Cäcilia Rentmeister

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Cäcilia (Cillie) Rentmeister (born 1948 in Berlin) is a German art historian, culture scientist and researcher of cultural conditions of women and of gender. In addition to studying the different realities in which men and women are living, she has concerned herself with the matriarchy.

Berlin Capital of Germany

Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 (2018) inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London. The city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, and contiguous with its capital, Potsdam. The two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions.

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

Gender Characteristics distinguishing between masculinity and femininity

Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity. Depending on the context, these characteristics may include biological sex, sex-based social structures, or gender identity. Traditionally, people who identify as men or women or use masculine or feminine gender pronouns are using a system of gender binary whereas those who exist outside these groups fall under the umbrella terms non-binary or genderqueer. Some cultures have specific gender roles that are distinct from "man" and "woman," such as the hijras of South Asia. These are often referred to as third genders.



Rentmeister studied at the Free University of Berlin and the University of Cologne Art History, Archeology and American Studies. She received her PhD in 1980 at the University of Bremen. Rentmeister lives in Berlin and Brandenburg, and since 1994 teaches at the University of Applied Sciences Erfurt  (de ) at the Faculty of Applied Social Sciences "Cross-cultural Gender Studies" and "Interactive Media".

Brandenburg State in Germany

Brandenburg is a state of Germany.

Rentmeister engaged since the early 1970s as activist in the Second-wave feminism. From 1974, she wrote articles and essays on feminist art history, archaeology and cultural studies, which were also published in other languages. [1] [2] From 1977 on she lectured in art schools, teacher colleges and universities in Berlin, Hamburg, and Bremen. She was one of the initiators of the interdisciplinary women's summer programs ("Frauen Sommeruniversität") at the Technical University of Berlin, which were attended from 1976 to 1986 by about 30,000 women, and gave a sustained impetus for women's studies and gender research in all scientific disciplines. [3]

Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social gender equality. This includes fighting gender stereotypes and seeking to establish educational and professional opportunities for women that are equal to those for men.

Art history the academic study of objects of art in their historical development

Art history is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts; that is genre, design, format, and style. The study includes painting, sculpture, architecture, ceramics, furniture, and other decorative objects.

Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. In North America archaeology is a sub-field of anthropology, while in Europe it is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines.

Cover from the LP of the Flying Lesbians Flcover.jpg
Cover from the LP of the Flying Lesbians

Cäcilia Rentmeister was keyboardist of the Flying Lesbians, [4] the first women's rock band on the European continent. [5] She reflected the significance of women's music in her writings on rituals [6] and women´s festivals. [7]

Keyboardist musician who plays keyboard instruments

A keyboardist or keyboard player is a musician who plays keyboard instruments. Until the early 1960s musicians who played keyboards were generally classified as either pianists or organists. Since the mid-1960s, a plethora of new musical instruments with keyboards have come into common usage, requiring a more general term for a person who plays them. These keyboards include:

Flying Lesbians German musical group

The Flying Lesbians were a seven-woman German music group which existed from 1974 to 1977 and released an eponymous album in 1975. The album - as indie music production - ran very well, with ca 17.000 LP's sold.

Women's music is the music by women, for women, and about women. The genre emerged as a musical expression of the second-wave feminist movement as well as the labor, civil rights, and peace movements. The movement was started by lesbian performers such as Cris Williamson, Meg Christian and Margie Adam, African-American musicians including Linda Tillery, Mary Watkins, Gwen Avery and activists such as Bernice Johnson Reagon and her group Sweet Honey in the Rock, and peace activist Holly Near. Women's music also refers to the wider industry of women's music that goes beyond the performing artists to include studio musicians, producers, sound engineers, technicians, cover artists, distributors, promoters, and festival organizers who are also women.

In the 1970s and 1980s, Rentmeister also published critical essays on feminist aesthetics and women´s art, sparking controversy, [8] which she 1978 also debated internationally with Valie Export, Marlite Halbertsma  (de ), Ulrike Rosenbach and Lucy Lippard in the panel discussion organised by De Appel "Feministische Kunst International" in the Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, Netherlands. [9] [10] [11]

Feminist aesthetics first emerged in the 1970's and refers not to a particular aesthetic or style but to perspectives that question assumptions in art and aesthetics concerning sex-role stereotypes, or gender. In particular, feminists argue that despite seeming neutral or inclusive, the way people think about art and aesthetics is influenced by sex roles. Feminist aesthetics is a tool for analyzing how art is understood using gendered issues. A person's gender identity affects the ways in which they perceive art and aesthetics because of their subject position and the fact that perception is influenced by power. The ways in which people see art is also influenced by social values such as class and race. One's subject position in life changes the way art is perceived because of people's different knowledge's about life and experiences. In the way that feminist history unsettles traditional history, feminist aesthetics challenge philosophies of beauty, the arts and sensory experience.

Valie Export Austrian media artist

Valie Export is an Austrian artist. Her artistic work includes video installations, body performances, expanded cinema, computer animations, photography, sculptures and publications covering contemporary arts.

Ulrike Rosenbach German artist

Ulrike Rosenbach is a video artist from Germany. Rosenbach works with videotapes, installations and performances. She was one of the first artists from Germany to use video for experiments with electronic images. Her videotapes critique the traditional representation of women and help formulate the identity of women from a feminist perspective.

In the 1980s, she published as a science writer for the German public radio, - among other issues on patriarchal motives of population growth in history and present, and on the New Age movement. Since 1973 she works with her partner, film director and writer Cristina Perincioli. They wrote together the screenplay for "Anna and Edith" - the first feature film about a lesbian relationship on German television ZDF in 1975. [12] [13] From 1985 on Rentmeister and Perincioli turned to the topic "computers and creativity". They developed models for artistic and educational work with multimedia, published [14] and taught these concepts with the intention to interest women for the new digital technologies, whereas in the 1980s in German academia a computer-sceptical attitude still prevailed. [15] From the 1990s Rentmeister worked as editor and project manager of websites on "sensitive" social and gender subjects that have been authored and produced by Cristina Perincioli (Two of them also in English versions) [16] [17] [18] [19] [20]

Patriarchy is a social system in which men hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property. Some patriarchal societies are also patrilineal, meaning that property and title are inherited by the male lineage.

In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population. Many of the world's countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, South Asia and South East Asia, have seen a sharp rise in population since the end of the Cold War. The fear is that high population numbers are putting further strain on natural resources, food supplies, fuel supplies, employment, housing, etc. in some of the less fortunate countries. For example, the population of Chad has ultimately grown from 6,279,921 in 1993 to 10,329,208 in 2009, further straining its resources. Vietnam, Mexico, Nigeria, Egypt, Ethiopia, and the DRC are witnessing a similar growth in population.

New Age spiritual or religious beliefs and practices that developed in Western nations during the 1970s

New Age is a term applied to a range of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices that developed in Western nations during the 1970s. Precise scholarly definitions of the New Age differ in their emphasis, largely as a result of its highly eclectic structure. Although analytically often considered to be religious, those involved in it typically prefer the designation of spiritual or Mind, Body, Spirit and rarely use the term "New Age" themselves. Many scholars of the subject refer to it as the New Age movement, although others contest this term and suggest that it is better seen as a milieu or zeitgeist.

As private pilot and member of the pilots networks Ninety Nines and the Federation of German Pilots [21] Rentmeister is committed to promote the advancement of girls and women in aviation, through lectures, the media [22] [23] and by organising events for schoolgirls at the Girls’ Day. Melanie Katzenberger writes: "The pioneers of the skies belong into the textbooks, calls Caecilia Rentmeister. ...Girls must get the feeling: If she can, I can also..." [24]


Matriarchies: specific approaches of Rentmeister

With respect to archaeological reconstructions of historic matriarchies, especially as mirrored in 19th and early 20th centuries reception, Rentmeister developed her ideology-critical approach. One example for this realistic approach - opposing to esoteric ones - is her essay on "Why Are There So Many Allegories Female?" from 1976. [26] In another critical essay she asked 1980: "How is politics made with notions of matriarchy?" and criticized, on the other hand, the blanket denial of matriarchy by contemporary European feminists. [27] In her article „The Squaring of the Circle. The Seizure of Power by Men over Architectural Forms“, published 1979 in a special on „Women in Architecture – : Women’s Architecture?“ in the German bauwelt , Rentmeister reconstructed architectural-spatial traces of matriarchies in ancient Europe. In another essay she asked 1980: "How is politics made with notions of matriarchy?" and criticized, on the other hand, the blanket denial of matriarchy by contemporary European feminists. [27]

These and other early archaeological texts by Rentmeister were translated into several languages; they were discussed and referred to in the dedicated international and interdisciplinary discourses of the 1970s and 1980s, including architects like Margrit Kennedy [28] and Paola Coppola Pignatelli, [29] and novelists like Christa Wolf. [30]

Sabine Herzog describes Rentmeisters approach: “The archaeologist and art historian Cillie Rentmeister published numerous works in the field of feminist cultural history and cultural criticism. In her book Women’s Worlds – Men’s Worlds of 1985, she describes the diversity of matriarchy in the past and present. Therefore a definition could only show a basic matriarchal pattern. Rentmeister ...lists some characteristics of matriarchies: In addition to matrilineality and matrilocality the avunculate and an extended family economy is characteristic, as well as a self-determined disposal of women over their bodies...” [31]

Rentmeister defined as early as 1980 the term "matriarchy" explicitly not as inversion formula for patriarchy. [32] According to Rentmeister "... there were and are certainly as many forms of matriarchy, as there are at present - and simultaneously – forms of patriarchy." [33] In 1985, she emphasizes this statement with regard to ethnological findings. [34]

1988 Rentmeister analysed the "Debate on Matriarchy" of the past two centuries in Germany, particularly in their significance for the first fifteen years of the second wave women's movement in Europe. She distinguishes, somewhat ironically, three phases between 1973–1988, and - backgrounded by her journeys to matriarcal societies in the 1980s - a certain "esoteric enthusiasm for matriarchy" and a "resuscitation of matriarchal rituals“ in Germany. [35]

The question of the real existence of contemporary, modern matriarchies led Rentmeister from 1980 to the current to preoccupy with cultural anthropological research findings. She visited matrilineal, matrilocal societies, including Minangkabau in West Sumatra and Nayar in Kerala, South India. There she received - despite social change and crises - affirmative and confident statements by indigenous peoples of the special qualities, and even merits and social dividends its matriarchal institutions and ways of life for both sexes.

How these benefits correlate statistically with a comparativily high level in the Human Development-Indicators and Reproductive Health, Rentmeister describes 2007 in her essay "Development is female”. [36] Illustrated by the examples of the Minangkabau and Nayar societies, she shows that empowerment, education and property in the hands of women contribute significantly to lower birth rates, to - in comparison to adjacent patriarchal communities - significantly less domestic violence, and for the society as a whole less poverty and better state of health can be observed.


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  1. "Other Languages | Cillie (Cäcilia) Rentmeister: Publikationen". Cillie-rentmeister.de. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
  2. "English | Cillie (Cäcilia) Rentmeister: Publikationen". Cillie-rentmeister.de. 1985-03-05. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
  3. Inge v. Bönninghausen, on Rentmeister and other lecturers of the summer Universities, in: Ariadne 37-38, Kassel 2000, S.130, „Persönliche Denkgeschichten“ (Personal Stories of Remembering)
  4. "flying-lesbians.de". flying-lesbians.de. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
  5. In 1976 Monique Wittig und Sande Zeig emphasized their pioneering role in a dictionary article devoted to the Flying Lesbians: FLYING LESBIANS. Tribe of companion lovers who, as their name indicates, are wanderers. The Flying Lesbians come from Germany and have companion lovers everywhere. Singers and musicians, they owe their celebrity to the fact that they were the first group of wandering lesbians in the raving that began the Glorious Age. Monique Wittig and Sande Zeig: Lesbian Peoples. Material for a Dictionary. New York 1979 (First published Paris 1976)
  6. in English cf. Cillie Rentmeister "7 Passages Between Life and Death: Rituals Doing Gender", Lecture with Pictures and Video-Documentaries, held August 25, 2000 at “ifu – international women´s university”, World Expo 2000, Hannover, Germany, full text Cecilia Rentmeister: Rituale als soziales Drama – Zur Bedeutung von Ritualen im menschlichen Leben (Rituals as Social Drama – The Meaning of Rites in Human Life), in: Scheiblich, Wolfgang (Hrsg.): Bilder – Symbole – Rituale, Freiburg 1999, S.69-99
  7. Cillie Rentmeister: Frauenfeste als Initiationsritual (Women´s festivals as Rites of Passage and Initiation), in: Heinrich Böll Stiftung, Feministisches Institut (Hrsg.): Wie weit flog die Tomate? Eine 68erinnen-Gala der Reflexion, Berlin 1999
  8. "Neue Frauenbewegung – Wissenschaft, Sommerunis, Kunst, Gebärstreik, Frauenfeste | Cillie (Cäcilia) Rentmeister: Publikationen". Cillie-rentmeister.de. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
  9. "home - de Appel". Deappel.nl. 2014-01-01. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
  10. "home - de Appel". Deappel.nl. 2014-01-01. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
  11. Another critical essay by Rentmeister Frauen, Körper, Kunst. Mikrophysik der patriarchalischen Macht (Women, Bodies, The Arts: Microphysics of Patriarchal Power) mentioned in Flynn, Caryl: The New German Cinema. Music, History, and the Matter of Style, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London 2004
  12. "Lesbenklassiker: Anna und Edith (mit Galerie)". Queer.de. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
  13. "TV Produktionen: Ziegler Film". Archived from the original on June 21, 2011. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
  14. cf. Perincioli, Rentmeister: Computer und Kreativität: Ein Kompendium für Computer-Grafik, – Animation, -Musik und Video, Köln 1990
  15. "ZKM | MultiMediale 1". On1.zkm.de. 1989-10-30. Archived from the original on 2009-11-20. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
  16. "4uman.info". 4uman.info. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
  17. "gewaltschutz.info". gewaltschutz.info. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
  18. "save-selma.de". save-selma.de. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
  19. "ava2.de". ava2.de. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
  20. "spass-oder-gewalt.de". spass-oder-gewalt.de. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
  21. "pilotinnen.net". pilotinnen.net. 2013-08-31. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
  22. "zur Person – CV | Cillie (Cäcilia) Rentmeister: Publikationen". Cillie-rentmeister.de. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
  23. "Pilotinnen & Technikkultur | Cillie (Cäcilia) Rentmeister: Publikationen". Cillie-rentmeister.de. 2010-08-09. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
  24. "zur Person – CV | Cillie (Cäcilia) Rentmeister: Publikationen". Cillie-rentmeister.de. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
  25. "Lehrpreis 2010 an Prof. Dr. Cäcilia Rentmeister". Idw-online.de. 2010-09-30. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
  26. Cäcilia Rentmeister: Berufsverbot für die Musen - Warum sind so viele Allegorien weiblich?, in: “Ästhetik und Kommunikation”, Nr. 25/1976, S. 93. English Summary: The Muses, Banned From Their Occupations: Why Are There So Many Allegories Female, in: Kvinnovetenskaplig Tidskrift, Nr.4. 1981, Lund, Sweden, p.87; as PDF
  27. 1 2 Das Rätsel der Sphinx – Matriarchatsthesen und die Archäologie des nicht-ödipalen Dreiecks, in: Brigitte Wartmann (Hrsg.): Männlich – Weiblich. Berlin 1980
  28. Margrit Kennedy: Zur Wiederentdeckung weiblicher Prinzipien in der Architektur“, in: bauwelt 1979, H. 31-32, p.1283; full text of this bauwelt edition
  29. "Paola Coppola Pignatelli: Spazio e Immaginario: maschile e femminile in architettura, Roma 1982, pp. 203-206". W3.uniroma1.it. Archived from the original on 2012-03-20. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
  30. Christa Wolf: Voraussetzungen einer Erzählung: Kassandra. Darmstadt/Neuwied 1983, p.80, p.159
  31. Sabine Herzog: Das Matriarchat als geschlechtssymmetrische Herrschaftsform (Matriarchy as Gendersymmetric Rule), Münster 2001, p.17.
  32. "...I use it here in the literal and meaningful translation of mother-beginning - not the mother's rule.", c.f. Cäcilia Rentmeister: Das Rätsel der Sphinx – Matriarchatsthesen und die Archäologie des nicht-ödipalen Dreiecks (The Riddle of the Sphinx – Theses on Matriarchies and the Archaeology of the Non-Oedipal Triangle), in: Brigitte Wartmann (Ed.): Männlich – Weiblich. Berlin 1980, p.155
  33. Cillie Rentmeister: Frauenwelten – Männerwelten, Opladen 1985, p.32; For more recent references to Rentmeister's definitions see Becker/Kortendieck/Budrich 2004
  34. Cillie Rentmeister: Frauenwelten – Männerwelten (Women's Worlds – Men's Worlds), Opladen 1985, p.31; see also Rentmeister in Wartmann 1980, op.cit., p.155
  35. Cillie Rentmeister: Frauenwelten: fern, vergangen, fremd? Die Matriarchatsdebatte in der Neuen Frauenbewegung, in: Ina-Maria Greverus  (de ) (Ed.): Kulturkontakt – Kulturkonflikt. Zur Erfahrung des Fremden. Beiträge zum 26. Deutschen Volkskundekongreß 1987. Frankfurt/Main 1988
  36. "''Entwicklung ist weiblich. Über den Zusammenhang zwischen Gleichberechtigung, Reproduktiven Rechten und Menschlicher Entwicklung'' (''Development is Female. On Correlations between Equality of Sexes, Reproductive Rights and Human Development''), in: Rehklau/Lutz (Eds.): Sozialarbeit des Südens, Band 1, S. 91-122, with illustrations, Oldenburg 2007. Full text version". Cillie-rentmeister.de. 1984-02-15. Retrieved 2014-06-05.