The Historic City
|Founded as||Cañete de la Frontera|
|• Alcalde||Jorge Radonich Barra (RN)|
|• Total||760.4 km2 (293.6 sq mi)|
|Elevation||80 m (260 ft)|
|• Density||42/km2 (110/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC−4 (CLT)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−3 (CLST)|
|Area code(s)||56 + 41|
|Website||Official website (in Spanish)|
Cañete is a city and commune in Chile, located in the Arauco Province of the Biobío Region. It is located 135 km to the south of Concepción. Cañete is known as a "Historic City" (Spanish: ciudad histórica) as it is one of the oldest cities in country. The Battle of Tucapel and Pedro de Valdivia's death happened near the city's current location. Cañete was also an important location in the Arauco War.
Cañete was founded under the name of "Cañete de la Frontera" in 1558. The city was established by Governor García Hurtado de Mendoza and named in honor of his father, Andrés Hurtado de Mendoza, 3rd Marquis of Cañete. The marquis' title originated from the Castile town Cañete.
The area was known as Tucapel, meaning taking by force in Mapudungun. In October 1553, Pedro de Valdivia founded the Fort Tucapel, next to the present city of Cañete. Two months later, native Mapuches destroyed the fort. Valdivia returned on 25 December 1553, to rebuild the fort, but the Spanish army was once again defeated in the Battle of Tucapel, an early battle in the Arauco War. Valdivia was captured and killed.
In January 1558, Governor García Hurtado de Mendoza founded the city as Cañete de la Frontera three kilometers to the west of the present location of the city. Hurtado de Mendoza named Alonso de Reinoso as corregidor of the Corregimiento of Cañete. The Mapuches, led by Caupolican, besieged the city, but they were defeated in the battle of the Fort of Cañete.
Subsequent military defeats forced governor Francisco de Villagra to abandon the city in January 1563. Three years later, a new city was started under the orders of Rodrigo de Quiroga but it did not prosper either due to constant attacks by the Mapuches.
The present city was founded on 12 November 1868 by colonel Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez as part of the pacification of Araucanía.
On 12 November 2006 a major car accident occurred near Canete when a bus with 28 people fell into the River Tucapel and 19 passengers died. 17 of the victims were soldiers who were members of the band Reinforced Regiment No. 7 "Chacabuco" Concepción. The group was traveling to a celebration for the anniversary of the founding of Cañete. The press titled the accident "tragedy of Cañete," like the tragedy of Antuco. President Michelle Bachelet, the minister of National Defense Vivianne Blanlot and Commander-in-Chief Óscar Izurieta traveled to Concepción for the funerals.
The 2010 Chilean earthquake caused major damage to the city. The Kallvu Llanka hospital, which was being constructed, was severely impacted, delaying its opening from 8 October 2010 till 22 October 2013.
|Climate data for Cañete|
|Record high °C (°F)||31|
|Average high °C (°F)||23|
|Average low °C (°F)||11|
|Record low °C (°F)||5|
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||9.0|
According to the National Statistics Institute's 2002 census, Cañete spans over an area of 760.4 km2 (294 sq mi) and has 31,270 inhabitants (15,625 men and 15,645 women). 63.4% (19,839) live in urban areas and 36.6% (11,431) reside in rural areas. The population grew by 6.6% (1,947 persons) between the 1992 and 2002 censuses.
Projections indicated that the population in 2009 was 33,535 inhabitants.
Cañete is a commune, the smallest administrative subdivision in Chile. It is a third-level administrative division administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde (mayor) who is directly elected by the public every four years and leading a six-member council.The municipality of Cañete is a member of the Association of Municipalities of the Arauco Province, also known as Arauco 7.
Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Cañete is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Manuel Monsalve (PS) and Iván Norambuena (UDI) as part of the 46th electoral district, (together with Lota, Lebu, Arauco, Curanilahue, Los Álamos, Contulmo and Tirúa). The commune is represented in the Senate by Víctor Pérez Varela (UDI) and Felipe Harboe Bascuñán (PPD) as part of the 13th senatorial constituency (Biobío-Coast).
Las Misiones Airport is located in northern Cañete.
The city also has several bus terminals downtown, including Pedro de Valdivia terminal, Jeldres terminal, and Biobio-Jota Ewert terminal. Intercity buses run to Santiago, Concepción, and Temuco.
Cañete has 34 primary and secondary schools, of which 24 are public. Top schools include Liceo Gabriela Mistral, Instituto San José and Liceo B-56.Higher education institutions include the Technological Institute of the Catholic University of the Most Holy Conception and the CFT Lota Arauco of the University of Concepción.
The Intercultural Hospital Kallvu Llanka (Mapudungun for "The Universe's Jewel")is located on route P-60-R, in northern Cañete. It offers traditional medicine while channeling and honoring mapuche culture through aspects such a circular waiting rooms similar to rukas. The hospital was opened in 2013.
The Mapuche Museum of Cañete is located in the southern part of the city and has been open since 1968.
Every year, between January and February the Agricultural, Livestock and Forestry Fair of Cañete (Spanish: Feria Agrícola, Ganadera y Forestal, FAGAF) takes place on the Anike farm two kilometers from the city. The fair is considered the largest in the region and one of the most important agricultural events in Chile.It usually hosts more than one hundred exhibitors and features activities such as loose mare threshing, agricultural and forestry machinery exhibitions and gastronomy contests, amongst other activities. Additionally, the fair incorporates the local culture by showcasing Mapuche and Chilean farm traditions. Since 2015, the fair has been held in conjunction with Cañete Week which features singers, music groups and comedians.
Another event, the Farmer Fest of Cayucupil, takes place 14 km from the city center in a rural area.
Cañete is continuing to grow its film and entertainment presence. The Lebu International Film Festival is headquartered in the city. km north of the city.Also, Jorge Olguín's 2014 movie Whispers of the Forest was filmed around Cañete, mainly in Reussland Park and Morales Castle, 10
Lautaro was a young Mapuche toqui known for leading the indigenous resistance against Spanish conquest in Chile and developing the tactics that would continue to be employed by the Mapuche during the long-running Arauco War. Lautaro was captured by Spanish forces in his early youth, and he spent his teenage years as a personal servant of chief conquistador Pedro de Valdivia, but escaped in 1551. Back among his people he was declared toqui and led Mapuche warriors into a series of victories against the Spanish, culminating in the Battle of Tucapel in December 1553, where Pedro de Valdivia was killed. The outbreak of a typhus plague, a drought and a famine prevented the Mapuche from taking further actions to expel the Spanish in 1554 and 1555. Between 1556 and 1557, a small group of Mapuche commanded by Lautaro attempted to reach Santiago to liberate the whole of Central Chile from Spanish rule. Lautaro's attempts ended in 1557 when he was killed in an ambush by the Spanish.
Caupolicán was a toqui or war leader of the Mapuche people, who led the resistance of his people against the Spanish Conquistadors who invaded the territory of today's Chile during the sixteenth century. His rule as Toqui lasted roughly from 1553-1558 AD.
The Arauco War was a long-running conflict between colonial Spaniards and the Mapuche people, mostly fought in the Araucanía. The conflict begun at first as a reaction to the Spanish conquerors attempting to establish cities and force Mapuches into servitude. It subsequently evolved over time into phases comprising drawn-out sieges, slave-hunting expeditions, pillaging raids, punitive expeditions, and renewed Spanish attempts to secure lost territories. Abduction of women and war rape was common on both sides.
Angol is a commune and capital city of the Malleco Province in the Araucanía Region of southern Chile. It is located at the foot of the Nahuelbuta Range and next to the Vergara River, that permitted communications by small boats to the Bío-Bío River and Concepción. This strategic position explains the successive foundations of this city during the Arauco War. It was first founded in 1553 as a "conquistador" fort of Confines, the fort was later destroyed and rebuilt several times and it was not until the Pacification of Araucania in the late 19th century that it was rebuilt with the name of Angol. The city has a current population of approximately 53,000. Within the electoral divisions of Chile, it belongs to the 48th electoral district and the 14th senatorial circumscription.
Francisco de Villagra Velázquez was a Spanish conquistador, and three times governor of Chile.
The Captaincy General of Chile or Govenorate of Chile, was a territory of the Spanish Empire from 1541 to 1818 that was, for most of its existence, part of the Viceroyalty of Peru. It comprised most of modern-day Chile and southern parts of Argentina. Its capital was Santiago de Chile. In 1818 it declared itself independent, becoming the Republic of Chile. It had a number of Spanish governors over its long history and several kings.
García Hurtado de Mendoza y Manrique, 5th Marquis of Cañete was a Spanish Governor of Chile, and later Viceroy of Peru. He is often known simply as "Marquis of Cañete". Belonging to an influential family of Spanish noblemen Hurtado de Mendoza successfully fought in the Arauco War during his stay as Governor of Chile. The city of Mendoza is named after him. In his later position as Viceroy of Peru he sponsored Álvaro de Mendaña's transpacific expedition of 1595, who named the Marquesas Islands after him.
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Lebu is a port city and commune in central Chile administered by the Municipality of Lebu. Lebu is also the capital of Arauco Province in Bío Bío Region. It lies on the south bank of the mouth of the Lebu River.
Tucapel is a town and commune in the Arauco Province, Bío Bío Region, Chile. It was once a region of Araucanía named for the Tucapel River. The name of the region derived from the rehue and aillarehue of the Moluche people of the area between the Lebu and the Lleulleu Rivers, who were famed for their long resistance to the Spanish in the Arauco War. Tucapel is also the name of a famous leader from that region in the first resistance against the Spanish mentioned in Alonso de Ercilla's epic poem La Araucana. Formerly belonging to the Nuble Province, in the Department of Yungay. Near the town of Tucapel is the Plaza de San Diego de Tucapel. The capital of the commune is the town of Huépil, moving the municipality from Tucapel in 1967. In mapudungún its name means "To seize or to take by force".
The Destruction of the Seven Cities is a term used in Chilean historiography to refer to the destruction or abandonment of seven major Spanish outposts in southern Chile around 1600 caused by the Mapuche and Huilliche uprising of 1598. The Destruction of the Seven Cities is in traditional historiography the defining event that marks the end of the Conquest period and the beginning of the proper colonial period.
Arauco is a city and commune in Chile, located in Arauco Province in the Bío Bío Region. The meaning of Arauco means Chalky Water in Mapudungun. The region was a Moluche aillarehue. The Spanish settlements founded here during the Conquest of Chile were destroyed on numerous occasions by the Mapuche during the Arauco War.
The Battle of Millarapue that occurred November 30, 1557 was intended by the Toqui Caupolicán as a Mapuche ambush of the Spanish army of García Hurtado de Mendoza that resulted in a Spanish victory when the ambush failed.
The Battle of Lagunillas was a battle in the Arauco War on November 8, 1557, between the army of García Hurtado de Mendoza and the Mapuche army near some shallow lakes a league south of the Bio-Bio River.
Alonso de Reinoso (1518–1567) was a Spanish Conquistador in Honduras, Mexico, Peru and Chile. He was born in Torrijos Toledo, Spain in 1518. He was married to Catalina Flores de Riofrío before he came to the Americas in 1535.
Juan Jufré de Loayza y Montesa (1516–1578) was a Spanish conquistador who participated in the 1541 expedition of Pedro de Valdivia to Chile. He was the first alcalde of Santiago, Chile and held the position of governor of the Argentine province of Cuyo. He founded the city of San Juan de la Frontera and re-founded the city of Mendoza.
Tirúa is a Chilean commune and town in Arauco Province, Biobío Region. The 2010 Chile earquake led to a permanent uplift of Tirúa of about 180 cm above sea level, the highest recorded uplift related to the earthquake. This caused a large islet to form at the mouth of Tirúa River next to the town. The Misión Jesuita Mapuche is based in Tirúa.
Curanilahue is a Chilean commune and city in Arauco Province, Biobío Region. Its name comes from "Cura" which means "Stone" and "Nilahue" means "Ford". So it's translated as "Stony Ford" from Mapudungun.
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The Mapuche people of southern Chile and Argentina have a long history dating back as an archaeological culture to 600–500 BC. The Mapuche society had great transformations after Spanish contact in the mid–16th century. These changes included the adoption of Old World crops and animals and the onset of a rich Spanish–Mapuche trade in La Frontera and Valdivia. Despite these contacts Mapuche were never completely subjugated by the Spanish Empire. Between the 18th and 19th century Mapuche culture and people spread eastwards into the Pampas and the Patagonian plains. This vast new territory allowed Mapuche groups to control a substantial part of the salt and cattle trade in the Southern Cone.
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