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Caleb ( // ), sometimes transliterated as Kaleb (כָּלֵב, Kalev; Tiberian vocalization: Kālēḇ; Hebrew Academy: Kalev), is a figure who appears in the Hebrew Bible as a representative of the Tribe of Judah during the Israelites' journey to the Promised Land. A reference to him is also found in the Quran, although his name is not mentioned.
According to The Jewish Encyclopedia , "since 'Caleb' signifies dog, it has been thought that the dog was the totem of [Caleb's] clan".The New American Standard Exhaustive Concordance states that the name Kaleb (Caleb) is related to the word for "dog" (keleb). The Bible was written down centuries before Hebrew diacritics were introduced, and there is no certain knowledge of how the name was pronounced when the biblical text was written.
In Hebrew, the name is pronounced // or // ; the modern English pronunciation // is courtesy of the Great Vowel Shift.
An alternate Hebrew meaning offered for Caleb is "faithful, devotion, whole hearted, bold, brave". This is on the basis of its being actually a compound word, a phenomenon quite common in ancient Hebrew. Col (כל, Kaf + Lamed) = "all" or "whole"; Lev (לב, Lamed + Bet) means "heart". Therefore, Caleb (or Calev as pronounced in Hebrew) would actually mean "whole hearted". This might be due to the Biblical Caleb, a companion of Moses and Joshua, being noted for his astute powers of observation and fearlessness in the face of overwhelming odds.
Caleb, son of Jephunneh (Numbers 13:6 ) is not to be confused with Caleb, great-grandson of Judah through Tamar (1 Chronicles 2:3-9 ). This other Caleb was the son of Hezron, and his wife was Azubah (1 Chronicles 2:18,19 ).
According to Numbers 13 , Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, was one of the twelve spies sent by Moses into Canaan. Their task, over a period of 40 days,was to explore the Negev and surrounding area, and to make an assessment of the geographical features of the land, the strength and numbers of the population, the agricultural potential and actual performance of the land, settlement patterns (whether their cities were like camps or strongholds), and forestry conditions. Moses also asked them to be courageous and to return with samples of local produce.
In the Numbers 13 listing of the heads of each tribe, verse 6 reads "Of the tribe of Judah, Caleb the son of Jephunneh." Caleb's report balanced the appeal of the land and its fruits with the challenge of making a conquest.
Verse 30 of chapter 13 reads "And Caleb stilled the people toward Moses, and said: 'We should go up at once, and possess it; for we are well able to overcome it.'" Caleb and Joshua said the people should trust God and go into the land; the other ten spies, being fearful and rebellious, argued that conquering the land was impossible.
Caleb the spy is the son of Jephunneh. Jephunneh is called a Kenizzite (Numbers 32:12 , Joshua 14:6 ,14 ). The Kenizzites are listed (Genesis 15:19 ) as one of the nations who lived in the land of Canaan, at the time that God covenanted with Abram (Abraham) to give that land to his descendants forever (Genesis 17:8 ). However, Caleb is mentioned alongside the descendants of Judah recorded in 1 Chronicles 4 : "And the sons of Caleb the son of Jephunneh: Iru, Elah, and Naam; and the sons of Elah: Kenaz" (1 Chronicles 4:15 ).Numbers 13:6 , likewise, lists Caleb as a tribal leader in Judah.
The Kenizzites are generally considered an Edomite clan (see Genesis 36:40-43 ).
In the aftermath of the conquest, Caleb asks Joshua to give him a mountain in property within the land of Judah, and Joshua blesses him as a sign of God's blessing and approval, giving him Hebron (Joshua 14 ). Since Hebron itself was one of the Cities of Refuge to be ruled by the Levites, it is later explained that Caleb actually was given the outskirts (Joshua 21:11-13 ). Caleb promised his daughter Achsah in marriage to whoever would conquer the land of Debir from the giants. This was eventually accomplished by Othniel Ben Kenaz, Caleb's nephew (Judges 1:13 ), who became Caleb's son-in-law as well (Joshua 15:16,17 ).
1 Samuel 25:3 states that Nabal, the husband of Abigail before David, was "a Calebite" (Hebrew klby).It is not stated whether this refers to one of the Calebs mentioned in the Bible, or another person bearing the same name.
Traditional Jewish sources record a number of stories about Caleb which expand on the biblical account.
One account records that Caleb wanted to bring produce from the land, but that the other spies discouraged him from doing so in order to avoid giving the Israelites a positive impression of Canaan. They only agreed to carry in samples of produce after Caleb brandished a sword and threatened to fight over the matter.A Midrash refers to Caleb being devoted to the Lord and to Moses, splitting from the other scouts to tour Hebron on his own and visit the graves of the Patriarchs. While in Canaan with the spies, Caleb's voice was so loud that he succeeded in saving the other spies by frightening giants away from them.
Caleb is alluded to in the 5th Surah of the Quran (5:20-26). The two men alluded to here are Caleb and Joshua:
20And when Moses said to his people: O my people, remember the favour of Allah to you when He raised prophets among you and made you kings and gave you what He gave not to any other of the nations.
21O my people, enter the Holy Land which Allah has ordained for you and turn not your backs, for then you will turn back losers.
22They said: O Moses, therein are a powerful people, and we shall not enter it until they go out from it; if they go out from it, then surely we will enter.
23Two men of those who feared, on whom Allah had bestowed a favour, said: Enter upon them by the gate, for when you enter it you will surely be victorious; and put your trust in Allah, if you are believers.
24They said: O Moses, we will never enter it so long as they are in it; go therefore thou and thy Lord, and fight; surely here we sit.
25He said: My Lord, I have control of none but my own self and my brother; so distinguish between us and the transgressing people.
26He said: It will surely be forbidden to them for forty years -- they will wander about in the land. So grieve not for the transgressing people.
The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament, and is the first book of the Deuteronomistic history, the story of Israel from the conquest of Canaan to the Babylonian exile. It tells of the campaigns of the Israelites in central, southern and northern Canaan, the destruction of their enemies, and the division of the land among the Twelve Tribes, framed by two set-piece speeches, the first by God commanding the conquest of the land, and, at the end, the last by Joshua warning of the need for faithful observance of the Law (torah) revealed to Moses.
The Book of Numbers is the fourth book of the Hebrew Bible, and the fourth of five books of the Jewish Torah. The book has a long and complex history, but its final form is probably due to a Priestly redaction of a Yahwistic source made some time in the early Persian period. The name of the book comes from the two censuses taken of the Israelites.
Joshua or Jehoshua is the central figure in the Hebrew Bible's Book of Joshua. According to the books of Exodus, Numbers and Joshua, he was Moses' assistant and became the leader of the Israelite tribes after the death of Moses. His name was Hoshea the son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, but Moses called him Joshua, the name by which he is commonly known. According to the Bible he was born in Egypt prior to the Exodus.
Torah has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five books of the 24 books of the Hebrew Bible. This is commonly known as the Written Torah. It can also mean the continued narrative from all the 24 books, from the Book of Genesis to the end of the Tanakh (Chronicles), and it can even mean the totality of Jewish teaching, culture, and practice, whether derived from biblical texts or later rabbinic writings. This is often known as the Oral Torah. Common to all these meanings, Torah consists of the origin of Jewish peoplehood: their call into being by God, their trials and tribulations, and their covenant with their God, which involves following a way of life embodied in a set of moral and religious obligations and civil laws.
The Israelites were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods. According to the religious narrative of the Hebrew Bible, the Israelites' origin is traced back to the Biblical patriarchs and matriarchs Abraham and his wife Sarah, through their son Isaac and his wife Rebecca, and their son Jacob who was later called Israel, whence they derive their name, with his wives Leah and Rachel and the handmaids Zilpa and Bilhah.
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Tribe of Zebulun was one of the twelve tribes of Israel. It is one of the ten lost tribes.
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Tribe of Simeon was one of the twelve tribes of Israel. The Book of Judges locates its territory inside the boundaries of the Tribe of Judah. It is one of the ten lost tribes.
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Tribe of Reuben was one of the twelve tribes of Israel. Unlike the majority of the tribes, the land of Reuben, along with that of Gad and half of Manasseh, was on the eastern side of the Jordan. According to the biblical narrative, the Tribe of Reuben descended from Reuben, the oldest son of the patriarch Jacob. Reuben, along with nine other tribes, is reckoned by the Bible as part of the northern kingdom of Israel, and disappears from history with the demise of that kingdom in c. 723 BC.
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Tribe of Judah was one of the twelve Tribes of Israel.
Kenaz or Knaz - hunter - is the name of several persons in the Hebrew Bible. קְנָז "Hunter", Standard Hebrew Kenaz, Tiberian Hebrew Qənaz / Qənāz
Lot was a patriarch in the biblical Book of Genesis, chapters 11–14 and 19. Notable events in his life include his journey with his uncle Abram (Abraham) and his flight from the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, during which Lot's wife became a pillar of salt, and Lot was made drunk and then raped by his daughters so that they could have children.
The Hittites, also spelled Hethites, were a group of people mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. Under the names בני-חת and חתי they are mentioned several times as living in or near Canaan since the time of Abraham to the time of Ezra after the return from the Babylonian exile. Their ancestor Heth is said in Genesis to be a son of Canaan, son of Ham, son of Noah.
Caleb may refer to:
In the Hebrew Bible, the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Tribes of Israel descended from the 12 sons of the patriarch Jacob and his two wives, Leah and Rachel, and two concubines, Zilpah and Bilhah.
Anak is a figure in the Hebrew Bible. His descendants are mentioned in narratives concerning the conquest of Canaan by the Israelites. According to the Book of Numbers, Anak was a forefather of the Anakim. The Bible describes them as very tall descendants of the Nephilim. The text states that the Anakim were Rephaites, and that Anak was a son of Arba.
Shlach, Shelach, Sh'lah, Shlach Lecha, or Sh'lah L'kha is the 37th weekly Torah portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the fourth in the Book of Numbers. Its name comes from the first distinctive words in the parashah, in Numbers 13:2. Shelach is the sixth and lecha is the seventh word in the parashah. The parashah tells the story of the twelve spies sent to assess the promised land, commandments about offerings, the story of the Sabbath violator, and the commandment of the fringes.
Kenizzite was a tribe referred to in the covenant God made with Abraham. They are not mentioned among the other inhabitants of Canaan in Exodus 3:8 and Joshua 3:10 and probably inhabited some part of Arabia, in the confines of Syria.
Othniel was the first of the Biblical judges. The etymology of his name is uncertain, but may mean "God/El is my strength" or "God has helped me".
The Twelve Spies, as recorded in the Book of Numbers, were a group of Israelite chieftains, one from each of the Twelve Tribes, who were dispatched by Moses to scout out the Land of Canaan for 40 days as a future home for the Israelite people, during the time when the Israelites were in the wilderness following their Exodus from Ancient Egypt. The account is found in Numbers 13:1-33.
Kirjath Sepher was a location in southern Canaan which became part of the land allocated to the tribe of Judah when the Israelites conquered Canaan, according to the Hebrew Bible :
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Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911).. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.