|Born||14 May 1900|
|Died||11 September 1990 90)(aged|
|Known for||First leader of the All-China Women's Federation|
|Political party||Communist Party of China|
|Relatives|| Cai Hesen (brother)|
Xiang Jingyu (sister-in-law)
Cai Chang (Chinese :蔡畅; 14 May 1900 – 11 September 1990) was a Chinese politician and women's rights activist who was the first chair of the All-China Women's Federation, a Chinese women's rights organization.
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore.
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century. In some countries, these rights are institutionalized or supported by law, local custom, and behavior, whereas in others they are ignored and suppressed. They differ from broader notions of human rights through claims of an inherent historical and traditional bias against the exercise of rights by women and girls, in favor of men and boys.
The All-China Women's Federation, also known as the ACWF, is a women's rights organization established in China on 24 March 1949. It was originally called the All-China Democratic Women's Foundation, and was renamed the All-China Women's Federation in 1957. It has acted as the official leader of the women’s movement in China since its founding. It is responsible for promoting government policies on women, and protecting women’s rights within the government.
Cai Chang was born in 1900 to a lower middle class family in China. Her mother left her husband, and enabled her children to attend school by selling her belongings. Cai believed strongly in women's education, and spurned the idea of marriage in favor of a vow of celibacy. Her mother aided her in this by avoiding an arranged marriage for Cai. Cai attended the Zhunan Girls' Middle School at Changsha until 1916. In the winter of 1917–1918, she became one of the first women to join the New People's Study Society, a work study program put in place by Mao Zedong and Cai's brother, Cai Hesen. This group advocated for women to create their own self-help groups and to become active in politics.
In developed nations across the world, the lower middle class is a sub-division of the greater middle class. Universally the term refers to the group of middle class households or individuals who have not attained the status of the upper middle class associated with the higher realms of the middle class, hence the name.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
Celibacy is the state of voluntarily being unmarried, sexually abstinent, or both, usually for religious reasons. It is often in association with the role of a religious official or devotee. In its narrow sense, the term celibacy is applied only to those for whom the unmarried state is the result of a sacred vow, act of renunciation, or religious conviction. In a wider sense, it is commonly understood to only mean abstinence from sexual activity.
Cai, her mother, Cai Hesen, and Cai Hesen's future wife Xiang Jingyu went to Europe, where Cai was a factory worker. She studied anarchism, Marxism, and Leninism alongside other Chinese socialist feminist scholars, including at the Communist University of the Toilers of the East in Moscow.
Xiang Jingyu, whose old name was Xiang Junxian, was one of the earliest female members of the Communist Party of China (CPC), widely regarded as a pioneer of the women’s movement of China.
Anarchism is an anti-authoritarian political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary, cooperative institutions and the rejection of hierarchies those societies view as unjust. These institutions are often described as stateless societies, although several authors have defined them more specifically as distinct institutions based on non-hierarchical or free associations. Anarchism holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary and harmful.
Marxism is a theory and method of working class self-emancipation. As a theory, it relies on a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation. It originates from the works of 19th-century German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
In 1922, Cai married Li Fuchun, a prominent communist.
Li Fuchun was a Chinese Communist revolutionary and politician. He served as a Vice Premier of the People's Republic of China.
In 1921, Cai returned to China, where she studied to become a physical education teacher. She taught for four years at the Zhunan Girls' School, which she had attended several years earlier. During this time, she joined the Communist Party of China.
Physical education, also known as Phys Ed., PE, gym, or gym class, and known in many Commonwealth countries as physical training or PT, is an educational course related of maintaining the human body through physical exercises. It is taken during primary and secondary education and encourages psychomotor learning in a play or movement exploration setting to promote health.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China. The Communist Party is the sole governing party within mainland China, permitting only eight other, subordinated parties to co-exist, those making up the United Front. It was founded in 1921, chiefly by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao. The party grew quickly, and by 1949 it had driven the nationalist Kuomintang (KMT) government from mainland China after the Chinese Civil War, leading to the establishment of the People's Republic of China. It also controls the world's largest armed forces, the People's Liberation Army.
Cai left her teaching job to work for the Central Women's Department in the Nationalist Party in 1925. Two years later, she joined the Central Women's Committee, leading it in Xiang Jingyu's absence. She helped to create the Marriage Decree of 1930, which declared that "free choice must be the basic principle of every marriage."She also helped write the Provisional Constitution of 1931. From 1934–1935, she joined her husband Li Fuchun on the Long March.
The Long March was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang army. There was not one Long March, but a series of marches, as various Communist armies in the south escaped to the north and west. The best known is the march from Jiangxi province which began in October 1934. The First Front Army of the Chinese Soviet Republic, led by an inexperienced military commission, was on the brink of annihilation by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's troops in their stronghold in Jiangxi province. The Communists, under the eventual command of Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai, escaped in a circling retreat to the west and north, which reportedly traversed over 9,000 kilometers over 370 days. The route passed through some of the most difficult terrain of western China by traveling west, then north, to Shaanxi.
Cai was well known in China after 1949, where she led the All-China Women's Federation under the People's Republic of China. Part of her work in the ACWF included creating a strategy to help privileged women take a leading role in scientific and cultural improvements. This earned her criticism, however, as it supported the Communist Party of China's views that emphasized technological and economic improvement over women's liberation and advantaged only powerful women; it did not help lower-class women, but rather returned them to their pre-war roles.
Eileen Chang 張愛玲, also known as Zhang Ailing or Chang Ai-ling, who attracted much attention as a Chinese female writer during the twentieth century.
The Publicity Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, or CCPPD, is an internal division of the Communist Party of China in charge of ideology-related work, as well as its information dissemination system. It is not formally considered to be part of the Government of the People's Republic of China, but enforces media censorship and control in the People's Republic of China.
Li Yinhe is a sociologist, sexologist, and activist for LGBT rights in the People's Republic of China. She was married to the late writer Wang Xiaobo. Her main academic interests have been sexual norms in contemporary China, homosexuality, diverse sexual behaviors including sadomasochism, and women's studies.
The 6th Politburo of the Communist Party of China was elected by the 6th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China in Moscow on July 19, 1928, during the Chinese Civil War. It was followed by the 7th Politburo of the Communist Party of China.
The 5th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was in session from 1927 to 1928. It was set into motion by the 5th National Congress. It was followed by the '6th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China'.
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The 3rd Central Executive Committee of the Communist Party of China was in session from 1923 to 1925, during a period when China was a Republic. The 2nd Central Executive Committee of the Communist Party of China preceded it. The 4th Central Executive Committee of the Communist Party of China would follow.
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Cai Qi is a Chinese politician, the current Communist Party Secretary of Beijing, and a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China. Cai began his career in Fujian province. He has served successively as the mayor of Sanming, the mayor of Quzhou, the Communist Party Secretary of Taizhou, Zhejiang, and mayor of Hangzhou. Beginning in 2010 he served as the Executive Vice Governor of Zhejiang Province, and in 2014 was transferred to Beijing to serve as deputy director of the General Office serving the National Security Commission.
Cai Hesen was an early leader of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), and a friend and comrade of Mao Zedong. Cai was born in Shanghai but grew up in Shuangfeng County in Hunan Province of China. He helped Mao organize the Changsha New People's Study Society. In 1919 he went to France on the Work-Study program, and his letters of advocacy were important in convincing Mao of the Bolshevik revolutionary approach. On his return to China, he was an important leader and organizer for the young Communist Party, spent several years in Moscow, and returned to China again in 1931. While organizing revolutionary activity in Hong Kong, he was arrested and given over to Canton authorities, who executed him in August, 1931.
The Diligent Work-Frugal Study Movement was a series of work-study programs which brought Chinese students to France and Belgium to work in factories as a way to pay for their study of French culture and Western science. The programs were organized between 1912 and 1927 largely by a group of Chinese anarchists who had come to Paris and wanted to introduce French science and social idealism to China.
Li Qiang is a former Chinese politician from Jiangsu province. He served as Mayor of Yancheng and the Communist Party Secretary of the coastal city of Lianyungang, both located in Jiangsu province, before being investigated for suspected corruption in September 2014.
Wang Ruofei was a high-ranking member of the Chinese Communist Party. He studied in France in the 1920s, where he joined the Communist Party, was trained in the Soviet Union, served five years in prison on his return to China, and was killed along with several other high officials in a plane crash in 1946.
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Nos Annees Francaises is a 2012 Chinese historical TV series directed by Kang Honglei and written by Li Kewei. It stars Zhu Yawen, Zhong Qiu, Zhang Nianhua, Lyu Xia, Wang Fang, Li Zimo, and Liu Zhiyang. It was first broadcast on June 26, 2012 on CCTV-1.
As a Leninist party, the Chinese Communist Party were theoretically committed to female equality. This was at odds with traditional Chinese culture, which the Kuomintang hada largely upheld. After 1949, they outlawed concubinage and allowed women to get divorced.