lordship of Hummel is a historic landscape zone in the western part of the former County of Kladsko, then part of Bohemia, now in Silesia, Poland.

The Czech Corner is a territory found in the western end of Klodzko land, close to the current Czech-Polish border. This area consisted of eleven villages which were inhabited by Bohemian Czechs.

References

  1. "Population. Size and structure and vital statistics in Poland by territorial divison in 2019. As of 30th June". stat.gov.pl. Statistics Poland. 2019-10-15. Retrieved 2020-02-14.
  2. (in German) Oscar Criste. Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser. Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. Herausgegeben von der Historischen Kommission bei der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Band 44 (1898), S. 338–340, Digitale Volltext-Ausgabe in Wikisource. (Version vom 24. März 2010, 3:18 Uhr UTC).
  3. Paulus VI, Constitutio Apostolica "Vratislaviensis - Berolinensis et aliarum", in: Acta Apostolicae Sedis , 64 (1972), n. 10, pp. 657seq.

Coordinates: 50°18′N16°39′E / 50.300°N 16.650°E / 50.300; 16.650