Cabrillo National Monument

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Cabrillo National Monument
Location map Central San Diego.png
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Nearest city San Diego
Coordinates 32°40′23″N117°14′19″W / 32.67306°N 117.23861°W / 32.67306; -117.23861 Coordinates: 32°40′23″N117°14′19″W / 32.67306°N 117.23861°W / 32.67306; -117.23861
Area143.9 acres (58.2 ha)
ArchitectUS Lighthouse Board; National Park Service
Architectural styleLate 19th And 20th Century Revivals
Visitation842,104 (2018) [2]
Website Cabrillo National Monument
NRHP reference No. 66000224
CHISL No.56 [1]
Significant dates
Added to NRHPOctober 15, 1966 [3]
Designated NMONOctober 14, 1913 [4]
Designated CHISL1932

Cabrillo National Monument (Spanish : Monumento nacional Cabrillo) is at the southern tip of the Point Loma Peninsula in San Diego, California, United States. It commemorates the landing of Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo at San Diego Bay on September 28, 1542. This event marked the first time a European expedition had set foot on what later became the West Coast of the United States. The site was designated as California Historical Landmark #56 in 1932. [1] As with all historical units of the National Park Service, Cabrillo was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. [3]


The annual Cabrillo Festival Open House is held on a Sunday each October. It commemorates Cabrillo with a reenactment of his landing at Ballast Point, in San Diego Bay. Other events are held above at the National Monument and include Kumeyaay, Portuguese, and Mexican singing and dancing, booths with period and regional food, a historical reenactment of a 16th-century encampment, and children's activities.

The park offers a view of San Diego's harbor and skyline, as well as Coronado and Naval Air Station North Island. On clear days, a wide expanse of the Pacific Ocean, Tijuana, and Mexico's Coronado Islands are also visible. A visitor center screens a film about Cabrillo's voyage and has exhibits about the expedition.

The Old Point Loma Lighthouse is the highest point in the park and has been a San Diego icon since 1855. The lighthouse was closed in 1891, and a new one opened at a lower elevation, because fog and low clouds often obscured the light at its location 129 meters (422 feet) above sea level. The old lighthouse is now a museum, and visitors may enter it and view some of the living areas.

The area encompassed by the national monument includes various former military installations, such as coastal artillery batteries, built to protect the harbor of San Diego from enemy warships. Many of these installations can be seen while walking around the area. A former army building hosts an exhibit that tells the story of military history at Point Loma.

The area near the national monument entrance was used for gliding activities in 1929-1935. Several soaring endurance records were established here by William Hawley Bowlus and others including the first 1-hour flight in a sailplane, and a 15-hour flight in 1930 which surpassed the world record for soaring endurance. Even Charles Lindbergh soared in a Bowlus sailplane along the cliffs of Point Loma in 1930. Markers for these accomplishments can be found near the entrance, and the site is recognized as a National Soaring Landmark by the National Soaring Museum. [5]


1935 plaque at Cabrillo Monument 6208-PointLomaCabrilloCommemorativePlaque.jpg
1935 plaque at Cabrillo Monument

On October 14, 1913, by presidential proclamation, Woodrow Wilson reserved 0.5 acres (2,000 m2) of Fort Rosecrans for "The Order of Panama ... to construct a heroic statue of Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo." [4] By 1926 no statue had been placed and the Order of Panama was defunct, so Calvin Coolidge authorized the Native Sons of the Golden West to erect a suitable monument, [4] but they were also unable to carry out the commission.

A major renovation of the half-acre monument was undertaken in 1935; the deteriorating lighthouse was refurbished, a new road to the monument was built, and the Portuguese ambassador to the United States presented a bronze plaque, honoring Cabrillo as a "distinguished Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain" who made "the first Alta California landfall". [6]

In 1939 the Portuguese government commissioned a heroic statue of Cabrillo and donated it to the United States. The sandstone statue, executed by sculptor Alvaro de Bree, is 14 feet (4.3 m) tall and weighs 14,000 pounds (6,400 kg). The statue was intended for the Golden Gate International Exposition in San Francisco but arrived too late and was stored in an Oakland, California garage. Then-State Senator Ed Fletcher managed to obtain the statue in 1940 over the objections of Bay Area officials and shipped it to San Diego. It was stored for several years on the grounds of the Naval Training Center San Diego, out of public view, and was finally installed at Cabrillo Monument in 1949. The sandstone statue suffered severe weathering because of its exposed position and was replaced in 1988 by a replica made of limestone. [7]

Cabrillo Monument was off-limits to the public during World War II because the entire south end of the Point Loma Peninsula was reserved for military purposes. Following the war the area of the national monument was enlarged significantly by Presidents Eisenhower and Ford. [8] It currently includes more than 140 acres (57 ha).

Flora and fauna

Cabrillo National Monument tidepools Tidal pools at Cabrillo National Monument DSCN0429.JPG
Cabrillo National Monument tidepools

Despite factors such as the toxicity of the San Diego Harbor, over-harvesting of native species, large-scale developments for the 3.1 million residents of the San Diego-Carlsbad Metropolitan Area, and the introduction of exotic and harmful species to the area, there is still a vast array of flora and fauna that inhabit the Monument area. [9]

Coyote exhibit at Cabrillo Visitor's Center Coyote exhibit, Cabrillo National Monument DSCN0451.JPG
Coyote exhibit at Cabrillo Visitor's Center

One of the most thriving and diverse animal communities of Cabrillo National Monument is located in the intertidal zone and tide pools. The species that live in the tide pools include coralline algae, chitons, true limpets, acorn barnacles ( Sessilia ), goose neck barnacles, rock louse, sea lettuce, kelp fly ( Coelopa frigida or seaweed fly), pink thatched barnacles, encrusting algae, periwinkles, mussels ( Mytilus californianus), dead man's fingers ( Codium fragile ), sea bubbles, unicorn snail (Acanthina spirata), anemones, Tegula top snails, sculpin, aggregating anemone, sandcastle worms, hermit crabs, rockweed (Silvetia fastigiata), wavy turban snails ( Turbo fluctuosus ), keyhole limpet (Fissurellidae), brittle star, surfgrass, surfgrass limpet, kelp crab, garibaldi, sea hare, opaleye, bat star, knobby blue star, sea urchin, sargassum weed, feather boa kelp, octopus, chestnut cowry, sea palm, ruddy turnstone, and lined shore crab. [10] The Monument advises that the best time to see the tide pools is in the late fall or winter, when tides are rated at negative one or lower during daylight hours. [11]

In the winter (December through March), migrating gray whales can be seen off the coast from the Whale Overlook station, 100 yards south of the old lighthouse. Established in 1950, this was the first public whale watching lookout point in the world. During its first year of operation, 10,000 people visited the lookout to observe the gray whale migration. [12]

Native coastal sage scrub habitat along the Bayside Trail offers a place to hike or relax, as well as a noteworthy habitat for wildlife.

The park's activities are supported by the Cabrillo National Monument Foundation, [13] a private nonprofit organization which helps with educational activities and special projects as well as operating a bookstore at the site. The foundation has also published several books on historic and scientific topics related to the Monument.

Native and non-native species

The park's ecosystems have encountered multiple non-native species not originally part of the habitat but rather have been introduced and adapted to it over time. One example of non-native species harming native species is the Argentine ant. These ants have displaced the native ants, and this impacted the coast horned lizard population, which only ate the native ants. In those areas where Argentine ants had established colonies, the coast horned lizard is no longer found. [14]


Cabrillo National Monument
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [15]

Point Loma lighthouses

Old Point Loma Lighthouse

In 1851, a year after California entered the Union, the U.S. Coastal Survey selected the heights of Point Loma to be a navigational aid. The crest seemed like the right location: it stood 422 feet above sea level, overlooking the bay and the ocean, and a lighthouse there could serve as both a harbor light and a coastal beacon.

Construction began on the lighthouse in early 1854 and was completed in November 1855. By late summer 1854, the work was done. More than a year passed before the lighting apparatus - a five-foot-tall 3rd order Fresnel lens, the best available technology - arrived from France and was installed. At dusk on November 15, 1855, the keeper climbed the winding stairs and lit the oil lamp for the first time. In clear weather its light was visible at sea for 25 miles. For the next 36 years, except on foggy nights, it welcomed sailors to San Diego harbor. However, the lighthouse's location on top of a 400-foot cliff meant that fog and low clouds often obscured the light from the view of ships.

On March 23, 1891, the flame was permanently extinguished and the light was replaced by the New Point Loma lighthouse at a lower elevation. In 1984, the light was lit by the National Park Service for the first time in 93 years to celebrate the site's 130th birthday. [16]

New Point Loma Lighthouse

After boarding up the old lighthouse in 1891, the keeper moved his family and belongings into a new light station at the bottom of the hill, which is still an active light. It can be seen from the Whale Overlook, 100 yards south of the Old Point Loma Lighthouse, or from the tide pool area.

Visitor Center

The Visitor Center offers a place to purchase souvenirs and learn about the park's history. The center also allows visitors the chance to communicate with Park Rangers and volunteers. Visitors can learn the day's weather readings, the time of low tide, get a National Park Passport stamped, visit the “Age of Exploration” exhibit, and learn the times for ranger talks/guided tours and auditorium showings. The auditorium offers several showings a day, and features three different films including: “In Search of Cabrillo,” “On the Edge of Land and Sea,” and “First Breath: Gray Whales.” Cabrillo National Monument also hosts a "Junior Ranger" program in which children can earn a Junior Ranger badge by exploring the park and filling out an activity sheet. In 2013, Junior Ranger Day was held on April 27. [17]


There are many events throughout the year. Every year there are a few “Fee Free Weekends” where the park entrance fee is waived for all guests. Other annual events include “Whale Watch Weekend,” “Founder’s Day,” and “Open Tower Day.” “Whale Watch Weekend” occurs in January and features exhibitors and special ranger-led walks and talks as guests look for whales during the annual Pacific Gray Whales migration. “Founder’s Day,” August 25, celebrates the establishment of the National Park Service at Cabrillo National Monument; “Open Tower Day,” November 15, marks the anniversary of the Old Point Loma Lighthouse. The tower at the top of the lighthouse, normally closed to visitors, is open to the public on those two days. [18] The park also has one of the fully restored World War II bunkers open to the public on the fourth Saturday of each month.

A four-day commemoration of the park's centennial year had been planned for October 11–14, 2013, but it was cancelled due to the partial shutdown of United States government functions. [6] The park rescheduled the centennial event to coincide with the annual "Fort Rosecrans Goes to War," a tribute to San Diego and World War II, on December 7–8, 2013. [19] Some of the other planned centennial events took place in 2014. [6]

See also

Related Research Articles

Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Portuguese or Spanish explorer

Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo was an Iberian maritime explorer best known for investigations of the West Coast of North America, undertaken on behalf of the Spanish Empire. He was the first European to explore present-day California, navigating along the coast of California in 1542–1543.

Cabrillo may refer to:

Channel Islands National Park National park of the United States

Channel Islands National Park consists of five of the eight Channel Islands off the Pacific coast of the U.S. state of California. Although the islands are close to the shore of the densely populated state, they have been relatively undeveloped. The park covers 249,561 acres (100,994 ha), of which 79,019 acres (31,978 ha) are federal land. The Nature Conservancy owns and manages 76% of Santa Cruz Island, the largest of the eight.

Point Reyes National Seashore Park preserve in California, United States

Point Reyes National Seashore is a 71,028-acre (287.44 km2) park preserve located on the Point Reyes Peninsula in Marin County, California. As a national seashore, it is maintained by the US National Park Service as an important nature preserve. Some existing agricultural uses are allowed to continue within the park. Clem Miller, a US Congressman from Marin County wrote and introduced the bill for the establishment of Point Reyes National Seashore in 1962 to protect the peninsula from development which was proposed at the time for the slopes above Drake's Bay. All of the park's beaches were listed as the cleanest in the state in 2010.

California State Route 209 Former highway in California

State Route 209 (SR 209) was a state highway in the U.S. state of California, connecting Cabrillo National Monument with the interchange of Interstate 5 (I-5) and I-8 in San Diego, passing through the neighborhoods of Point Loma. The majority of the route was along Rosecrans Street; it also included Cañon Street and Catalina Boulevard leading to the tip of Point Loma.

Old Point Loma Lighthouse

The original Point Loma Lighthouse is a historic lighthouse located on the Point Loma peninsula at the mouth of San Diego Bay in San Diego, California. It is situated in the Cabrillo National Monument. It is no longer in operation as a lighthouse but is open to the public as a museum. It is sometimes erroneously called the "Old Spanish Lighthouse", but in fact it was not built during San Diego's Spanish or Mexican eras; it was built in 1855 by the United States government after California's admission as a state.

Los Angeles Harbor Light Lighthouse at the Port of Los Angeles in California, United States

Los Angeles Harbor Light, also known as Angels Gate Light, is a lighthouse in California, United States, at San Pedro Breakwater in Los Angeles Harbor, California. The lighthouse is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It is listed as Los Angeles Light in the USCG Lights list. It is the only lighthouse in the world that emits an emerald-colored light.

New Point Loma Lighthouse

The New Point Loma Lighthouse is a lighthouse at the southern tip of the Point Loma peninsula in San Diego, California.

Ballast Point Lighthouse

Ballast Point Lighthouse was a lighthouse in California, situated on Ballast Point, a tiny peninsula extending into San Diego Bay from Point Loma, San Diego, California. The lighthouse was torn down in 1960; the site is now on the grounds of Naval Base Point Loma. Ballast Point Lighthouse was the last lighthouse displaying a fixed light on the Pacific Coast. An automated light is left in its place and operates on a piling in the water off of the original site.

Point Cabrillo Light

Point Cabrillo Light is a lighthouse in northern California, United States, between Point Arena and Cape Mendocino, just south of the community of Caspar. It has been a federal aid to navigation since 1909. It is part of the California state park system as Point Cabrillo Light Station State Historic Park.

Point Vicente Light

Point Vicente Lighthouse is a lighthouse in Rancho Palos Verdes, California, United States, north of Los Angeles Harbor. It is 67 feet (20 m) tall and stands on a cliff with a height of 130 feet (40 m). It is between Point Loma Lighthouse to the south and Point Conception Lighthouse to the north. The lighthouse was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. The lighthouse is owned by the United States federal government and is managed by the United States Coast Guard. It is not usually open to the public, but the Coast Guard Auxiliary run tours once per month and it is used annually for the city's "Whale of a Day" festival.

Point Loma, San Diego Community within San Diego in California

Point Loma is a seaside community within the city of San Diego, California. Geographically it is a hilly peninsula that is bordered on the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, the east by the San Diego Bay and Old Town, and the north by the San Diego River. Together with the Silver Strand / Coronado peninsula, the Point Loma peninsula defines San Diego Bay and separates it from the Pacific Ocean. The term "Point Loma" is used to describe both the neighborhood and the peninsula.

Point Sur Lighthouse Lighthouse in California, United States

Point Sur Lightstation is a lighthouse at Point Sur, California, 135 miles (217 km) south of San Francisco, on the 361-foot (110 m)-tall rock at the head of the point. It was established in 1889 and is part of Point Sur State Historic Park. The light house is 40 feet (12 m) tall and 270 feet (82 m) above sea level. As of 2016, and for the foreseeable future the light is still in operation as an essential aid to navigation. Point Sur is the only complete turn-of-the-20th-century lightstation open to the public in California. Three-hour walking tours guided by volunteers are available on Wednesdays and weekends throughout the year.

La Playa is a bayfront neighborhood in the Point Loma community of San Diego, California. It is bordered by the San Diego Bay on the east, Naval Base Point Loma on the south, the Wooded Area neighborhood to the west and Point Loma Village/Roseville-Fleetridge to the north. It lies across a channel from Shelter Island.

Roseville-Fleetridge is a neighborhood in Point Loma, San Diego, California. It is bounded by San Diego Bay and Rosecrans Street on the east, Cañon Street on the south, Catalina Boulevard on the west and Chatsworth and Nimitz Boulevards on the north. Neighboring communities are Point Loma Heights and Loma Portal to the north, Point Loma Village and Liberty Station to the east, La Playa and the Wooded Area to the south, and Sunset Cliffs to the west. It is actually two separate neighborhoods, Roseville and Fleetridge, which the city lumps together for policing purposes.

Piedras Blancas Light Station

Piedras Blancas Light Station is located at Point Piedras Blancas, about 5.5 miles (8.9 km) west by northwest of San Simeon, California. It was added to the California Coastal National Monument in 2017.

Cabrillo State Marine Reserve (SMR) is a marine protected area (MPA). It extends off Cabrillo National Monument in Point Loma, San Diego County on California’s south coast. The SMR covers .38 square miles. The SMR protects marine life by limiting the removal of marine wildlife from within its borders. Cabrillo SMR prohibits take of all living marine resources.

The Cabrillo Formation is a Maastrichtian stage geologic formation in coastal San Diego County, southern California. It is part of the Rosario Group.


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  2. "NPS Annual Recreation Visits Report". National Park Service. Retrieved 2019-04-11.
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  5. "Point Loma, San Diego, California - National Soaring Museum". Archived from the original on 2015-12-19.
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  9. Understand the Life of Point Loma
  10. Tegner, Mia (2004). Understanding the Life of Point Loma. San Diego, CA: Cabrillo National Monument Foundation. pp. 56, 62–63.
  11. Low tide best dates and times Archived 2013-05-02 at the Wayback Machine , Cabrillo National Monument
  12. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-09-13. Retrieved 2013-08-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  15. "NASA Earth Observations Data Set Index". NASA. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
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  17. "Cabrillo National Monument (U.S. National Park Service)". Archived from the original on 2013-04-13.
  18. "Special Events - Cabrillo National Monument (U.S. National Park Service)". Archived from the original on 2013-04-14.
  19. "Cabrillo National Monument Re-scheduled Centennial Celebration! December 7-8, 2013". Schedule of Events. Cabrillo National Monument. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2013.