Prime Minister's Official Residence
|Formed||22 December 1885|
|Jurisdiction||Government of Japan|
|Headquarters||Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan|
The Cabinet of Japan (Japanese: 内閣, Hepburn: Naikaku) is the chief executive body of the government of Japan. It consists of the prime minister, who is appointed by the emperor after being designated by the National Diet, and up to nineteen other members, called Ministers of State. The prime minister is designated by the Diet, and the remaining ministers are appointed and dismissed by the prime minister. The Cabinet is collectively responsible to the Diet and must resign if a motion of no confidence is adopted by the Diet.
Under the constitution, Cabinet ministers are appointed after the selection of the prime minister. A majority of the Cabinet, including the prime minister, must be members of the Diet, and all members must be civilians. Under the Cabinet Law, the number of Cabinet Ministers (excluding the prime minister) must be fourteen or less, but this may be increased to nineteen if a special need arises. If the Cabinet collectively resigns, it continues to exercise its functions until the appointment of a new prime minister. While they are in office, legal action may not be taken against Cabinet ministers without the consent of the prime minister. The Cabinet must resign en masse in the following circumstances:
The Cabinet exercises two kinds of power. Some of its powers are nominally exercised by the emperor with the binding "advice and approval" of the Cabinet. Other powers are explicitly vested in the Cabinet. Contrary to the practice in many constitutional monarchies, the emperor is not even the nominal chief executive. Instead, the Constitution explicitly vests executive authority in the Cabinet. Hence, nearly all of the day-to-day work of governing is done by the Cabinet.
In practice, much of the Cabinet's authority is exercised by the prime minister. Under the Constitution, the prime minister exercises "control and supervision" over the executive branch, and no law or Cabinet order can take effect without the prime minister's countersignature (and the emperor's promulgation). While Cabinet Ministers in most other parliamentary democracies theoretically have some freedom of action (within the limits of cabinet collective responsibility), the Japanese Cabinet is effectively an extension of the prime minister's authority.
According to Article 75 of the Constitution, Ministers of State are not subject to legal action without the consent of the prime minister during their tenure of office.
Cabinets between 1885 and 1947 were formed under the cabinet edicts of 1885 and 1889. Cabinets were individually responsible to the emperor, and prime ministers were appointed.
Cabinets since 1947 were formed under the Constitution of Japan. Cabinets were collectively responsible to the National Diet, and prime ministers were elected.
The current cabinet was formed on 10 August 2022. It is headed by Prime Minister Fumio Kishida.
|R||Member of the House of Representatives|
|C||Member of the House of Councillors|
|Prime Minister||Fumio Kishida||R||Hiroshima 1st|
|Minister for Internal Affairs and Communications||Minoru Terada||R||Hiroshima 5th|
|Minister of Justice||Yasuhiro Hanashi||R||Ibaraki 3rd|
|Minister for Foreign Affairs||Yoshimasa Hayashi||R||Yamaguchi 3rd|
| Minister of Finance |
Minister of State for Financial Services
Minister in charge of Overcoming Deflation
|Shun'ichi Suzuki||R||Iwate 2nd|
| Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology |
Minister in charge of Education Rebuilding
|Keiko Nagaoka||R||Ibaraki 7th|
|Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare||Katsunobu Kato||R||Okayama 5th|
|Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries||Tetsuro Nomura||C||Kagoshima at-large|
| Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry |
Minister in charge of Industrial Competitiveness
Minister for Economic Cooperation with Russia
Minister in charge of the Response to the Economic Impact caused by the Nuclear Accident
Minister of State for the Nuclear Damage Compensation and Decommissioning Facilitation Corporation
|Yasutoshi Nishimura||R||Hyōgo 9th|
| Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism |
Minister in charge of Water Cycle Policy
Minister for the World Horticultural Exhibition Yokohama 2027
|Tetsuo Saito||R||Hiroshima 3rd|
| Minister of the Environment |
Minister of State for Nuclear Emergency Preparedness
|Akihiro Nishimura||R||Miyagi 3rd|
|Minister of Defense||Yasukazu Hamada||R||Chiba 12th|
| Chief Cabinet Secretary |
Minister in charge of Mitigating the Impact of U.S. Forces in Okinawa
Minister in charge of the Abductions Issue
Minister in Charge of Promoting Vaccinations
|Hirokazu Matsuno||R||Chiba 3rd|
|Minister for Digital|
Minister of State for Digital Reform
Minister of State for Consumer Affairs and Food Safety
Minister in charge of Civil Service Reform
|Taro Kono||R||Kanagawa 15th|
| Minister of Reconstruction |
Minister in charge of Comprehensive Policy Coordination for Revival from the Nuclear Accident at Fukushima
|Kenya Akiba||R||Tohoku PR Block|
|Chairman of the National Public Safety Commission |
Minister in charge of Building National Resilience
Minister in charge of Territorial Issues
Minister in charge of Civil Service Reform
Minister of State for Disaster Management and Ocean Policy
|Koichi Tani||R||Hyōgo 5th|
|Minister in charge of Policies Related to Children|
Minister in charge of Cohesive Society
Minister in charge of Women's Empowerment
Minister in charge of Measures for Loneliness and Isolation
Minister of State for Measures for Declining Birthrate
Minister of State for Gender Equality
|Masanobu Ogura||R||Tokyo 23rd|
|Minister in charge of Economic Revitalization|
Minister in charge of New Capitalism
Minister in charge of Startups
Minister in charge of Measures for Novel Coronavirus Disease and Health Crisis Management
Minister in charge of Social Security Reform
Minister of State for Economic and Fiscal Policy
|Daishiro Yamagiwa||R||Kanagawa 18th|
|Minister in charge of Economic Security|
Minister of State for Intellectual Property Strategy
Minister of State for Science and Technology Policy
Minister of State for Space Policy
Minister of State for Economic Security
|Sanae Takaichi||R||Nara 2nd|
|Minister of State for Okinawa and Northern Territories Affairs|
Minister of State for Regional Revitalization
Minister of State for Regulatory Reform
Minister of State for "Cool Japan" Strategy
Minister of State for Ainu-Related Policies
Minister in charge of Digital Garden City Nation Vision
Minister for the World Expo 2025
Minister in charge of Administrative Reform
|Naoki Okada||C||Ishikawa at-large|
Politics of Japan are conducted in a framework of a dominant-party bicameral parliamentary constitutional monarchy, in which the Emperor is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government and the head of the Cabinet, which directs the executive branch.
The prime minister of Japan is the head of government of Japan. The prime minister chairs the Cabinet of Japan and has the ability to select and dismiss its Ministers of State. The prime minister also serves as the civilian commander-in-chief of the Japan Self Defence Forces and as a sitting member of the House of Representatives. The individual is appointed by the emperor of Japan after being nominated by the National Diet and must retain the nomination of the lower house and answer to parliament to remain in office.
The Constitution of Japan is the constitution of Japan and the supreme law in the state. Written primarily by American civilian officials working under the Allied Occupation of Japan, the constitution replaced the Meiji Constitution of 1890 when it came into effect on 3 May 1947.
Shigeru Yoshida was a Japanese diplomat and politician who served as prime minister of Japan from 1946 to 1947 and from 1948 to 1954. Yoshida was one of the longest-serving Japanese prime ministers, and is the third-longest serving prime minister of post-occupation Japan.
Yasuhiro Nakasone was a Japanese politician who served as Prime Minister of Japan and President of the Liberal Democratic Party from 1982 to 1987. He was a member of the House of Representatives for more than 50 years. He was best known for pushing through the privatization of state-owned companies, and for helping to revitalize Japanese nationalism during and after his term as prime minister.
The House of Representatives is the lower house of the National Diet of Japan. The House of Councillors is the upper house.
The Chief Cabinet Secretary of Japan is a member of the cabinet and is the leader and chief executive of the Cabinet Secretariat of Japan. The Chief Cabinet Secretary coordinates the policies of ministries and agencies in the executive branch, and also serves as the government's press secretary. The secretary is a statutory member of the National Security Council, and is appointed by the Emperor upon the nomination by the Prime Minister. The Chief Cabinet Secretary is the first in line of succession to the Prime Minister, unless the office of the Deputy Prime Minister is occupied.
The Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum is Japan's highest order. The Grand Cordon of the Order was established in 1876 by Emperor Meiji of Japan; the Collar of the Order was added on 4 January 1888. Unlike its European counterparts, the order may be conferred posthumously.
The Minister for Foreign Affairs is a member of the cabinet of Japan and is the leader and chief executive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The minister is responsible for implementing Japan’s foreign policy and is also a statutory member of the National Security Council. The minister is nominated by the Prime Minister of Japan and is appointed by the Emperor of Japan.
Tarō Asō is a Japanese politician serving as the Vice President of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) since 2021. Asō previously served as Prime Minister of Japan from 2008 to 2009 and as Deputy Prime Minister of Japan and Minister of Finance from 2012 to 2021. He was the longest-serving Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance in Japanese history, having previously served as Minister for Foreign Affairs from 2005 to 2007 and as Minister for Internal Affairs and Communications from 2003 to 2005. He leads the Shikōkai faction within the LDP.
Political parties appeared in Japan after the Meiji Restoration, and gradually increased in importance after the promulgation of the Meiji Constitution and the creation of the Diet of Japan. During the Taishō period, parliamentary democracy based on party politics temporarily succeeded in Japan, but in the 1930s the political parties were eclipsed by the military, and were dissolved in the 1940s during World War II.
Events in the year 1946 in Japan.
The Minister of Defense, or Bōei-shō (防衛相), is a member of the Japanese cabinet and is the leader of the Japanese Ministry of Defense, the executive department of the Japanese Armed Forces. The minister of defense’s position of command and authority over the military is second only to that of the Prime Minister of Japan, who is the commander-in-chief. The minister of defense is appointed by the Prime Minister and is a member of the National Security Council. The current Minister of Defense is Yasukazu Hamada, who took office on August 10, 2022.
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General elections were held in Japan on 10 April 1946, the first after World War II. Voters had one, two or three votes, depending on how many MPs were elected from their constituency. The result was a victory for the Liberal Party, which won 141 of the 468 seats. Voter turnout was 72.1 percent.
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