Cabinet of New Zealand

Last updated

Coat of arms of New Zealand.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
New Zealand
Constitution
Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealandportal

The Cabinet of New Zealand (Māori : Te Rūnanga o te Kāwanatanga o Aotearoa [n 1] ) is the New Zealand Government's body of senior ministers, responsible to the New Zealand Parliament. Cabinet meetings, chaired by the prime minister, occur once a week; in them, vital issues are discussed and government policy is formulated. Though not established by any statute, Cabinet has significant power in the New Zealand political system and nearly all bills proposed by Cabinet in Parliament are enacted.

Contents

The New Zealand Cabinet follows the traditions of the British cabinet system. Members of Cabinet are collectively responsible to Parliament for its actions and policies. Cabinet discussions are confidential and are not disclosed to the public apart from the announcement of decisions.

All ministers in Cabinet also serve as members of the Executive Council, the body tasked with advising the governor-general in the exercise of his or her formal constitutional functions. Outside Cabinet, there are a number of non-Cabinet ministers, responsible for a specific policy area and reporting directly to a senior Cabinet minister. Ministers outside Cabinet are also part of Cabinet committees and will regularly attend Cabinet meetings which concern their portfolios. Therefore, although operating outside of Cabinet directly, these ministers do not lack power and influence as they are still very much part of the decision making process. [1]

Constitutional basis

Swearing-in of ministers by Governor-General Dame Patsy Reddy, 26 October 2017. Cabinet members are first appointed as executive councillors before receiving warrants for their ministerial portfolios. GGNZ Swearing of new Cabinet - Welcome.jpg
Swearing-in of ministers by Governor-General Dame Patsy Reddy, 26 October 2017. Cabinet members are first appointed as executive councillors before receiving warrants for their ministerial portfolios.

Cabinet is not established by any statute or constitutional document but exists purely by long-established constitutional convention. [2] [3] This convention carries sufficient weight for many official declarations and regulations to refer to Cabinet, and a government department—the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet—is responsible for supporting it. Although Cabinet lacks any direct legislative framework for its existence, the Cabinet Manual has become the official document which governs its functions, and on which its convention rests. [3] [4]

The structure of Cabinet has as its basis the formal institution known as the Executive Council, the body tasked with advising the governor-general in the exercise of his or her formal constitutional functions (i.e. the Governor-General in Council). [5] Most ministers hold membership of both bodies, but some executive councillors—known as "ministers outside Cabinet"—do not attend Cabinet. The convention of members of the Executive Council meeting separately from the Governor began during Edward Stafford's first tenure as premier (1856–1861). [6] Stafford, a long-time advocate of responsible government in New Zealand, believed the colonial government should have full control over all its affairs, without the intervention of the Governor. Because the Governor chaired the Executive Council, Stafford intentionally met with his ministers without the Governor present, thus reducing the Executive Council to its formal role. [6]

Powers and functions

Ministers of the Coalition Cabinet, 1931 NZ Coalition Cabinet of 1931.jpg
Ministers of the Coalition Cabinet, 1931

The lack of formal legislation establishing Cabinet leaves the powers of its members only loosely defined. Cabinet generally directs and controls policy (releasing government policy statements), and is responsible to the House of Representatives (the elected component of Parliament). It also has significant influence over lawmaking. Convention regarding Cabinet's authority has considerable force, and generally proves strong enough to bind its participants. Theoretically, each minister operates independently, having received a ministerial warrant over a certain field from the Crown. But the governor-general can dismiss a minister at any time, conventionally on the advice of the prime minister, so ministers are largely obliged to work within a certain framework. [3]

Collective responsibility

Cabinet itself acts as the accepted forum for establishing this framework. Ministers will jointly discuss the policy which the government as a whole will pursue, and ministers who do not exercise their respective powers in a manner compatible with Cabinet's decision risk losing those powers. This has become known as the doctrine of collective responsibility. [7] [8] Collective responsibility is a constitutional convention which rests on three principles. The first principle is unanimity, where members of Cabinet must publicly support decisions and defend them in public, regardless on any personal views on the matter. Secondly, the confidentiality limb means that all Cabinet discussions are to be kept confidential. [2] This allows for open and explicit conversation, discussion and debate on the issues Cabinet chooses to look at. [8] The final principle is confidence, where Cabinet and executive government must have the confidence of the House of Representatives. If there is no government, the governor-general has the ability to intervene to find a government which does have confidence. [9]

Formally all ministers are equals and may not command or be commanded by a fellow minister. Constitutional practice does, however, dictate that the prime minister is primus inter pares , meaning 'first among equals'. [10]

Problems arise when the prime minister breaches collective responsibility. Since ministerial appointments and dismissals are in practice in the hands of the prime minister, Cabinet can not directly initiate any action against a prime minister who openly disagrees with their government's policy. On the other hand, a prime minister who tries to act against concerted opposition from their Cabinet risks losing the confidence of their party colleagues. An example is former Prime Minister David Lange, who publicly spoke against a tax reform package which was sponsored by then-Finance Minister Roger Douglas and supported by Cabinet. Lange dismissed Douglas, but when the Cabinet supported Douglas against Lange, Lange himself resigned as prime minister. [11]

Collective responsibility after MMP

The doctrine of collective responsibility has changed since the introduction of the mixed-member proportional system (MMP) in 1993 (see below). The change allowed for junior parties in a coalition the ability to 'agree to disagree' with the majority in order to manage policy differences. [12] Following the 2011 general election the National-led government released the following statement in regards to the role of minor parties in the context of collective responsibility:

Collective responsibility applies differently in the case of support party Ministers. Support party Ministers are only bound by collective responsibility in relation to their own respective portfolios (including any specific delegated responsibilities). When support party Ministers speak about the issues in their portfolios, they speak for the government and as part of the government. When the government takes decisions within their portfolios, they must support those decisions, regardless of their personal views and whether or not they were at the meeting concerned. When support party Ministers speak about matters outside their portfolios, they may speak as political party leaders or members of Parliament rather than as Ministers, and do not necessarily support the government position. [13]

Ministers outside Cabinet retain individual ministerial responsibility for the actions of their department (in common with Cabinet ministers). [14]

Electoral reform and Cabinet structure

The 1993 referendum in New Zealand resulted in a number of structural changes to Cabinet. The change to the MMP system ultimately led to a larger number of political parties in Parliament, as under the proportional representation system any political party can enter Parliament if they received five percent of the party vote or won one electorate seat. [15] The increased representation resulted in the need to form coalitions between parties, as no single party has received a majority of votes and seats under MMP. [16]

In order to govern in a coalition under MMP, it is likely that a major party will have to relinquish and offer Cabinet positions to members of a minority party. The 1996 general election highlighted the changes which were predicted to result from MMP. New Zealand First received 13.4% of the party vote, giving them 17 total seats in the House of Representatives (compared to 8.5% in the 1993 general election, conducted under the FPP voting system). [17] This ultimately resulted in the National-New Zealand First coalition as the National Party, who received 33.8% of the party vote, translating to 44 seats in the House, could not govern alone. [18]

Negotiations forming the new government took nearly two months however the ultimate result being that New Zealand First were to have five ministers inside Cabinet and four outside. This translated to having 36.4% of representation in the new government. [19] The Prime Minister following the 1996 election, Jim Bolger, was forced to tell his caucus during negotiations with New Zealand First, that he would not be able to satisfy all ambitions of the caucus, due to the forced inclusion of the minority party into the governmental framework, thus highlighting one of the challenges that came with MMP. [19]

The result of MMP on Cabinet structure in New Zealand is also highlighted below under the 'Members' heading. In the coalition deal following the election New Zealand First leader Winston Peters was given the position of deputy prime minister, and New Zealand First were given a number of ministerial portfolios including foreign affairs, infrastructure, regional economic development, and internal affairs. [20]

Meetings

Photograph taken before the first meeting of the Cabinet of the Sixth Labour Government of New Zealand, Beehive, 26 October 2017 New Zealand Cabinet October 2017.jpg
Photograph taken before the first meeting of the Cabinet of the Sixth Labour Government of New Zealand, Beehive, 26 October 2017

Cabinet meets on a regular basis, usually weekly on a Monday, [21] to discuss the most important issues of government policy. [22] The meetings are chaired by the prime minister (who also sets the agenda) or, in the prime minister's absence, the next most senior minister in attendance, usually the deputy prime minister. Ministers outside Cabinet may occasionally be invited for the discussion of particular items with which they have been closely involved. [n 3] All Cabinet meetings are held behind closed doors, and the minutes are kept confidential. [2] The Cabinet offices, including the room where Cabinet meets, are located on the top floor of the Beehive (the Executive Wing of Parliament Buildings). [23]

Members

The prime minister assigns roles to ministers and ranks them in order to determine seniority. A minister's rank depends on factors such as "their length of service, the importance of their portfolio and their personal standing with the prime minister". [14] The deputy prime minister and minister of finance are usually the highest-ranked ministers, after the prime minister. [24] Under MMP, there are three categories of minister: ministers within the 'core' Cabinet, ministers outside Cabinet, and ministers from support parties (i.e. minor parties which have agreed to support a government party during confidence and supply votes). [14] [25] The size of Cabinet has grown over time. In the 1890s, for example, there were seven Cabinet ministers. [26] The number of ministers within Cabinet increased in the period up until the 1970s, but has plateaued at 20 since 1972; this despite increases in the number of members of parliament. By contrast, the numbers of ministers outside Cabinet has grown, especially since the introduction of MMP. [25]

All ministers have the style of "The Honourable", except for the prime minister, who is styled "The Right Honourable". [26] Additionally, in the current Cabinet, Winston Peters is styled as The Right Honourable, having been appointed a member of the Privy Council prior to the change in rules regarding the use of the style. [27]

The Cabinet secretary, responsible for recording the formal minutes of meeting, is a public servant. [28] The secretary and deputy secretary are not political appointments or members of Cabinet.

List of current ministers

The current Labour-led coalition government has a Cabinet of 20 ministers, four of whom are New Zealand First MPs. There are four Labour ministers outside Cabinet; and three support ministers from the Green Party, which has a confidence-and-supply agreement with Labour. [24] Additionally, there are two parliamentary under-secretaries who assist the ministers from a parliamentary standpoint, and represent the minister they assist when they are unavailable. [n 4] [29]

The table below lists Cabinet ministers and ministers outside Cabinet as of 7 April 2020. [n 3]

Parties
Labour
NZ First
Greens
RankingPortfoliosIncumbentAdditional responsibilitiesElectorate
1. Prime Minister
Minister for Arts, Culture and Heritage
Minister for National Security and Intelligence
Leader of the Labour Party
The Rt. Hon. Jacinda Ardern MP Minister for Child Poverty Reduction Mt Albert
2. Deputy Prime Minister
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Minister for State Owned Enterprises
Minister for Racing
Minister for Disarmament and Arms Control
Leader of New Zealand First
The Rt. Hon. Winston Peters MP List
3.Minister for Crown/Māori Relations
Minister of Corrections
Minister of Tourism
Deputy Leader of the Labour Party
The Hon. Kelvin Davis MPAssociate Minister of Education (Māori Education) Te Tai Tokerau
4. Minister of Finance
Minister for Sport and Recreation
The Hon. Grant Robertson MPAssociate Minister for Arts, Culture and Heritage
Minister Responsible for the Earthquake Commission
Wellington Central
5.Minister of Urban Development
Minister for Economic Development
Minister of Transport
The Hon. Phil Twyford MP Te Atatū
6. Minister of Energy and Resources
Minister for Greater Christchurch Regeneration
Minister of Research, Science and Innovation
Minister of Housing
The Hon. Dr. Megan Woods MP Wigram
7. Minister of Education
Minister of State Services
The Hon. Chris Hipkins MP Leader of the House
Minister Responsible for Ministerial Services
Rimutaka
8. Minister of Justice
Minister for Courts
Minister Responsible for GCSB
Minister Responsible for NZSIS
Minister for Treaty of Waitangi Negotiations
The Hon. Andrew Little MPMinister Responsible for Pike River Re-entryList
9. Minister for Social Development
Minister for Disability Issues
The Hon. Carmel Sepuloni MPAssociate Minister for Arts, Culture and Heritage
Associate Minister for Pacific Peoples
Kelston
10. Attorney-General
Minister for the Environment
Minister for Trade and Export Growth
The Hon. David Parker MPAssociate Minister of FinanceList
11. Minister for Māori Development
Minister of Local Government
The Hon. Nanaia Mahuta MPAssociate Minister for the Environment Hauraki-Waikato
12. Minister of Police
Minister of Fisheries
Minister of Revenue
Minister for Small Business
The Hon. Stuart Nash MP Napier
13. Minister for Workplace Relations and Safety
Minister of Immigration
Minister of ACC
The Hon. Iain Lees-Galloway MPDeputy Leader of the House Palmerston North
14. Minister for Building and Construction
Minister for Ethnic Communities
Minister of Customs
The Hon. Jenny Salesa MPAssociate Minister of Education
Associate Minister of Health
Manukau East
15. Minister of Agriculture
Minister for Biosecurity
Minister for Food Safety
Minister for Rural Communities
The Hon. Damien O'Connor MPAssociate Minister of Trade and Export Growth West Coast-Tasman
16. Minister of Commerce and Consumer Affairs
Minister of Broadcasting, Communications and Digital Media
Minister for Government Digital Services
The Hon. Kris Faafoi MPAssociate Minister of Immigration Mana
17. Minister of Health The Hon. Dr David Clark MP Dunedin North
18. Minister of Defence
Minister for Veterans
The Hon. Ron Mark MPList
19. Minister for Children
Minister of Internal Affairs
Minister for Seniors
The Hon. Tracey Martin MPAssociate Minister of EducationList
20. Minister of Forestry
Minister for Infrastructure
Minister for Regional Economic Development
The Hon. Shane Jones MPAssociate Minister of Finance
Associate Minister of Transport
List
Ministers outside Cabinet [n 3]
21. Minister of Civil Defence
Minister for Whānau Ora
Minister for Youth
The Hon. Peeni Henare MPAssociate Minister for Social Development
Associate Minister for ACC
Tāmaki Makaurau
22. Minister for Employment The Hon. Willie Jackson MPAssociate Minister for Māori Development
Associate Minister of ACC
List
23. Minister for Pacific Peoples The Hon. Aupito William Sio MPAssociate Minister for Courts
Associate Minister of Justice
Māngere
24. Minister for the Community and Voluntary Sector The Hon. Poto Williams MPAssociate Minister for Greater Christchurch Regeneration
Associate Minister of Immigration
Associate Minister of Social Development
Christchurch East
Support party ministers
-Minister for Climate Change
Minister of Statistics
Green Party co-leader
The Hon. James Shaw MPAssociate Minister of FinanceList
- Minister for Women The Hon. Julie Anne Genter MPAssociate Minister of Health
Associate Minister of Transport
List
- Minister of Conservation
Minister for Land Information
The Hon. Eugenie Sage MPAssociate Minister for the EnvironmentList
Parliamentary under-secretaries
-Parliamentary Under-Secretary to the Minister of Foreign Affairs
Parliamentary Under-Secretary to the Minister for Regional Economic Development
Parliamentary Under-Secretary to the Minister for Disarmament and Arms Control
Deputy Leader of New Zealand First
Fletcher Tabuteau MPList
-Parliamentary Under-Secretary to the Minister of Justice (Domestic and Sexual Violence Issues) Jan Logie MPList

Committees

A Cabinet Committee comprises a subset of the larger Cabinet, consisting of a number of ministers who have responsibility in related areas of policy. Cabinet committees go into considerably more detail than can be achieved at regular Cabinet meetings, discussing issues which do not need the input of ministers holding unrelated portfolios. There are currently 10 Cabinet committees. [30]

Cabinet committees will often discuss matters referred to them by Cabinet itself, and then report back the results of their deliberation. This can sometimes become a powerful tool for advancing certain policies, as was demonstrated in the Lange government. Roger Douglas, Minister of Finance, and his allies succeeded in dominating the finance committee, enabling them to determine what it recommended to Cabinet. The official recommendation of the finance committee was much harder for his opponents to fight than his individual claims in Cabinet would be. Douglas was able to pass measures that, had Cabinet deliberated on them itself rather than pass them to committee, would have been defeated.

Cabinet committee membership

Cabinet Legislation Committee (LEG)Cabinet Appointments and Honours Committee (APH)Cabinet Business Committee (CBC)
ChairHon Chris HipkinsRt Hon Jacinda ArdernRt Hon Jacinda Ardern
Members

Rt Hon Jacinda Ardern, Rt Hon Winston Peters, Hon Andrew Little, Hon David Parker, Hon Stuart Nash, Hon Iain Lees-Galloway, Hon Damien O'Connor, Hon Tracey Martin, Hon James Shaw, Hon Eugenie Sage, Michael Wood (Senior Government Whip)

Rt Hon Winston Peters, Hon Kelvin Davis, Hon Grant Robertson, Hon Chris Hipkins, Hon Andrew Little, Hon Dr David Clark, Hon Nanaia Mahuta, Hon Jenny Salesa, Hon Tracey Martin, Hon Peeni Henare, Hon Aupito William Sio, Hon James Shaw, Hon Julie Anne Genter

Rt Hon Winston Peters, Hon Kelvin Davis, Hon Grant Robertson, Hon Phil Twyford, Hon Dr Megan Woods, Hon Chris Hipkins, Hon Andrew Little, Hon Carmel Sepuloni, Hon Dr David Clark, Hon Tracey Martin

Cabinet Crown/Māori Relations Committee (CMR)Cabinet Priorities Committee (CPC)Cabinet Economic Development Committee (DEV)
ChairHon Kelvin DavisRt Hon Jacinda ArdernHon Grant Robertson
Members

Rt Hon Jacinda Ardern, Rt Hon Winston Peters, Hon Grant Robertson, Hon Andrew Little, Hon David Parker, Hon Nanaia Mahuta, Hon Stuart Nash, Hon Damien O'Connor, Hon Shane Jones, Hon Peeni Henare, Hon Willie Jackson, Hon Eugenie Sage

Rt Hon Winston Peters, Hon Kelvin Davis, Hon Grant Robertson, Hon Phil Twyford, Hon Dr Megan Woods, Hon Chris Hipkins, Hon Andrew Little, Hon Carmel Sepuloni, Hon Dr David Clark, Hon David Parker, Hon Nanaia Mahuta, Hon Tracey Martin, Hon James Shaw

Rt Hon Jacinda Ardern, Rt Hon Winston Peters, Hon Kelvin Davis, Hon Phil Twyford, Hon Dr Megan Woods, Hon David Parker, Hon Nanaia Mahuta, Hon Stuart Nash, Hon Iain Lees-Galloway, Hon Jenny Salesa, Hon Damien O'Connor, Hon Shane Jones, Hon Kris Faafoi, Hon Willie Jackson, Hon James Shaw, Hon Eugenie Sage, Fletcher Tabuteau MP

Cabinet Environment, Energy and Climate Committee (ENV)Cabinet Governance Administration and Expenditure Review Committee (GOV) Cabinet National Security and External Relations Committee (NSC)
ChairHon David ParkerHon Grant RobertsonRt Hon Winston Peters
MembersRt Hon Jacinda Ardern, Rt Hon Winston Peters, Hon Kelvin Davis, Hon Grant Robertson, Hon Phil Twyford, Hon Dr Megan Woods, Hon Nanaia Mahuta, Hon Stuart Nash, Hon Damien O'Connor, Hon Shane Jones, Hon James Shaw, Hon Eugenie SageRt Hon Jacinda Ardern, Rt Hon Winston Peters, Hon Kelvin Davis, Hon Phil Twyford, Hon Chris Hipkins, Hon Dr David Clark, Hon David Parker, Hon Nanaia Mahuta, Hon Stuart Nash, Hon Ron Mark, Hon Tracey Martin, Hon Shane Jones, Hon James Shaw, Hon Julie Anne GenterRt Hon Jacinda Ardern, Hon Kelvin Davis, Hon Grant Robertson, Hon Andrew Little, Hon David Parker, Hon Stuart Nash, Hon Ron Mark
Cabinet Social Wellbeing Committee (SWC)
ChairHon Carmel Sepuloni
Members

Rt Hon Jacinda Ardern, Rt Hon Winston Peters, Hon Kelvin Davis, Hon Grant Robertson, Hon Phil Twyford, Hon Chris Hipkins, Hon Andrew Little, Hon Dr David Clark, Hon Nanaia Mahuta, Hon Stuart Nash, Hon Jenny Salesa, Hon Damien O'Connor, Hon Tracey Martin, Hon Peeni Henare, Hon Willie Jackson, Hon Aupito William Sio, Hon Julie Anne Genter, Michael Wood MP, Jan Logie MP

See also

Notes

  1. Translated as: "The Rūnanga (lit.'council') of the Government of New Zealand"
  2. In the front row are (L-R): Alfred Ransom, Gordon Coates, Prime Minister George Forbes, William Downie Stewart Sr, Āpirana Ngata, and Alexander Young. In the back row are (L-R): David Jones, John Cobbe, Adam Hamilton, and Robert Masters.
  3. 1 2 3 Only members regularly attend Cabinet meetings, although ministers outside Cabinet and support party ministers can be invited to attend if an area of their portfolio is on the agenda. Thus all ministers listed below have a role in Cabinet's decision-making.
  4. Unlike ministers, under-secretaries are not members of the Executive Council and have no government rank.

Related Research Articles

Politics of the Cook Islands

The politics of the Cook Islands, an associated state, takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democracy within a constitutional monarchy. The Queen of New Zealand, represented in the Cook Islands by the Queen's Representative, is the Head of State; the prime minister is the head of government and of a multi-party system. The Islands are self-governing in free association with New Zealand and are fully responsible for internal affairs. New Zealand retains some responsibility for external affairs, in consultation with the Cook Islands. In recent years, the Cook Islands have taken on more of its own external affairs; as of 2005, it has diplomatic relations in its own name with eighteen other countries. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the islands' parliament. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislatures.

Politics of New Zealand Unitary parliamentary representative democracy

The politics of New Zealand function within a framework of a unitary parliamentary representative democracy. The structure of government is based on the Westminster system, and the legal system is modelled on the common law of England. New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy in which a hereditary monarch—since 6 February 1952, Queen Elizabeth II—is the sovereign and head of state.

Politics of Solomon Islands

Politics of Solomon Islands takes place within the framework of a parliamentary representative democratic, constitutional monarchy. Solomon Islands is an independent Commonwealth realm, where executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and a multi-party parliament.

Prime Minister of New Zealand Head of the New Zealand government

The prime minister of New Zealand is the head of government of New Zealand. The incumbent prime minister, Jacinda Ardern, leader of the New Zealand Labour Party, took office on 26 October 2017.

New Zealand Parliament legislative body of New Zealand

The New Zealand Parliament is the legislature of New Zealand, consisting of the Queen of New Zealand (Queen-in-Parliament) and the New Zealand House of Representatives. The Queen is usually represented by her governor-general. Before 1951, there was an upper chamber, the New Zealand Legislative Council. The New Zealand Parliament was established in 1854 and is one of the oldest continuously functioning legislatures in the world. It has met in Wellington, the capital of New Zealand, since 1865.

Electoral reform in New Zealand

Electoral reform in New Zealand has, in recent years, become a political issue as major changes have been made to both parliamentary and local government electoral systems.

New Zealand House of Representatives Sole chamber of New Zealand Parliament

The New Zealand House of Representatives is a component of the New Zealand Parliament, along with the Sovereign. The House passes all laws, provides ministers to form a Cabinet, and supervises the work of the Government. It is also responsible for adopting the state's budgets and approving the state's accounts.

Executive Council of New Zealand

The Executive Council of New Zealand is the full group of "responsible advisers" to the governor-general of New Zealand on state and constitutional affairs. All Government ministers must be appointed as executive councillors before they are appointed as ministers; therefore all Cabinet ministers are also executive councillors. The governor-general signs a warrant of appointment for each member of the Executive Council, and separate warrants for each ministerial portfolio.

Cabinet of Australia council of senior federal ministers of Australia

The Cabinet of Australia is the Australian Government's council of senior ministers of the Crown, responsible to Parliament. Ministers are appointed by the Governor-General, on the advice of the Prime Minister, who serve at the former's pleasure. Cabinet meetings are strictly private and occur once a week where vital issues are discussed and policy formulated. The Cabinet is also composed of a number of Cabinet committees focused on governance and specific policy issues. Outside the Cabinet there is an Outer Ministry and also a number of Assistant Ministers, responsible for a specific policy area and reporting directly to a senior Cabinet minister of their portfolio. The Cabinet, the Outer Ministry, and the Assistant Ministers collectively form the full Commonwealth Ministry of the government of the day.

Cabinet collective responsibility, also known as collective ministerial responsibility, is a constitutional convention in Parliamentary systems that members of the cabinet must publicly support all governmental decisions made in Cabinet, even if they do not privately agree with them. This support includes voting for the government in the legislature. Some Communist political parties apply a similar convention of democratic centralism to their central committee.

Ministers in the New Zealand Government

Ministers, in the New Zealand Government, are members of Parliament (MPs) who hold ministerial warrants from the Crown to perform certain functions of government. This includes formulating and implementing policies and advising the governor-general. Ministers collectively make up the executive branch of the New Zealand state. The governor-general is obliged to follow the advice of the prime minister on the appointment and dismissal of ministers.

Government of Australia Federal democratic administrative authority of Australia

The Government of Australia is the government of the Commonwealth of Australia, a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy. It is also commonly referred to as the Commonwealth Government or the Federal Government.

Minister for Māori Development New Zealand minister of the Crown

The Minister for Māori Development is the minister of the New Zealand government with broad responsibility for government policy towards Māori, the first inhabitants of New Zealand. The Minister heads the Te Puni Kōkiri. Between 1947 and 2014 the position was called Minister of Māori Affairs; before that it was known as Minister of Native Affairs. As of 2017, The current Minister for Māori Development is Nanaia Mahuta.

Constitution of New Zealand Uncodified national constitution

The constitution of New Zealand is the sum of laws and principles that determine the political governance of New Zealand. Unlike many other nations, New Zealand has no single constitutional document. It is an uncodified constitution, sometimes referred to as an "unwritten constitution", although the New Zealand constitution is in fact an amalgamation of written and unwritten sources. The Constitution Act 1986 has a central role, alongside a collection of other statutes, orders in Council, letters patent, decisions of the courts, principles of the Treaty of Waitangi, and unwritten traditions and conventions. There is no technical difference between ordinary statutes and law considered "constitutional law". In most cases the New Zealand Parliament can perform "constitutional reform" simply by passing acts of Parliament, and thus has the power to change or abolish elements of the constitution. There are some exceptions to this though – the Electoral Act 1993 requires certain provisions can only be amended following a referendum.

Governor-General of New Zealand Representative of the monarch of New Zealand

The Governor-General of New Zealand is the viceregal representative of the monarch of New Zealand, currently Queen Elizabeth II. As the Queen is concurrently the monarch of 15 other Commonwealth realms, and lives in the United Kingdom, she, on the advice of her New Zealand prime minister, appoints a governor-general to carry out her constitutional and ceremonial duties within the Realm of New Zealand.

Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (New Zealand) New Zealand government department

The Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (DPMC) is the central public service department of New Zealand charged with providing support and advice to the Governor-General, the Prime Minister and members of the Cabinet of New Zealand. The department is also charged with centrally leading New Zealand's "national security planning, which includes civil defence."

Government of New Zealand Central government of New Zealand

The Government of New Zealand, or New Zealand Government, formally Her Majesty's Government in New Zealand, is the administrative complex through which authority is exercised in New Zealand. As in most parliamentary democracies, the term "Government" refers chiefly to the executive branch, and more specifically to the collective ministry directing the executive. Based on the principle of responsible government, it operates within the framework that "the Queen reigns, but the government rules, so long as it has the support of the House of Representatives". The Cabinet Manual describes the main laws, rules and conventions affecting the conduct and operation of the Government.

The Fourth National Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand from 2 November 1990 to 27 November 1999. Following electoral reforms in the 1996 election, Jim Bolger formed a coalition with New Zealand First. Following Bolger's resignation, the government was led by Jenny Shipley, the country's first female Prime Minister, for the final two years.

In a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminster system, confidence and supply are required for a minority government to retain power in the lower house.

Cabinet (government) Group of high ranking officials, usually representing the executive branch of government

A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch. Members of a cabinet are usually called cabinet ministers or secretaries. The function of a cabinet varies: in some countries it is a collegiate decision-making body with collective responsibility, while in others it may function either as a purely advisory body or an assisting institution to a decision making head of state or head of government. Cabinets are typically the body responsible for the day-to-day management of the government and response to sudden events, whereas the legislative and judicial branches work in a measured pace, in sessions according to lengthy procedures.

References

  1. "Clearing up some coalition confusion". Newsroom. 25 October 2017. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
  2. 1 2 3 Eichbaum, Chris. "Cabinet government - Cabinet procedure". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  3. 1 2 3 Duncan, Grant (October 2015). "New Zealand's Cabinet Manual: How Does It Shape Constitutional Conventions?". Parliamentary Affairs. 68 (4): 737–756. doi:10.1093/pa/gsu023.
  4. "Cabinet Manual". cabinetmanual.cabinetoffice.govt.nz. Cabinet Office of New Zealand. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  5. "Executive Council – Cabinet Manual". Cabinet Office of New Zealand. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  6. 1 2 Bohan, Edmund (1990). "Stafford, Edward William". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography . Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  7. "Cabinet Manual: Cabinet". Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet. 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
  8. 1 2 Eichbaum, Chris. "Cabinet government - Collective responsibility". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  9. Palmer, Matthew. "What is New Zealand's constitution and who interprets it? Constitutional realism and the importance of public office-holders" (PDF). Retrieved 21 May 2018.
  10. Fairclough, Paul (2002). "6.1 The Primemister". Advanced Government and Politics. Oxford University Press. ISBN   978-0-19-913434-2.
  11. Palmer, Geoffrey (2013). Reform: A Memoir. Victoria University Press. p. 586. ISBN   9780864739605.
  12. Holl, Maarten; Palmer, Matthew (20 June 2012). "Helen Clark and Jim Anderton with their coalition agreement, 1999". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Archived from the original on 30 April 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  13. "CO (12) 3: National-led Administration – Consultation and Operating Arrangements". CO (12) 3: National-led Administration – Consultation and Operating Arrangements. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
  14. 1 2 3 Eichbaum, Chris. "Cabinet government - Ministers and prime ministers in cabinet". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
  15. "What is the MMP voting system?" . Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  16. Martin, John E. (1 February 2015). "Parliament - Impact of MMP". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  17. "General elections 1996–2005". Electoral Commission. Archived from the original on 30 December 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  18. "General elections 1996–2005". Electoral Commission. Archived from the original on 21 January 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  19. 1 2 Spanhake, Craig (2005). "Cabinet Selection 1960–1997: An Overview of Political Process in New Zealand" . Retrieved 20 May 2018.
  20. Cheng, Derek (24 October 2017). "Labour-NZ First coalition: At a glance". The New Zealand Herald . ISSN   1170-0777 . Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  21. "Post Cabinet Press Conference". beehive.govt.nz. New Zealand Government. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
  22. Eichbaum, Chris. "Cabinet government - What cabinet discusses". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
  23. Brooks, Miki. Lessons From a Land Down Under: Devotions from New Zealand. p. 21. ISBN   9780557098842.
  24. 1 2 "Ministers". New Zealand Government. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  25. 1 2 Dowding, Keith; Dumont, Patrick (2014). The Selection of Ministers around the World. Routledge. pp. 27–28. ISBN   9781317634454 . Retrieved 5 September 2019.
  26. 1 2 "Cabinet government". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  27. ""The Honourable" and "The Right Honourable"". New Zealand Government. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  28. "Supporting the work of the Cabinet". Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  29. "Parliamentary Private Secretaries appointed". The Beehive. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
  30. "Cabinet Committees | DPMC". www.dpmc.govt.nz. Retrieved 15 February 2018.