C. V. Raman

Last updated

Sir Chandrashekhara Venkata Raman

CV Raman 1971 stamp of India.jpg
Sir Chandrashekhara Venkata Raman Commemorative Stamp
Born(1888-11-07)7 November 1888
Died21 November 1970(1970-11-21) (aged 82)
Alma mater Presidency College, University of Madras
Known for Raman effect
Spouse(s)Lokasundari Ammal (1907–1970)
Awards Matteucci Medal (1928)
Knight Bachelor (1929)
Hughes Medal (1930)
Nobel Prize in Physics (1930)
Bharat Ratna (1954)
Lenin Peace Prize (1957)

Fellow of the Royal Society [1]
Scientific career
Fields Physics
Institutions Indian Finance Department [2]
University of Calcutta
Banaras Hindu University
Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science
Indian Institute of Science
Raman Research Institute
Doctoral students G. N. Ramachandran
Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai
Shivaramakrishnan Pancharatnam
K. S. Viswanathan
Other notable students Kariamanickam Srinivasa Krishnan
K. R. Ramanathan
Chandrashekhara Venkata Raman, signature.svg

Sir Chandrashekhara Venkata Raman [1] ( /ˈrɑːmən/ ; [3] 7 November 1888 21 November 1970) was an Indian physicist born in the former Madras Province in India (presently the state of Tamil Nadu), who carried out ground-breaking work in the field of light scattering, which earned him the 1930 Nobel Prize for Physics and was the first person in Asia to obtain said award for achievements in science. He discovered that when light traverses a transparent material, some of the deflected light changes wavelength and amplitude. This phenomenon, subsequently known as Raman scattering, results from the Raman effect. [4] In 1954, the Indian government honoured him with India's highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna. [5] [6]

India Country in South Asia

India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Tamil Nadu State in Southern India

Tamil Nadu, is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. It is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, and Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, and by the Indian Ocean on the south. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka.

Raman scattering inelastic scattering of a photon by molecules

Raman scattering or the Raman effect is the inelastic scattering of photons by matter, meaning that there is an exchange of energy and a change in the light's direction. Typically this involves vibrational energy being gained by a molecule as incident photons from a visible laser are shifted to lower energy. This is called normal Stokes Raman scattering. The effect is exploited by chemists and physicists to gain information about materials for a variety of purposes by performing various forms of Raman spectroscopy. Many other variants of Raman spectroscopy allow Rotational energy to be examined and electronic energy levels may be examined if an X-ray source is used in addition to other possibilities. More complex techniques involving pulsed lasers, multiple laser beams and so on are known.


Early life and education

C. V. Raman was born in Trichy, Tamil Nadu to Tamil parents,Chandrashekaran Ramanathan Iyer and Parvathi Ammal. Raman's father was a lecturer who taught mathematics and physics in Mrs A.V. Narasimha Rao College in Visakhapatnam (then Vishakapatnam) in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, and later joined Presidency College in Madras (now Chennai). [2] [7]

Tamils Ethnic group

The Tamil people, also known as Tamilians, Tamilar, Thamizhar, or simply Tamils, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak the Tamil language as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to Southern India and north-eastern Sri Lanka. Tamils constitute 5.9% of the population in India, 15% in Sri Lanka, 6% in Mauritius, 7% in Malaysia and 5% in Singapore.

Mrs. A.V.N. College, founded in 1860, is an arts and science college in Visakhapatnam in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India.

Visakhapatnam Metropolis in Andhra Pradesh, India

Visakhapatnam and Waltair ) is the largest city and the financial capital of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The city is the administrative headquarters of Visakhapatnam district and state headquarters of Indian Coast Guard. Its geographical location is amidst the Eastern Ghats and the coast of the Bay of Bengal. It is the most populous city in the state with a population of 2,035,922 as of 2011, making it the 14th-largest city in the country. It is also the ninth-most populous metropolitan area in India with a population of 5,018,000. With an output of $43.5.billion, Visakhapatnam is the ninth-largest contributor to India's overall gross domestic product as of 2016.

At an early age, Raman moved to the city of Visakhapatnam and studied at St Aloysius Anglo-Indian High School. Raman passed matriculation at age 11 and the FA examination (equivalent to today's Intermediate exam, PUCPDC and +2) with a scholarship at age 13.

The pre-university course or pre-degree course, popularly abbreviated to PUC or PDC, is an intermediate course of two years' duration, conducted by state education institutions or boards in India. This pre-university course is also known as the Plus-two or Intermediate course. A person desiring admission to an Indian university must pass this course, which can be considered as a degree bridge course to prepare students for university education.

In 1902,Raman joined Presidency College in Madras where his father was a Lecturer in Mathematics and Physics. [8] In 1904 he obtained a BA degree from the University of Madras, where he stood first and won the gold medal in Physics. In 1907 he completed an MSc degree at the University of Madras with highest distinction. [2]

A Bachelor of Arts is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both. Bachelor of Arts programs generally take three to four years depending on the country, institution, and specific specializations, majors, or minors. The word baccalaureus should not be confused with baccalaureatus, which refers to the one- to two-year postgraduate Bachelor of Arts with Honors degree in some countries.

University of Madras public university in India

University of Madras is a public state university in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Established in 1857, it is one of the oldest universities in India. The university was incorporated by an Act of the Legislative Council of India.


Discovery of the Raman effect

In the year 1917, Raman resigned from his government service[ clarification needed ] after he was appointed the first Palit Professor of Physics at the University of Calcutta. At the same time, he continued doing research at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS) in Calcutta, where he became the Honorary Secretary. Raman referred to this period as the golden era of his career. In 1926 Prof. Raman established the Indian Journal of Physics as the first editor. [9] The second volume of the Journal published his famous article "A New Radiation", [10] reporting the discovery of the Raman Effect.

The Palit Chair of Physics is a physics professorship in the University of Calcutta, India. The post is named after Sir Taraknath Palit who donated Rs. 1.5 million to the university. The Nobel laureate physicist C. V. Raman was the first to be appointed to the post of Palit Professor of Physics in 1917. At present the holder of the chair is Amitava Raychaudhuri.

University of Calcutta public state university in Kolkata, West Bengal

The University of Calcutta is a collegiate public state university located in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. It was established on 24 January 1857, and was one of the first institutions in Asia to be established as a multidisciplinary and Western-style university. Within India it is recognized as a "Five-Star University" and accredited "A" Grade by National Assessment and Accreditation Council. It was declared a "Centre with Potential for Excellence In Particular Area" and a "University with potential for excellence" by the UGC.

Energy level diagram showing the states involved in Raman signal Raman energy levels.svg
Energy level diagram showing the states involved in Raman signal
Raman at the 1930 Nobel Prize Award Ceremony with other winners, from left C. V. Raman (physics), Hans Fischer (chemistry), Karl Landsteiner (medicine) and Sinclair Lewis (literature) Nobel ceremony 1930.jpg
Raman at the 1930 Nobel Prize Award Ceremony with other winners, from left C. V. Raman (physics), Hans Fischer (chemistry), Karl Landsteiner (medicine) and Sinclair Lewis (literature)

On 28 February 1928, Raman led an experiment with K. S. Krishnan, on the scattering of light, when he discovered what now is called the Raman effect. [11] A detailed account of this period is reported in the biography by G. Venkataraman. [6] It was instantly clear that this discovery was of huge value. It gave further proof of the quantum nature of light. Raman had a complicated professional relationship with K. S. Krishnan, who surprisingly did not share the award, but is mentioned prominently even in the Nobel lecture. [12]

K. S. Krishnan Indian physicist

Sir Kariamanickam Srinivasa Krishnan, FRS, was an Indian physicist. He was a co-discoverer of Raman scattering, for which his mentor C. V. Raman was awarded the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics.

The field of Raman spectroscopy came to be based on this phenomenon, and Ernest Rutherford referred to it in his presidential address to the Royal Society in 1929. Raman was president of the 16th session of the Indian Science Congress in 1929. He was conferred a knighthood, medals and honorary doctorates by various universities. Raman was confident that he would win the Nobel Prize in Physics as well but was disappointed when the Nobel Prize went to Owen Richardson in 1928 and to Louis de Broglie in 1929. He was so confident of winning the prize in 1930 that he booked tickets in July, even though the awards were to be announced in November, and would scan each day's newspaper for announcement of the prize, tossing it away if it did not carry the news. [13] He did eventually win the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the Raman effect". [14] He was the first Asian and first non-white to receive any Nobel Prize in the sciences. Before him Rabindranath Tagore (also Indian) had received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913.

Later work

Raman and Suri Bhagavantam determined the spin of photons in 1932, which further confirmed the quantum nature of light. [15]

Raman had association with the Banaras Hindu University in Varanasi; he attended the foundation ceremony of BHU [16] and delivered lectures on Mathematics and "Some new paths in physics" during the lecture series organised at BHU from 5 to 8 February 1916. [17] He also held the position of permanent visiting professor at BHU. [18]

Raman also worked on the acoustics of musical instruments. He worked out the theory of transverse vibration of bowed strings, on the basis of superposition of velocities. He was also the first to investigate the harmonic nature of the sound of Indian drums such as the tabla and the mridangam. [19] He was also interested in the properties of other musical instruments based on forced vibrations such as the violin. He also investigated the propagation of sound in whispering galleries. [20] Raman's work on acoustics was an important prelude, both experimentally and conceptually, to his later work on optics and quantum mechanics. [21]

Raman and his student, Nagendra Nath, provided the correct theoretical explanation for the acousto-optic effect (light scattering by sound waves), in a series of articles resulting in the celebrated Raman–Nath theory. [22] Modulators, and switching systems based on this effect have enabled optical communication components based on laser systems.

Raman was succeeded by Debendra Mohan Bose as the Palit Professor in 1932. In 1933, Raman left IACS to join Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore as its first Indian director. [23] Other investigations carried out by Raman were experimental and theoretical studies on the diffraction of light by acoustic waves of ultrasonic and hypersonic frequencies (published 1934–1942), and those on the effects produced by X-rays on infrared vibrations in crystals exposed to ordinary light.

During his tenure at IISc, he recruited G. N. Ramachandran, who later went on to become a distinguished X-ray crystallographer.

He also started a company called Travancore Chemical and Manufacturing Co. Ltd. (now known as TCM Limited) which manufactured potassium chlorate for the match industry [24] in 1943 along with Dr. Krishnamurthy.[ who? ] The Company subsequently established four factories in Southern India. In 1947, he was appointed as the first National Professor by the new government of Independent India. [25]

In 1948, Raman, through studying the spectroscopic behaviour of crystals, approached in a new manner fundamental problems of crystal dynamics. He dealt with the structure and properties of diamond, the structure and optical behaviour of numerous iridescent substances including labradorite, pearly feldspar, agate, opal, and pearls. Among his other interests were the optics of colloids, electrical and magnetic anisotropy, and the physiology of human vision.

Raman retired from the Indian Institute of Science in 1948 and established the Raman Research Institute in Bangalore a year later. He served as its director and remained active there until his death in 1970, in Bangalore, at the age of 82.

Personal life

Raman was married on 6 May 1907 to Lokasundari Ammal (1892–1980). [26] They had two sons, Chandrashekhar and radio-astronomer Radhakrishnan.

Raman was the paternal uncle of Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, who later won the Nobel Prize in Physics (1983) for his discovery of the Chandrasekhar limit in 1931 and for his subsequent work on the nuclear reactions necessary for stellar evolution. [27]

Throughout his life, Raman developed an extensive personal collection of stones, minerals, and materials with interesting light-scattering properties, which he obtained from his world travels and as gifts. [28] He often carried a small, handheld spectroscope to study specimens. [29] These are on display at the Raman Research Institute, where he worked and taught.


The Nobel Prize

In the past, several questions were raised about Raman not sharing the Prize with the Russian scientists G.S. Landsberg and L.I. Mandelstam, who had observed the same effect in the case of crystals. According to the Physics Nobel Committee: (1) The Russians did not come to an independent interpretation of their discovery as they cited Raman's article. (2) They observed the effect only in crystals, whereas Raman and K.S. Krishnan in solids, liquids and gases. With that, he proved the universal nature of the effect. (3) The uncertainties concerning the explanation of the intensity of Raman and Infrared lines in the spectra could be explained during the last year.[ clarification needed ] (4) The Raman method has been applied with great success in different fields of molecular physics. (5) The Raman effect has effectively helped to check the actual problems of the symmetry—properties of molecules thus the problems concerning the nuclear-spin in atomic physics. The Nobel Committee proposed Raman's name to the Swedish National Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, for the Nobel Prize for the year 1930. [30]

Lattice dynamics

"At the end of the 1930s and the beginning of the 1940s, scientists observed diffuse spots in X-ray Laue photographs that were difficult to explain theoretically. Already at this stage, Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman suggested a theory of his own and criticised alternative solutions that were largely based on thermal theories proposed by Max Born and Peter Debye. This led to a conflict between Born and Raman. In this dispute, Born received support from the British crystallographer Kathleen Lonsdale. [31] The dispute between Raman and Born involved scientific as well as social elements. Whereas Raman's support came mainly from his own experiments and from his colleagues in Bangalore, Born used his social and professional network to enlist scientists as allies for his cause. Although initially, in the early 1940s, Born's theory was not generally accepted even in England, he eventually succeeded in marginalising the rival theory of Raman. The controversy has often been dealt with by physicists and historians of science, who, however, have too often relied on Born's autobiographical work. As has been shown, parts of this work, especially as it relates to Born's Indian visit and his contact with Raman, need careful and critical reading. In particular, the issue of Raman's resignation from the directorship of the IISc had nothing to do with Born's stay in India, such as indicated in his autobiography." [32] Up to some extent, this controversy led to the fact that Max Born had to wait for the Nobel Prize. [33]


During a voyage to Europe in 1921, Raman noticed the blue colour of glaciers and the Mediterranean sea. He was motivated to discover the reason for the navy blue colour. Raman carried out experiments regarding the scattering of light by water and transparent blocks of ice which explained the phenomenon.

Raman employed monochromatic light from a mercury arc lamp which penetrated transparent material and was allowed to fall on a spectrograph to record its spectrum. He detected lines in the spectrum, which were later called Raman lines. He presented his theory at a meeting of scientists in Bangalore on 16 March 1928, and won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930. In Munich, some physicists were initially unable to reproduce Raman's results, leading to scepticism. However, Peter Pringsheim was the first German to reproduce Raman's results successfully. He sent spectra to Arnold Sommerfeld. Pringsheim was the first to coin the term "Raman effect" and "Raman lines." [34]

Honours and awards

Bust of Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman which is placed in the garden of Birla Industrial & Technological Museum. CV Raman bust BITM.JPG
Bust of Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman which is placed in the garden of Birla Industrial & Technological Museum.

Raman was honoured with a large number of honorary doctorates and memberships of scientific societies.

India celebrates National Science Day on 28 February of every year to commemorate the discovery of the Raman effect in 1928. [38] Postal stamps featuring Raman were issued in 1971 and 2009. [39]

Archive of Raman Research Papers

The Raman Research Institute, founded by Raman after his tenure at IISc, curates a collection of Raman's research papers, and articles on the web. [40]


At the end of October 1970, Raman collapsed in his laboratory; the valves of his heart had given way. He was moved to the hospital and the doctors gave him four days to live. He survived and after a few days he refused to stay in the hospital as he preferred to die in the gardens of his Institute surrounded by his followers. [41]

Two days before Raman died, he told one of his former students, "Do not allow the journals of the Academy to die, for they are the sensitive indicators of the quality of science being done in the country and whether science is taking root in it or not." That evening, Raman met with the Board of Management of his Institute and discussed (from his bed) with them any proceedings with regards to the Institute's management. Raman died from natural causes early next morning on 21 November 1970. [41]

Posthumous recognition and contemporary references

See also

Related Research Articles

Indian Institute of Science public university for scientific research and higher education in Bengaluru

Indian Institute of Science (IISc) is a public institute deemed to be university for research and higher education in science and engineering, located in Bangalore in the Indian state of Karnataka. The institute was established in 1909 with active support from Jamsetji Tata and Krishna Raja Wadiyar IV and thus is also locally known as the "Tata Institute". It was granted the deemed to be university status in 1958 and the Institute of Eminence status in 2018.

Satyendra Nath Bose Indian physicist and polymath from Bengal

Satyendra Nath Bose, was an Indian physicist specialising in theoretical physics. He is best known for his work on quantum mechanics in the early 1920s, providing the foundation for Bose–Einstein statistics and the theory of the Bose–Einstein condensate. A Fellow of the Royal Society, he was awarded India's second highest civilian award, the Padma Vibhushan in 1954 by the Government of India.

Chandrashekhar or Chandra Shekhar is an Indian name and may refer to a number of individuals. The name comes from the name of an incarnation of the Hindu god Shiva. In this form he married the goddess Parvati. Etymologically, the name comes from the Sanskrit words "चन्द्र (candra)", meaning "moon", and "शेखर (śekhara)", meaning "crest" or "crown", which is an epithet of the Shiva. The name may refer to:

Grigory Landsberg Soviet physicist

Grigory Samuilovich Landsberg was a Soviet physicist who worked in the fields of optics and spectroscopy. Together with Leonid Mandelstam he co-discoverer inelastic combinatorial scattering of light, which known as Raman scattering.

G. N. Ramachandran Indian physicist (1922–2001)

Gopalasamudram Narayanan Ramachandran, or G.N. Ramachandran, FRS was an Indian physicist who was known for his work that led to his creation of the Ramachandran plot for understanding peptide structure. He was the first to propose a triple-helical model for the structure of collagen. He subsequently went on to make other major contributions in biology and physics.

Rappal Sangameswaran Krishnan was an Indian experimental physicist and scientist. He was the Head of the department of Physics at the Indian Institute of Science and the vice chancellor of the University of Kerala. He is known for his pioneering researches on colloid optics and a discovery which is now known as Krishnan Effect. He was a Fellow of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Indian National Science Academy and the Institute of Physics, London and a recipient of the C. V. Raman Prize.

Raman Research Institute

Raman Research Institute (RRI) is an institute of scientific research located in Bangalore, India. It was founded by Nobel laureate C. V. Raman. Although it began as an institute privately owned by Sir C. V. Raman, it is now funded by the government of India.

Narayanasami Sathyamurthy Indian chemist

Narayansami Sathyamurthy is a chemist in India. He is the founding director of the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), Mohali, Punjab, India and the President of Chemical Research Society of India.

Leonid Mandelstam Soviet physicist

Leonid Isaakovich Mandelstam or Mandelshtam was a Soviet physicist of Belarusian-Jewish background.

Kotcherlakota Rangadhama Rao physicist

Prof. Kotcherlakota Rangadhama Rao was an Indian physicist in the field of Spectroscopy.

Suri Bhagavantam was an Indian scientist and administrator. He was Vice chancellor of Osmania University and Director of Indian Institute of Science and Defence Research and Development Organisation.

Debendra Mohan Bose Indian physicist

Debendra Mohan Bose was an Indian physicist who made well-known contributions in the field of cosmic rays, artificial radioactivity and neutron physics. He was the longest serving Director (1938–1967) of Bose Institute. Prior to that, he succeeded Sir C. V. Raman as the Palit Professor of Physics at University of Calcutta in 1932. He served as the President of the Indian Science News Association, and was the editor of its journal Science and Culture for about 25 years. He also served as the treasurer of the Visva-Bharati University.

Ajay K. Sood Indian physicist

Ajay Kumar Sood FNA, FASc, FNASc, FRS, FTWAS is an Indian physicist, researcher and holder of 2 US and 5 Indian patents, known for his pioneering research findings on graphene and nanotechnology. He is a Distinguished Honorary Professor of Physics at Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. The Government of India honoured him in 2013, with the Padma Shri, the fourth highest civilian award, for his contributions to the fields of science and technology. Sood was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 2015.

The Chandrasekhar family is a distinguished Indian intellectual family, several of whose members achieved eminence, notably in the field of physics. Two members of the family, Sir C. V. Raman and his nephew, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, were Nobel laureates in physics.

Sudhanshu Shekhar Jha is an Indian condensed matter physicist and a former director of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. Known for his research in optoelectronics, Jha is an elected fellow of all the three major Indian science academies – Indian National Science Academy, National Academy of Sciences, India and Indian Academy of Sciences – as well as of The World Academy of Sciences and American Physical Society. The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, the apex agency of the Government of India for scientific research, awarded him the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology, one of the highest Indian science awards, for his contributions to Physical Sciences in 1979.

Raman is a name of Indian origin, used both as a family name and as both a feminine and a masculine given name. Raman is a masculine given name of Belarusian origin. There may be other origins also.

Bidhu Bhushan Ray

Bidhu Bhushan Ray was an Indian physicist. He was a pioneer in the field of X-ray spectroscopy, and his laboratory was the first of its kind in India. Also notable are his contributions to studies related to scattering of light in the atmosphere. He played a significant role in facilitating contacts between Indian and European scientists. He was elected Fellow, Indian National Science Academy, and held the post of Khaira Professor of Physics at the University of Calcutta at the time of his death.

Anil Kumar (physicist)

Anil Kumar is an Indian experimental physicist known for his work in the field of Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. He is a professor at the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore.


  1. 1 2 3 Bhagavantam, S. (1971). "Chandrashekhara Venkata Raman 1888–1970". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society . 17: 564–592. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1971.0022.
  2. 1 2 3 The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930 Sir Venkata Raman, Official Nobel prize biography, nobelprize.org
  3. "Raman effect". Collins English Dictionary .
  4. "Sir Venkata Raman – Biographical". Nobel Prize – Official website. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
  5. "Raman, Sir Chandrashekhara Venkata". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2007. Retrieved 11 September 2007.
  6. 1 2 Venkataraman, G. (1988) Journey into Light: Life and Science of C. V. Raman. Oxford University Press. ISBN   818532400X.
  7. Prasar, Vigyan. "Chandrashekhara Venkata Raman A Legend of Modern Indian Science". Government of India. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 7 November 2013.
  8. This Month in Physics History February 1928: Raman scattering discovered APS News Archives February 2009 vol.18 no.2
  9. "Indian Journal of Physics". 1926.
  10. Raman, C. V. (1927). "A New Radiation". Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  11. "Raman Effect Visualized" . Retrieved 15 May 2014.
  12. Sir Chandrasekhara V. Raman (11 December 1930). "The molecular scattering of light (Nobel Lecture)" (PDF). NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  13. Venkataraman, G. (1995), Raman and His Effect, Orient Blackswan, p. 50, ISBN   9788173710087
  14. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  15. The spin of the photon. Nature Physics Portal
  16. Singh, Binay (8 November 2013). "BHU preserves CV Raman's association with university". The Times of India. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
  17. Dwivedi, B. N. (2011). "Madan Mohan Malaviya and Banaras Hindu University" (PDF). Current Science. 101 (8): 1091–1095.
  18. Prakash, Satya (20 May 2014). Vision for Science Education. Allied Publishers. p. 45. ISBN   978-8184249088.
  19. Raman, C.V.; Sivakali Kumar (1920). "Musical drums with harmonic overtones". Nature. 104 (2620): 500. Bibcode:1920Natur.104..500R. doi:10.1038/104500a0.
  20. Raman, C.V. (1922). "On whispering galleries" (PDF). Bulletin of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science. 7: 159–172.
  21. Banerjee, Somaditya (2014). "C. V. Raman and Colonial Physics: Acoustics and the Quantum". Physics in Perspective. 16 (2): 146–178. Bibcode:2014PhP....16..146B. doi:10.1007/s00016-014-0134-8.
  22. C. V. Raman, N. S. Nagendra Nath, "The diffraction of light by high frequency sound waves. Part I", Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci., 1935
  23. "Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (1876–)". Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science.
  24. "About us". TCM Limited – Official website. Archived from the original on 1 March 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
  25. Parameswaran, Umma (2011). C.V.Raman : A biography. India: Penguin. ISBN   978-0143066897.
  26. Raman, Sir (Chandrashekhara) Venkata. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography . Oxford University Press. 2004.
  27. "S Chandrasekhar: Why Google honours him". Al Jazeera . 19 October 2017. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  28. Periodic Videos (28 January 2015), Diamonds, Pearls and Atomic Bomb Stones – Periodic Table of Videos , retrieved 12 November 2018
  29. Periodic Videos (28 January 2015), Special Spectroscope – Periodic Table of Videos , retrieved 12 November 2018
  30. Singh, Rajinder; Riess, Falk (2001). "The Nobel Prize for Physics in 1930 – A close decision?". Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. 55 (2): 267–283. doi:10.1098/rsnr.2001.0143.
  31. Singh, Ravinder. "Sir CV Raman' Dame Kathleen Lonsdale and their Scientific Controversy due to the Diffuse Spots in X–ray Photographs" (PDF). Indian Journal of History of Science. 37 (3): 267–290.
  32. Singh, Rajinder (2008). "Max Born's Role in the Lattice Dynamic Controversy". Centaurus. 43 (3–4): 260–277. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0498.2000.cnt430306.x.
  33. Singh, Rajinder; Riess, Falk (2013). "Belated Nobel Prize for Max Born F.R.S." (PDF). Indian Journal of History of Science. 48: 79–104.
  34. Singh Rajinder (2002). "C.V. Raman and the Discovery of the Raman Effect". Physics in Perspective. 4 (4): 399–420. Bibcode:2002PhP.....4..399S. doi:10.1007/s000160200002.
  35. Singh, Rajinder (2002). "The Story of C.V. Raman's resignation from the Fellowship of the Royal Society London" (PDF). Current Science. 83 (9): 1157–1158.
  36. "Padma Awards Directory (1954–2007)" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 April 2009. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  37. "C. V. Raman: The Raman Effect". American Chemical Society. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  38. "Science Day: Remembering Raman". Zee News. India. 27 February 2009.
  39. File:CV Raman 1971 stamp of India.jpg, File:CV Raman 2009 stamp of India.jpg
  40. The Raman papers archive curated by Raman Research Institute, Bangalore, India. C.V. Raman and his work
  41. 1 2 C.V. Raman: a pictorial biography. Indian Academy of Sciences. 1988. p. 177. ISBN   9788185324074 . Retrieved 26 February 2018.
  42. "C.V.Raman Marg". New Delhi. Wikimapia. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
  43. "C.V.Raman nagar". Google Maps. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
  44. "C.V.Raman road- Bangalore". Google Maps. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
  45. "Center of Nano science and engineering". Indian Institute of Sciences. Archived from the original on 25 August 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
  46. "Sir C.V. Raman Hospital starts integrated health unit". The Hindu. 5 May 2017. ISSN   0971-751X . Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  47. "Google doodle to honour Dr. C.V.Raman". Uncle Penkle website. Archived from the original on 4 February 2015. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
  48. "C.V. Raman's 125th Birthday". 7 November 2013.
  49. "Google doodle honours Indian physicist Dr. C. V. Raman". Times Feed. 6 November 2013. Archived from the original on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
  50. "About Us". Raman Science Center. Retrieved 21 February 2019.

Further reading