COVID-19 vaccination in Vietnam

Last updated

COVID-19 vaccination in Vietnam
COVID-19 Vaccination in Vietnam.svg
Number of administered second doses (by percentage of total population):
  20-40%
  41-60%
  61-80%
  81-90%
  91-100%
DateMarch 8, 2021 (2021-03-08)present
LocationFlag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam
Cause COVID-19 pandemic in Vietnam
TargetImmunization against COVID-19
Budget25.2 trillion VND ($1.1 billion USD) [1] [2]
Organised by Vietnam's Ministry of Health
Participants79,947,189 [3] people with at least one dose administered of COVID-19 vaccine.
77,754,108 [3] people have been fully vaccinated.
Outcome81.44 [3] percent of the Vietnamese population has received at least one dose.
79.2 [3] percent of the Vietnamese population is fully vaccinated.
CoronavirusdataexplorerVietnam.svg
Number of people who received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine in Vietnam
Daily COVID-19 vaccine doses administered in Vietnam.svg
Daily COVID-19 vaccine doses administered in Vietnam (Rolling 7-day average)

The COVID-19 vaccination in Vietnam is an ongoing immunization campaign against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in response to the ongoing pandemic in the country. Following the approval of the Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine on 30 January 2021, vaccinations commenced on 8 March 2021, and will continue throughout the year with the goal of vaccinating 80% of the population by June 2022. [4] The Sputnik V was later approved for use on 23 March 2021. [5] The Sinopharm BIBP vaccine was approved for emergency use on 4 June 2021, [6] while Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, Moderna COVID-19 vaccine and Janssen COVID-19 vaccine were approved on 12 June 2021, [7] 29 June 2021, [8] [9] and 15 July 2021, [10] [11] respectively. Vietnam approved Abdala vaccine from Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology on 18 September 2021, [12] and Covaxin from Bharat Biotech on 10 November 2021. [13] [14]

Contents

This is the country's largest-ever immunization campaign, aiming to administer over 150 million doses. [15] As of 06 April 2022, Vietnam has administered 207,235,119 vaccine doses across the country. [16]

History

The handover ceremony of COVID-19 vaccine for Vietnam from COVAX Facility in 2021. COVAX Vietnam campaign (2021).jpg
The handover ceremony of COVID-19 vaccine for Vietnam from COVAX Facility in 2021.

In August 2020, the Vietnamese government announced that they had signed up for 50 to 150 million doses of Sputnik V vaccine from Russia. The Russians will also donate a number of machines, biological products and equipment to Vietnam for COVID-19 prevention, including their vaccine. In the meantime, Vietnamese researchers will still continue developing the country's own vaccine. [17] [18] In early June, Minister of Health Nguyen Thanh Long confirmed that Russia had agreed to provide Vietnam with 20 million doses of Sputnik V in 2021. Vabiotech will also start packaging Sputnik V vaccine in Vietnam from July, with a monthly capacity of five million doses. [19] On 21 July 2021, it was announced that a batch of Sputnik V had been produced for the first time in Vietnam by Vabiotech. [20] [21] [22] Before that, on 12 July 2021, the Government allowed T&T Group to negotiate with the Direct Investment Fund of the Russian Federation (RDIF) for 40 million additional doses of Sputnik V vaccine, using its own fund; not from the government budget or Vietnam's vaccine fund. [23] [24] On August 4, 2021, Vimedimex signed an import contract with an UAE-based company called Royal Strategics Partners, for 10 million doses of COVID-19 Janssen vaccine; 5 million doses of COVID-19 vaccine Pfizer; 10 million doses of COVID-19 vaccine Sputnik V. Currently, the parties are completing legal documents to submit to the Ministry of Health for an import license. [25] [26] [27] [28]

In February 2021, the Ministry of Health suggested the government to approve COVID-19 vaccines from AstraZeneca, Gamaleya, and Moderna for domestic inoculation to prevent and control the ongoing pandemic in the country. [29] National Deployment and Vaccination plan (NDVP) was signed off by Deputy Minister of Health on 9 February 2021. Vietnam will receive the feedback of the plan from NDVP review committee as one of the required steps to receive COVID-19 vaccines through COVAX Facility  – a global mechanism for developing, manufacturing, supplying and procuring COVID-19 vaccines for all country, especially for low and middle-income economies. [30] Through COVAX, it is confirmed that Vietnam will receive 38.9 million doses of COVID vaccine in 2021. [31] The first batch of vaccines sourced via Covax mechanism, containing 811,200 doses, arrived in Hanoi's Noi Bai International Airport on 1 April 2021. [32] On 6 July, it was confirmed that the United States would send Vietnam two million doses of Moderna COVID-19 vaccine via Covax mechanism. [33] 10 days later, on 16 July, the US embassy in Hanoi informed the Ministry of Health that the country will support Vietnam with 3 million additional doses of Moderna vaccine. [34] On 25 July, the Ministry of Health said that Vietnam had received 3,000,060 doses of Moderna vaccine donated to COVAX by the US Government. 1,499,960 doses were delivered to Ho Chi Minh City on July 24 and 1,500,100 doses arrived in Hanoi on 25 July. [35] [36] On 25 August 2021, during a meeting in Hanoi, US Vice President Kamala Harris announced the donation of 1 million Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine doses to Vietnam, which would begin arriving within the next 24 hours. [37] [38] [39] The United States sent Vietnam 1.5 million doses of Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine via Covax mechanism on 2 October 2021, [40] [41] [42] 608,400 doses on 7 October and 397,800 doses on 8 October. [43] On 24 and 25 October 2021, more than 2.6 million doses of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine donated to COVAX by the US Government arrived in Vietnam. [44] [45]

AstraZeneca has also pledged to provide Vietnam with around 30 million doses via VNVC. [46] [47] [48] Besides the deal with AstraZeneca, Vietnam is also stepping up negotiations with other manufacturers. [49] In May 2021, Vietnam struck a deal to buy 31 million vaccine doses made by Pfizer and BioNTech by the end of the year, and also registered to purchase up to 10 million additional doses through COVAX under the cost-sharing scheme. [50] [51] [52] On 14 July 2021, Pfizer committed to supplying Vietnam with 20 million doses of vaccine for children aged 12–18 years in the fourth quarter of 2021. In total, by the end of 2021, Pfizer will have provided 47 million doses of vaccine to Vietnam. [53] Vietnam is also negotiating with India to buy 15 million doses of Covaxin. [54] [55]

In late June, Vietnam also received 500,000 doses of the Sinopharm BIBP vaccine, although the country had not ordered a single dose of this vaccine at that time. [56] [57] In July, The Ministry of Health also allowed a company in Ho Chi Minh City, Sapharco, to import 5 million doses of the Sinopharm BIBP vaccine. This is the second company in Vietnam allowed to import the COVID-19 vaccine, after VNVC. [58] The Sinopharm BIBP vaccine will be administered to Chinese nationals in Vietnam, those wishing to go to, study or work in China and those living in border areas with China. [56] On late July and early August 2021, Ho Chi Minh City received 2 million of the 5 million doses of the vero cell Sinopharm BIBP vaccine purchased by Sapharco. [59] [60] On 23 August, Ministry of Defence of Vietnam also received 200,000 doses of the Sinopharm BIBP vaccine donated by Ministry of National Defense of the People's Republic of China. [61] 1 million doses of the Sinopharm - Hayat vaccine purchased by Vimedimex arrived at Noi Bai Airport on September 29, 2021. [62]

In 2021, Japan has also donated 4.08 million doses of AstraZeneca vaccine to Vietnam, with the first batch arriving on June. [63] [64] On 14 July 2021, the Government of Romania announced the donation of 100,000 AstraZeneca vaccine doses to Vietnam, and considered sending more in the near future. [65] [66] On 19 July, Government of Romania decided to increase the number of vaccines sent to Vietnam to 300,000 doses. This donation arrived in Vietnam on 25 August 2021. [67] [68]

Australia also committed to provide 40 million AUD in aid [69] [70] and 5.2 million doses vaccine for Vietnam. [71] 403,000 doses of the COVID-19 vaccine part of this commitment arrived on 26 August, [72] [73] [74] while another 300,000 doses arrvied on 6 October. [71] On 26 July, the Czech Republic also announced the donation of 250,000 doses of vaccine to Vietnam, and 2 days later, the UK on July 28 also announced that the country would send 415,000 doses of vaccine to Vietnam. [75] Vietnam received 415,000 doses of AstraZeneca vaccine from the UK on 3 August 2021. [76] On August 11, the Hungarian Government decided to donate 100,000 doses of AstraZeneca vaccine to the Vietnam. [77] [78] On 12 August 2021, French President Emmanuel Macron announced the donation of 670,000 doses of vaccine to Vietnam through the COVAX mechanism. [79] In late August 2021, the Polish government also decided to donate more than 501,000 doses of AstraZeneca vaccine to Vietnam, [80] which arrived at Nội Bài International Airport on 21 August. [81] On 25 August 2021, it was announced that the Italian government decided to donate 801,600 doses of AstraZeneca vaccine to Vietnam through the COVAX mechanism and China would donate an additional 2 million doses of vaccine to Vietnam. [82] On 3 September, it was announced that the German Government had decided to donate about 2.5 million doses of AstraZeneca vaccine to Vietnam. [83] 852,480 doses of AstraZeneca vaccine donated by Germany through the COVAX mechanism arrived in Vietnam on 16 September, [84] while another batch of 2.6 million doses of AstraZeneca vaccine arrivied on 26 September. [85]

In September 2021, in total, Italy donated more than 2.8 million doses of AstraZeneca to Vietnam, making Vietnam one of the largest Italian vaccine priority partners globally. [86] [87] [88] Belgium and Slovakia also donated 200,000 doses of AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine to Vietnam. [89] Serbia also decided to send Vietnam 20,000 doses of COVID-19 vaccine. [90] On 12 October 2021, South Korea also decided to donate 1.1 million doses of the AstraZeneca vaccine to Vietnam. [91] [92] [93] On 14 October 2021, 560,000 doses of AstraZeneca vaccine and 12.5 tons of medical supplies from Hungary, Croatia and Slovakia arrived in Vietnam. [94] On 15 October, the Ministry of Health received nearly 2 million doses of AstraZeneca vaccine, 890,000 doses from Poland; 1.1 million doses from South Korea and more than 2 million doses donated by Italy. [95] On 29 October, the Prime Minister of Kuwait decided to donate 500,000 doses of COVID-19 vaccine to Vietnam. [96]

Cuba also made pledges to supply Vietnam with 10 million doses of Abdala COVID-19 vaccine to Vietnam by the end of 2021. [97] On 25 September, 1.05 million doses of Abdala vaccine and many medical equipment arrived in Vietnam after a visit of President Nguyen Xuan Phuc to Cuba. [98]

In July 2021, the Ministry of Health allowed mixing first and second doses of the Oxford-AstraZeneca and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines should there be limited vaccine supply and the vaccinated person agrees. [99]

In late July 2021, Đồng Tháp Province allowed a local company to buy 200,000 doses of Nanocovax vaccine. [100]

On 7 May 2021, Vietnam recorded first death after administered AstraZeneca vaccine. She was a 35-year-old medical staff in An Giang Province. [101] [102]

On 8 September 2021, Vietnam allowed those who received a first dose of Moderna's vaccine to get a different shot when they get their second dose due to the lack of vaccine supply. [103] [104]

On 14 October 2021, the Ministry of Health authorized the use of COVID-19 vaccine for children aged 12 to 17. [105] [106] [107]

On December 10, the city of Ho Chi Minh initiated a campaign to administer third doses of AstraZeneca and Pfizer vaccinations to adults over 50, those with weakened immune systems, and frontline workers. The city plans to vaccinate all adults above the age of 18 with the third dosage in 2022. [108]

Vaccines on order

As of 6 April 2022, a total of 230,910,514 doses have arrived in Vietnam. [16] The government began to procure doses of COVID-19 vaccines from various sources: [109]

VaccineOriginProgressDoses orderedDoses availableApprovalDeploymentNotes
Oxford–AstraZeneca United Kingdom, Swedenphase III clinical trials [110] 55 million [111] 65,223,076 [16] [note 1] Green check.svg 30 January 2021 [112] Green check.svg 8 March 2021 [113] Including additional doses donated by COVAX, and other countries. [114] [115] [76]
Sputnik V Russiaphase III clinical trials30 million [116] [19] [117] 1,608,998 [16] Green check.svg 23 March 2021 [118] Green check.svg March 2021 [119] Including doses donated by Russia. [119] Including 100,000 Sputnik Light doses. [16] Produce in Vietnam by Vabiotech Pharmaceutical.
Sinopharm BIBP Chinaphase III clinical trials33 million [58] [120] 52,261,200 [16] [note 2] Green check.svg 4 June 2021 [121] [57] Green check.svg 10 July 2021 [122] Including additional doses donated by China. [57] [56] [123] [124]
UAE30 million [125] Green check.svg 10 September 2021 [126] Green check.svg 1 October 2021 [127] Under the name Hayat-Vax.
Pfizer–BioNTech Germany, United Statesphase III clinical trials51 million [53] 92,590,080 [16] [note 3] Green check.svg 12 June 2021 [128] Green check.svg 17 July 2021 [129] [130] [131] The first batch was delivered in July 2021. [132]
Including additional doses donated by the United States through COVAX. [133]
Moderna United Statesphase III clinical trials5 million [31] [134] 14,077,160 [16] Green check.svg 29 June 2021 [8] [9] Green check.svg 17 July 2021 [129] [130] [131] Including additional doses donated by COVAX. [33]
Janssen Belgium, Netherlands, United Statesphase III clinical trials10 million [25] NoneGreen check.svg 15 July 2021 [10] [11] Pending
Abdala Cubaphase III clinical trials10 million [97] 5,150,000 [16] Green check.svg 18 September 2021 [12] Green check.svg October 2021 [135]
Covaxin Indiaphase III clinical trialsUnknownNoneGreen check.svg 10 November 2021 [13] [14] Pending
Nanocovax Vietnamphase III clinical trials [1] 200,000 [100] Pending [136] Pending
ARCT-154 United States, Vietnamphase I-III clinical trials
Covivac Vietnamphase II clinical trials [137] Unknown
Vabiotech Vietnamphase I clinical trials [138] Unknown

Local production

VaccineProduction CapacityManufacturerNotes
Nanocovax 8–12 million doses a month [136] Nanogen Pharmaceutical Biotechnology JSCAble to increase capacity to 30–50 million doses a month [136]
Covivac 6–30 million doses a year [147] Institute of Vaccines and Medical Biologicals
Sputnik V 5 million doses a month [146] Vaccine and Biological Production Company No. 1 (Vabiotech) [20] [145]
ARCT-154200 million doses a year [148] Vinbiocare [149]

Vaccines in trial stage

COVID‑19 candidate vaccines
Vaccine candidates,
developers, and sponsors
Type (technology)Current phase (participants)
design
Completed phase (participants)Ref
VBC-COV19-154 COVID-19 vaccine
Arcturus Therapeutics, Vinbiocare
mRNA Phase III (21,000)
Phase I/II/III (21,000): Randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled.
Aug–Dec 2021, Vietnam
Preclinical [150] [151] [152] [153] [154] [155] [156]
Nanocovax
Nanogen Pharmaceutical Biotechnology JSC
Subunit (SARS‑CoV‑2 recombinant spike protein with aluminum adjuvant)Phase III (13,000)
Jun–Sep 2021, Vietnam
Phase I–II (620)
Phase I (60): Open label, dose escalation.
Phase II (560): Randomization, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled.
Dec 2020 Jun 2021, Vietnam
[157] [158] [159] [160] [161]
Covivac
Institute of Vaccines and Medical Biologicals
Viral vector PostponedPhase I–II (495)
Phase I (120): Open label, dose escalation.
Phase II (375): Randomized, observer-blind.
Mar 2021 Dec 2021, Vietnam
[162] [163] [164]
Vabiotech COVID-19 vaccine
Vaccine and Biological Production Company No. 1 (Vabiotech)
Subunit Preclinical
Awaited for the conduct on Phase I trial
? [138]

Rollout plan

A medical staff prepares to inject the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine for journalist at the Ho Chi Minh City Pasteur Institute. Medical staff prepares to inject the AstraZeneca vaccine in HCMC 2021.jpg
A medical staff prepares to inject the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine for journalist at the Ho Chi Minh City Pasteur Institute.

VNVC – the company in charge of importing and storing vaccines in Vietnam, said it is ready to have staff and facilities to store up to 170 million doses of vaccine. It has 49 provincial separate vaccine warehouses, 2 cold conditions warehouses, and 3 deep negative conditions warehouses for storing vaccines at a temperature of -40 to -86°C. In February 2021, the VNVC system's service capacity is up to 100,000 customers per day and can increase capacity to serve up to 4 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines per month. [166]

According to Deputy Minister of Health Tran Van Thuan, to get protection for the majority of the population, Vietnam needs to diversify supplies of vaccines, which including locally manufactured vaccines and maximising the resources from the businesses and local administration's budgets in addition to the government's budget to get the vaccination programme running. The budget needed to give vaccine shots for 20% of the population is estimated at 6.739 trillion VND ($293.67 million USD), but over 90% of this cost is funded by the COVAX Facility. The government will contribute 24 billion VND, the remaining comes from municipal and provincial governments and private sources. [167]

The Ministry of Health on 24 June 2021 established a Steering Committee for the nationwide COVID-19 vaccination campaign. The Steering Committee consists of 5 subcommittees, including: Subcommittee on receiving, transporting and preserving vaccines, Subcommittee on Immunization, Subcommittee on Safety of Vaccination, Subcommittee on quality supervision of vaccines, Subcommittee on Information Technology application of Vaccination management and communication and permanent office of the Steering Committee. [168] The National Steering Committee for the COVID-19 vaccination campaign is headed by the Minister of Health. The command center of the vaccination campaign is located at the Ministry of Defence, led by a Deputy Chief of the General Staff of the People's Army. [169] It is expected that there will be eight vaccine storage warehouses, including one warehouses in each military districts and one at the High Command of Capital Hanoi. When the vaccine arrives at the airport, it will be immediately transferred to the military warehouse. Then the vaccines will be transported by military vehicles to 19,000 vaccination points nationwide. [170] [171]

Progress to date

Vaccination (as of 15 March 2022)
Doses administered [172] 206,460,876
Total population [173] 97,580,000
1st dose2nd dose3rd dose
80,052,06176,435,92549,972,890
Vietnam vaccinations (cumulative)
  First dose  Second and third dose
Vietnam vaccinations (per half-month)
  First dose  Second and third dose

Dose supplied by vaccine product, as of 13 March 2022 [16]

  AstraZeneca (28.83%)
  Sinopharm (23.56%)
  Pfizer and Moderna (44.56%)
  Abdala (2.32%)
  Sputnik V and Sputnik Light (0.73%)

Dose supplied by source, as of 13 March 2022 [16]

  Government procurement (47.94%)
  COVAX (25.62%)
  Foreign government aid (14.33%)
  Private enterprise (12.11%)

In mid-March 2021, Vietnam received 2,000 doses of Sputnik V vaccine donated by the Government of the Russian Federation and used it for nearly 900 people. On 1 August 2021, Vietnam received another 10,000 doses of Sputnik V vaccine donated by the Government of the Russian Federation. [119] 740,000 doses of Sputnik V vaccine, provided by the Russian Direct Investment Fund, arrived at Noi Bai airport, Hanoi, on the afternoon of September 29. [174] [175]

The first batch of vaccines sourced via COVAX mechanism, containing 811,200 doses, arrived in Hanoi's Noi Bai International Airport on 1 April 2021. [32] Vietnam received the second shipment of vaccines sourced via Covax, containing nearly 1,682,400 AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine doses on 16 May. [176] [177] [178] On 2 August 2021, COVAX delivered additional batch containing 1.18 million doses of AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine shipped from Laboratorio Univesal Farma, manufacturing facility in Spain, to Vietnam. [179] [180] On 10 August 2021, Viet Nam received 494,400 doses of COVID-19 vaccine AstraZeneca from the COVAX Facility. [181] [182]

117,600 doses of AstraZeneca's COVID-19 vaccine via VNVC contract arrived at Tan Son Nhat international airport in Ho Chi Minh City on 24 February. [183] Another batch of AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccines containing 288,100 doses arrived at Tan Son Nhat Airport on 25 May. [176] This is the second batch under a contract for 30 million the Ministry of Health and the VNVC have struck with the company. [184] The third batch containing 580,000 AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccines under the VNVC contract arrived at Tan Son Nhat airport, on the morning of 9 July, [185] while another batch with 921,400 doses arrived on 15 July. [186] On 23 July, 1,228,500 doses of AstraZeneca vaccine arrived at Tan Son Nhat International Airport, the largest shipment so far under the contract between Vietnam Vaccine Joint Stock Company (VNVC) and AstraZeneca. [187] [188] On 29 July, another 659,900 doses of AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine arrived at Tan Son Nhat airport. [189] [190] On 6, 13 and 19 August 2021, 592,100, 1,113,400 and 1,209,400 doses of AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine under VNVC contract arrived at Tan Son Nhat airport. [191] [192] [193] Another batch containing 1,442,300 doses of COVID-19 vaccine AstraZeneca, under VNVC contract, arrived at Ho Chi Minh City on 26 August. [194] From 30 August to 1 September, Vietnam received 2,016,460 doses of COVID-19 vaccine AstraZeneca under VNVC contract. [195]

On 16 June 2021, Vietnam also received 966,320 doses of AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine donated by Japan. [115] [196] [197] On 25 June, it is announced that Japan will donate another 1 million doses of AstraZeneca vaccine to Vietnam. [198] [199] The first batch of this donation (400,000 doses) arrived at Tân Sơn Nhất International Airport on 2 July, [200] while the second batch arrived on 9 July. [201] On 16 July, Japan sent another 996,740 doses of AstraZeneca vaccine to Vietnam. [202] [203] On 3 August 2021, Vietnam received 415,000 doses of AstraZeneca vaccine donated by the UK Government. [76] On late August, Vietnam also received 501,600 doses and 300,000 doses of AstraZeneca vaccine donated by Poland and Romania. [81] [67] [68] On 26 August 2021, Vietnam received 404,000 doses [72] [73] of COVID-19 vaccine part of Australia's commitment to provide 1.5 million doses of AstraZeneca vaccine for Vietnam through UNICEF. [204]

On July 10, Vietnam received 2,000,040 doses of Moderna COVID-19 vaccine donated to the COVAX Facility by the United States Government. Arrival of 2 million Moderna vaccine doses at Noi Bai International Airport.jpg
On July 10, Vietnam received 2,000,040 doses of Moderna COVID-19 vaccine donated to the COVAX Facility by the United States Government.

On 7 July 2021, the first batch of Pfizer's vaccines, containing 97,110 doses, arrived at Nội Bài International Airport. [132] [205] It was later confirmed that Vietnam received 746,460 doses of Pfizer's vaccines that day. [202] A day earlier, on 6 July, it is also confirmed that the United States would send Vietnam two million doses of Moderna COVID-19 vaccine via Covax mechanism. [206] [33] [207] This batch of vaccines arrived in Vietnam on 10 July. [208] [209] Another batch containing 3,000,060 doses of Moderna vaccine donated to COVAX by the US Government arrived in Hanoi on 24 and 25 July. [35] [36] On 11 August 2021 and 26 August 2021, Vietnam received 217,620 and 770,000 doses of Pfizer's vaccines purchased by the government. [202] [210] [211] On 25–27 August 2021, Vietnam received 1,065,870 doses of Pfizer vaccine donated by the US government. [212] Vietnam received 250,800 doses of AstraZeneca and Moderna COVID-19 vaccine donated by the Czech Republic on 30 August. [213] [214]

Vietnam's COVID-19 vaccination programme began on 8 March 2021, administering the AstraZeneca vaccine to medical workers in Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City and Hải Dương province. [215] As of 12 March 2022, a total of 200,179,247 administered vaccination doses have been reported. [16] [172]

In Ho Chi Minh City, many people have injected the first dose or have completed the second dose for more than a month but have not been updated by the authorities to the vaccination confirmation app. The rigid way of some vaccination points is to rely only on the vaccination certificate on the app caused many people to miss the opportunity to get the second dose on time. [216]

By locality

Locality [note 4] Population [217] Doses distributed [218] Doses administered [218] Doses administered per 100 people
Bắc Giang province 1,803,9503,706,5304,026,604223.21
Bắc Kạn province 313,905580,140556,216177.19
Cao Bằng province 530,341993,120923,137174.06
Hà Giang province 854,6791,722,7601,439,333168.41
Lạng Sơn province 781,6551,741,5301,541,562197.22
Phú Thọ province 1,463,7262,463,9402,852,797194.9
Quảng Ninh province 1,320,3243,275,7583,064,841232.13
Thái Nguyên province 1,286,7512,412,6502,370,688184.24
Tuyên Quang province 784,8111,425,2001,384,593176.42
Lào Cai province 730,4201,514,8201,426,269195.27
Yên Bái province 821,0301,632,4801,626,425198.1
Điện Biên province 598,8561,145,4601,044,733174.45
Hòa Bình province 854,1311,646,6301,586,085185.7
Lai Châu province 460,196782,870788,203171.28
Sơn La province 1,248,4151,828,3201,859,143148.92
Bắc Ninh province 1,368,8403,072,4903,169,873231.57
Hà Nam province 852,8001,839,7601,802,645211.38
Hải Dương province 1,892,2543,284,6503,394,616179.4
Hưng Yên province 1,252,7312,458,2622,393,761191.08
Nam Định province 1,780,3933,200,1403,058,872171.81
Ninh Bình province 982,4871,747,9602,031,105206.73
Thái Bình province 1,860,4473,150,9603,235,036173.88
Vĩnh Phúc province 1,151,1542,292,0302,378,445206.61
Hà Nội 8,053,66317,732,61217,601,648218.55
Hải Phòng 2,028,5144,454,3004,540,095223.81
Hà Tĩnh province 1,288,8662,270,6502,121,051164.57
Nghệ An province 3,327,7915,498,9006,241,110187.55
Quảng Bình province 895,4301,520,3301,407,007157.13
Quảng Trị province 632,3751,306,3721,201,431189.99
Thanh Hóa province 3,640,1287,685,6806,058,145166.43
Thừa Thiên-Huế province 1,128,6202,428,4362,246,567199.05
Đắk Lắk province 1,869,3223,400,5503,405,571182.18
Đắk Nông province 622,1681,287,0801,236,828198.79
Gia Lai province 1,513,8472,734,9122,607,763172.26
Kon Tum province 540,4381,020,100923,997170.97
Lâm Đồng province 1,296,9062,968,2242,942,855226.91
Bình Định province 1,486,9182,949,6702,940,648197.77
Bình Thuận province 1,230,8082,720,7802,453,808199.37
Khánh Hòa province 1,231,1072,755,8502,943,641239.11
Ninh Thuận province 590,4671,233,6101,221,287206.83
Phú Yên province 872,9641,732,4541,687,865193.35
Quảng Nam province 1,495,8123,204,8602,926,361195.64
Quảng Ngãi province 1,231,6972,755,3642,237,145181.63
Đà Nẵng 1,134,3102,495,5822,631,204231.97
Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu province 1,148,3132,756,6402,665,872232.16
Bình Dương province 2,426,5616,222,1505,792,367238.71
Bình Phước province 994,6792,212,1802,029,846204.07
Đồng Nai province 3,097,1076,663,8006,278,791202.73
Tây Ninh province 1,169,1652,581,5602,568,673219.7
Ho Chi Minh City 8,993,08220,321,77820,162,558224.2
An Giang province 1,908,3524,054,2923,961,149207.57
Bạc Liêu province 907,2361,609,2301,661,733183.16
Bến Tre province 1,288,4632,994,0322,904,036225.39
Cà Mau province 1,194,4762,457,3102,382,037199.42
Đồng Tháp province 1,599,5043,617,8523,346,514209.22
Hậu Giang province 733,0171,529,6301,509,954205.99
Kiên Giang province 1,723,0673,601,1503,030,096175.85
Long An province 1,688,5474,333,3584,382,424259.54
Sóc Trăng province 1,199,6532,581,0602,703,917225.39
Tiền Giang province 1,764,1853,725,8903,788,828214.76
Trà Vinh province 1,009,1682,098,5502,031,051201.26
Vĩnh Long province 1,022,7912,337,1202,314,156226.26
Cần Thơ 1,235,1712,765,4182,681,102217.06

Adverse event following immunization

Of the 69 medical staff at Gia Lai Field Hospital who administered AstraZeneca vaccine on 9 March 2021, eight had mild side effects and one female nurse had severe side effects. Five minutes after injection, this nurse (with a history of bronchial asthma) experienced symptoms of perioral numbness, vomiting, dizziness, chest tightness and difficulty breathing. [219] As of 17 March 2021, in 20,000 people were injected, 4,078 cases had common reactions like muscle pain, headaches, diarrhoea, fever or hives, five with anaphylaxis grade II and one grade III case, all of these case are in stable conditions. The health ministry has asked local health authorities which face serious post-injection reactions to set up a professional council to evaluate the causes. [220] [221] There has not been a single case of severe blood clots reported in some European nations. [221]

On 7 May 2021, Vietnam recorded the first death of a person vaccinated with the AstraZeneca vaccine. She was a 35-year-old medical staff in An Giang Province. This female health worker was vaccinated with AstraZeneca vaccine in the morning of 6 May at the vaccination site in Tan Chau Regional General Hospital. Before the injection, she was screened and explained about post-injection reactions. [102] [222] After the injection, she had anaphylactic shock reaction. According to the conclusion of the An Giang Department of Health, the cause of death is anaphylaxis on the basis of non-steroidal allergy (anti-inflammatory painkiller). [101]

On 21 June 2021, Vietnam recorded the second death of a person vaccinated with the AstraZeneca vaccine. He was a 26-year-old teacher in Hanoi. He was vaccinated at the medical center in Dong Anh District on 20 June, after having health checkup and being given eligibility for vaccination. He died at 23:15 on 21 June, 39 hours after getting vaccinated against COVID-19. The cause of death is not known. 100 people besides this man who got vaccinated at that center that day were all stable. [223] [224]

As of 5 September 2021, there were 825,305 mild adverse event following immunizations (AEFIs) (3.7%) and 51 serious AEFIs (7 fatal). [202]

On 5 November 2021, Hanoi Department of Health gave information about the incident of injecting Pfizer vaccine for 18 children aged 2 to 6 months in Quoc Oai district. After injection, some children have fever, redness, swelling at the injection site and not recorded any cases of anaphylaxis. [225]

On 23 November 2021, there were at least 72 workers, aged 25–30 at a shoe company showing side effects after injecting Vero Cell COVID-19 vaccine, in which 5 people had anaphylactic shock. By 25 November, four workers had died. [226] Thanh Hoa authorities stopped injecting the remaining 43,000 doses of Vero Cell in storage and investigated the cause of this incident. [227]

Public opinion and vaccine effectiveness

A poll conducted from October to December 2020 found that Vietnam had one of the highest vaccine acceptance rate in the world. 98% of people surveyed responded they would definitely or probably get vaccinated when a COVID-19 vaccine becomes available. [228]

A survey conducted in mid-October 2021 at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Ho Chi Minh City (where severe COVID-19 patients are treated) showed that 45% of the 349 patients had mild symptoms, while the rest had severe symptoms.

When comparing mild and severe symptoms in vaccinated and unvaccinated patients, 74% of the unvaccinated group had severe symptoms. 40% of those in the vaccinated group (who received one or two doses) had severe symptoms. 49% of those who received one dose experienced severe symptoms, while only 12% of those who received the second dose did. There was one case that required invasive mechanical ventilation and five cases that required an oxygen mask in the group that received the second doses. In the group that received only one injection, invasive mechanical ventilation was required in ten cases. In the unvaccinated group, there were 51 cases that required mechanical ventilation and three cases that required ECMO. [229]

Notes

  1. See Background and Progress to date for more information
  2. See #History and #Progress to date for more information
  3. See #History and #Progress to date for more information
  4. Excluding Ministry of Public Security and Ministry of Defense

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