Cañete, Chile

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Cañete
Clava symbol in Canete, Chile.JPG
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Escudo de Canete (Chile).svg
Coat of arms
Comuna de Canete.svg
Location of the Cañete commune in Biobío Region
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Cañete
Location in Chile
Nickname(s): 
The Historic City
Coordinates: 37°47′58″S73°23′43″W / 37.79944°S 73.39528°W / -37.79944; -73.39528 Coordinates: 37°47′58″S73°23′43″W / 37.79944°S 73.39528°W / -37.79944; -73.39528
Country Chile
Region Biobío
Province Arauco
Founded asCañete de la Frontera
FoundedJanuary, 1558
Government
  Type Municipality
   Alcalde Jorge Radonich Barra (RN)
Area
[3]
  Total760.4 km2 (293.6 sq mi)
Elevation
80 m (260 ft)
Population
 (2012 Census) [3]
  Total31,805
  Density42/km2 (110/sq mi)
   Urban
19,839
   Rural
11,431
Demonym(s) Cañetino
Sex
[3]
  Men15,625
  Women15,645
Time zone UTC−4 (CLT)
  Summer (DST) UTC−3 (CLST)
Area code(s) 56 + 41
Website Official website (in Spanish)

Cañete is a city and commune in Chile, located in the Arauco Province of the Biobío Region. It is located 135 km to the south of Concepción. [4] Cañete is known as a "Historic City" (Spanish: ciudad histórica) [5] as it is one of the oldest cities in country. The Battle of Tucapel and Pedro de Valdivia's death happened near the city's current location. Cañete was also an important location in the Arauco War.

Contents

History

Etymology

Cañete was founded under the name of "Cañete de la Frontera" in 1558. The city was established by Governor García Hurtado de Mendoza and named in honor of his father, Andrés Hurtado de Mendoza, 3rd Marquis of Cañete. The marquis' title originated from the Castile town Cañete.

Fort Tucapel

The area was known as Tucapel, meaning taking by force in Mapudungun. In October 1553, Pedro de Valdivia founded the Fort Tucapel, next to the present city of Cañete. Two months later, native Mapuches destroyed the fort. Valdivia returned on 25 December 1553, to rebuild the fort, but the Spanish army was once again defeated in the Battle of Tucapel, an early battle in the Arauco War. Valdivia was captured and killed.

Cañete de la Frontera

In January 1558, Governor García Hurtado de Mendoza founded the city as Cañete de la Frontera three kilometers to the west of the present location of the city. Hurtado de Mendoza named Alonso de Reinoso as corregidor of the Corregimiento of Cañete. The Mapuches, led by Caupolican, besieged the city, but they were defeated in the battle of the Fort of Cañete.

Subsequent military defeats forced governor Francisco de Villagra to abandon the city in January 1563. Three years later, a new city was started under the orders of Rodrigo de Quiroga but it did not prosper either due to constant attacks by the Mapuches.

Refounding

The present city was founded on 12 November 1868 by colonel Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez as part of the pacification of Araucanía.

21st century

On 12 November 2006 a major car accident occurred near Canete when a bus with 28 people fell into the River Tucapel and 19 passengers died. 17 of the victims were soldiers who were members of the band Reinforced Regiment No. 7 "Chacabuco" Concepción. The group was traveling to a celebration for the anniversary of the founding of Cañete. The press titled the accident "tragedy of Cañete," like the tragedy of Antuco. President Michelle Bachelet, the minister of National Defense Vivianne Blanlot and Commander-in-Chief Óscar Izurieta traveled to Concepción for the funerals.

The 2010 Chilean earthquake caused major damage to the city. The Kallvu Llanka hospital, which was being constructed, was severely impacted, delaying its opening from 8 October 2010 till 22 October 2013. [6] [7]

Geography

Climate

Climate data for Cañete
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)31
(88)
33
(91)
31
(88)
29
(84)
26
(79)
22
(72)
26
(79)
24
(75)
29
(84)
27
(81)
28
(82)
32
(90)
33
(91)
Average high °C (°F)23
(73)
23
(73)
22
(72)
19
(66)
16
(61)
14
(57)
14
(57)
14
(57)
16
(61)
18
(64)
20
(68)
22
(72)
18
(65)
Average low °C (°F)11
(52)
11
(52)
10
(50)
8
(46)
7
(45)
7
(45)
6
(43)
6
(43)
6
(43)
7
(45)
9
(48)
10
(50)
8
(47)
Record low °C (°F)5
(41)
1
(34)
3
(37)
−6
(21)
−2
(28)
−2
(28)
−4
(25)
−2
(28)
−1
(30)
−1
(30)
0
(32)
1
(34)
−6
(21)
Average rainfall mm (inches)9.0
(0.35)
17.0
(0.67)
25.0
(0.98)
60.0
(2.36)
143.0
(5.63)
189.0
(7.44)
174.0
(6.85)
146.0
(5.75)
72.0
(2.83)
59.0
(2.32)
33.0
(1.30)
19.0
(0.75)
946
(37.23)
Source: [8]

Demography

According to the National Statistics Institute's 2002 census, Cañete spans over an area of 760.4 km2 (294 sq mi) and has 31,270 inhabitants (15,625 men and 15,645 women). 63.4% (19,839) live in urban areas and 36.6% (11,431) reside in rural areas. The population grew by 6.6% (1,947 persons) between the 1992 and 2002 censuses. [3]

Projections indicated that the population in 2009 was 33,535 inhabitants. [2]

Administration

Cañete is a commune, the smallest administrative subdivision in Chile. It is a third-level administrative division administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde (mayor) who is directly elected by the public every four years and leading a six-member council. [9] [10] The municipality of Cañete is a member of the Association of Municipalities of the Arauco Province, also known as Arauco 7. [11]

Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Cañete is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Manuel Monsalve (PS) and Iván Norambuena (UDI) as part of the 46th electoral district, (together with Lota, Lebu, Arauco, Curanilahue, Los Álamos, Contulmo and Tirúa). The commune is represented in the Senate by Víctor Pérez Varela (UDI) and Felipe Harboe Bascuñán (PPD) as part of the 13th senatorial constituency (Biobío-Coast).

Transportation

Las Misiones Airport is located in northern Cañete.

The city also has several bus terminals downtown, including Pedro de Valdivia terminal, Jeldres terminal, and Biobio-Jota Ewert terminal. Intercity buses run to Santiago, Concepción, and Temuco.

Human resources

Education

Cañete has 34 primary and secondary schools, of which 24 are public. Top schools include Liceo Gabriela Mistral, Instituto San José and Liceo B-56. [12] [13] Higher education institutions include the Technological Institute of the Catholic University of the Most Holy Conception and the CFT Lota Arauco of the University of Concepción.

Public health

The Intercultural Hospital Kallvu Llanka (Mapudungun for "The Universe's Jewel") [14] is located on route P-60-R, in northern Cañete. It offers traditional medicine while channeling and honoring mapuche culture through aspects such a circular waiting rooms similar to rukas. The hospital was opened in 2013.

Culture

Museums

The Mapuche Museum of Cañete is located in the southern part of the city and has been open since 1968.

Rural culture

Every year, between January and February the Agricultural, Livestock and Forestry Fair of Cañete (Spanish: Feria Agrícola, Ganadera y Forestal, FAGAF) takes place on the Anike farm two kilometers from the city. The fair is considered the largest in the region and one of the most important agricultural events in Chile. [15] It usually hosts more than one hundred exhibitors and features activities such as loose mare threshing, agricultural and forestry machinery exhibitions and gastronomy contests, amongst other activities. [16] Additionally, the fair incorporates the local culture by showcasing Mapuche and Chilean farm traditions. Since 2015, the fair has been held in conjunction with Cañete Week which features singers, music groups and comedians. [17]

Another event, the Farmer Fest of Cayucupil, takes place 14 km from the city center in a rural area.

Movies

Cañete is continuing to grow its film and entertainment presence. The Lebu International Film Festival is headquartered in the city. [18] Also, Jorge Olguín's 2014 movie Whispers of the Forest was filmed around Cañete, mainly in Reussland Park and Morales Castle, 10 km north of the city. [19] [20]

Notable people

Related Research Articles

Lautaro 16th-century leader of the Mapuche people

Lautaro was a young Mapuche toqui known for leading the indigenous resistance against Spanish conquest in Chile and developing the tactics that would continue to be employed by the Mapuche during the long-running Arauco War. Lautaro was captured by Spanish forces in his early youth, and he spent his teenage years as a personal servant of chief conquistador Pedro de Valdivia, but escaped in 1551. Back among his people he was declared toqui and led Mapuche warriors into a series of victories against the Spanish, culminating in the Battle of Tucapel in December 1553, where Pedro de Valdivia was killed. The outbreak of a typhus plague, a drought and a famine prevented the Mapuche from taking further actions to expel the Spanish in 1554 and 1555. Between 1556 and 1557, a small group of Mapuche commanded by Lautaro attempted to reach Santiago to liberate the whole of Central Chile from Spanish rule. Lautaro's attempts ended in 1557 when he was killed in an ambush by the Spanish.

Caupolicán

Caupolicán was a toqui or war leader of the Mapuche people, who led the resistance of his people against the Spanish Conquistadors who invaded the territory of today's Chile during the sixteenth century. His rule as Toqui lasted roughly from 1553-1558 AD.

Arauco War Conflict between Spanish settlers of Chile and indigenous peoples

The Arauco War was a long-running conflict between colonial Spaniards and the Mapuche people, mostly fought in the Araucanía. The conflict begun at first as a reaction to the Spanish conquerors attempting to establish cities and force Mapuches into servitude. It subsequently evolved over time into phases comprising drawn-out sieges, slave-hunting expeditions, pillaging raids, punitive expeditions, and renewed Spanish attempts to secure lost territories. Abduction of women and war rape was common on both sides.

Angol City and Commune in Araucanía, Chile

Angol is a commune and capital city of the Malleco Province in the Araucanía Region of southern Chile. It is located at the foot of the Nahuelbuta Range and next to the Vergara River, that permitted communications by small boats to the Bío-Bío River and Concepción. This strategic position explains the successive foundations of this city during the Arauco War. It was first founded in 1553 as a "conquistador" fort of Confines, the fort was later destroyed and rebuilt several times and it was not until the Pacification of Araucania in the late 19th century that it was rebuilt with the name of Angol. The city has a current population of approximately 53,000. Within the electoral divisions of Chile, it belongs to the 48th electoral district and the 14th senatorial circumscription.

Francisco de Villagra 16th-century Royal Governor of Chile

Francisco de Villagra Velázquez was a Spanish conquistador, and three times governor of Chile.

Captaincy General of Chile

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García Hurtado de Mendoza, 5th Marquis of Cañete

García Hurtado de Mendoza y Manrique, 5th Marquis of Cañete was a Spanish Governor of Chile, and later Viceroy of Peru. He is often known simply as "Marquis of Cañete". Belonging to an influential family of Spanish noblemen Hurtado de Mendoza successfully fought in the Arauco War during his stay as Governor of Chile. The city of Mendoza is named after him. In his later position as Viceroy of Peru he sponsored Álvaro de Mendaña's transpacific expedition of 1595, who named the Marquesas Islands after him.

Penco City and Commune in Bío Bío, Chile

Penco (Mapudungun: "See Water, is a Chilean city and commune in Concepción Province, Bío Bío Region on the Bay of Concepción. Founded as the city of Concepción del Nuevo Extremo on February 12, 1550 by Pedro de Valdivia, it is the third oldest city in Chile, after capital Santiago founded first in 1541 and La Serena second in 1544.

Lebu, Chile City and Commune in Bío Bío, Chile

Lebu is a port city and commune in central Chile administered by the Municipality of Lebu. Lebu is also the capital of Arauco Province in Bío Bío Region. It lies on the south bank of the mouth of the Lebu River.

Tucapel Town and Commune in Bío Bío, Chile

Tucapel is a town and commune in the Arauco Province, Bío Bío Region, Chile. It was once a region of Araucanía named for the Tucapel River. The name of the region derived from the rehue and aillarehue of the Moluche people of the area between the Lebu and the Lleulleu Rivers, who were famed for their long resistance to the Spanish in the Arauco War. Tucapel is also the name of a famous leader from that region in the first resistance against the Spanish mentioned in Alonso de Ercilla's epic poem La Araucana. Formerly belonging to the Nuble Province, in the Department of Yungay. Near the town of Tucapel is the Plaza de San Diego de Tucapel. The capital of the commune is the town of Huépil, moving the municipality from Tucapel in 1967. In mapudungún its name means "To seize or to take by force".

Destruction of the Seven Cities Destruction of Spanish settlements by an indigenous uprising

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Arauco, Chile City and Commune in Bío Bío, Chile

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The Battle of Millarapue that occurred November 30, 1557 was intended by the Toqui Caupolicán as a Mapuche ambush of the Spanish army of García Hurtado de Mendoza that resulted in a Spanish victory when the ambush failed.

The Battle of Lagunillas was a battle in the Arauco War on November 8, 1557, between the army of García Hurtado de Mendoza and the Mapuche army near some shallow lakes a league south of the Bio-Bio River.

Alonso de Reinoso (1518–1567) was a Spanish Conquistador in Honduras, Mexico, Peru and Chile. He was born in Torrijos Toledo, Spain in 1518. He was married to Catalina Flores de Riofrío before he came to the Americas in 1535.

Juan Jufré

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References

  1. "Asociación Chilena de Municipalidades" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 19 April 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
  2. 1 2 "Municipality of Cañete" (in Spanish). Retrieved 23 February 2011.
  3. 1 2 3 4 "National Statistics Institute" (in Spanish). Retrieved 13 December 2010.
  4. Mapas de Chile Archived 20 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine - Distances between cities
  5. "Alcalde de Lebu molesto con el gobierno por falta de compromiso con la capital provincial" (in Spanish). Arauco TV. 1 August 2014. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
  6. "Inauguración Hospital Kallvu Llanka". cañete.cl. Municipalidad de Cañete. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
  7. "Presidente Piñera inauguró Hospital Intercultural de Cañete" (in Spanish). Terra. 22 October 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
  8. "Cañete, Chile". MSN. Retrieved 21 May 2016.
  9. "Saludo de Alcalde - Municipalidad de Cañete" (in Spanish). Retrieved 10 May 2016.
  10. "Concejo Municipal - Municipalidad de Cañete" (in Spanish). Retrieved 10 May 2016.
  11. "Asamblea - Arauco 7" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 3 June 2016. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
  12. "Cañete: Liceo Gabriela Mistral e Instituto San José celebran resultados del Simce" (in Spanish). AraucoTV. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
  13. "SIMCE: Liceo B-56 entre los mejores del país" (in Spanish). AraucoTV. 2 May 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
  14. "Inauguraron el hospital Kallvu Llanka, el primer establecimiento intercultural". Hospitalaria.cl (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 13 May 2016. Retrieved 10 May 2016. Its name Kallvu Llanka is translated to Spanish as joya del universo.
  15. "Lanzamiento de Feria Agrícola y Forestal de Cañete se realizará este jueves" (in Spanish). BioBio Chile. 30 January 2013. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  16. "Más de 100 expositores de todo el país llegaron a Cañete para la tradicional Fiesta Agrícola y Ganadera" (in Spanish). SoyChile. 27 January 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  17. "Noche de Brujas, Los Vásquez y Jorge Alís: Los artistas que estarán en la Feria Agrícola de Cañete" (in Spanish). BioBioChile. 14 January 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  18. "Programa FICIL Cañete". Cinelebu.cl (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 July 2016.
  19. "En tétrico palacio abandonado de Cañete será filmada primera película 3D chilena" (in Spanish). BioBioChile. Lanalhue Noticias. 22 August 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
  20. "Los Gritos del Bosque, la primera película chilena que se realiza en 3D" (in Spanish). La Tercera. 30 October 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2016.