Calvary

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Traditional site of Golgotha, within the Church of the Holy Sepulchre Golgotha (Church of the Holy Sepulchre).jpg
Traditional site of Golgotha, within the Church of the Holy Sepulchre

Golgotha, or Calvary (Biblical Greek Γολγοθᾶ[ς]Golgotha[s], traditionally interpreted as reflecting Syriac (Aramaic) golgolta, [1] as it were Hebrew gulgōleṯ (גולגולת), "skull" [2] ), was, according to the Gospels, a site immediately outside Jerusalem's walls where Jesus was crucified. [3]

Syriac language dialect of Middle Aramaic

Syriac, also known as Syrian/Syriac Aramaic, Syro-Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic of the Northwest Semitic languages of the Afroasiatic family that is written in the Syriac alphabet, a derivation of the Aramaic alphabet. Having first appeared in the early first century CE in Edessa, classical Syriac became a major literary language throughout the Middle East from the 4th to the 8th centuries, preserved in a large body of Syriac literature. Indeed, Syriac literature comprises roughly 90% of the extant Aramaic literature. Syriac was once spoken across much of the Near East as well as Anatolia and Eastern Arabia. Syriac originated in Mesopotamia and eventually spread west of Iraq in which it became the lingua franca of the region during the Mesopotamian Neo-Assyrian period.

Jerusalem in Christianity

Jerusalem's role in first-century Christianity, during the ministry of Jesus and the Apostolic Age, as recorded in the New Testament, gives it great importance.

Jesus The central figure of Christianity

Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah (Christ) prophesied in the Old Testament.

Contents

Matthew's and Mark's gospels translate the term to mean "place of [the] skull" (Κρανίου ΤόποςKraníou Tópos), [4] in Latin rendered Calvariæ Locus, from which the English word Calvary derives.

Gospel of Matthew Book of the New Testament

The Gospel According to Matthew is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels. It tells how the promised Messiah, Jesus, rejected by Israel, is killed, is raised from the dead, and finally sends the disciples to preach the gospel to the whole world. Most scholars believe it was composed between AD 80 and 90, with a range of possibility between AD 70 to 110. The anonymous author was probably a male Jew, standing on the margin between traditional and non-traditional Jewish values, and familiar with technical legal aspects of scripture being debated in his time. Writing in a polished Semitic "synagogue Greek", he drew on the Gospel of Mark as a source, and likely used a hypothetical collection of sayings known as the Q source, although the existence of Q has been questioned by some scholars. He also used material unique to his own community, called the M source or "Special Matthew".

Gospel of Mark Book of the New Testament

The Gospel According to Mark is one of the four canonical gospels and one of the three synoptic gospels. It tells of the ministry of Jesus from his baptism by John the Baptist to his death and burial and the discovery of the empty tomb – there is no genealogy of Jesus or birth narrative, nor, in the original ending at chapter 16, any post-resurrection appearances of Jesus. It portrays Jesus as a heroic man of action, an exorcist, a healer, and a miracle worker. Jesus is also the Son of God, but he keeps his identity secret, concealing it in parables so that even most of the disciples fail to understand. All this is in keeping with prophecy, which foretold the fate of the messiah as suffering servant. The gospel ends, in its original version, with the discovery of the empty tomb, a promise to meet again in Galilee, and an unheeded instruction to spread the good news of the resurrection.

Latin Indo-European language of the Italic family

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

Its traditional site, identified by Helena of Constantinople, the mother of Constantine the Great, in 325, is at the site of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. A 19th-century suggestion places it at the site now known as Skull Hill , some 500 m (1,600 ft) to the north (200 m (660 ft) north of the Damascus Gate). Historian Joan Taylor bases a location c. 175 m (574 ft) south-southeast of the traditional site on her reading of textual evidence. [5]

Constantine the Great Roman emperor

Constantine the Great, also known as Constantine I, was a Roman Emperor who ruled between 306 and 337 AD. Born in Naissus, in Dacia Ripensis, city now known as Niš, he was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman Army officer of Illyrian origins. His mother Helena was Greek. His father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under Emperors Diocletian and Galerius. In 305, Constantius was raised to the rank of Augustus, senior western emperor, and Constantine was recalled west to campaign under his father in Britannia (Britain). Constantine was acclaimed as emperor by the army at Eboracum after his father's death in 306 AD. He emerged victorious in a series of civil wars against Emperors Maxentius and Licinius to become sole ruler of both west and east by 324 AD.

Church of the Holy Sepulchre Church in Jerusalem, Israel, containing the two holiest sites in Christianity

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is a church in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem. The church contains, according to traditions dating back to at least the fourth century, the two holiest sites in Christianity: the site where Jesus of Nazareth was crucified, at a place known as Calvary or Golgotha, and Jesus's empty tomb, where he is said to have been buried and resurrected. The tomb is enclosed by a 19th-century shrine called the Aedicula. The Status Quo, a 260-year-old understanding between religious communities, applies to the site.

Damascus Gate entrance to the Old City of Jerusalem

Damascus Gate is one of the main entrances to the Old City of Jerusalem. It is located in the wall on the city's northwest side and connects to a highway leading out to Nablus, which in the Hebrew Bible was called Shechem or Sichem, and from there, in times past, to the capital of Syria, Damascus; as such, its modern English name is Damascus Gate, and its modern Hebrew name, Sha'ar Shkhem, meaning Shechem Gate, or Nablus Gate. Of its Arabic names, Bab al-Nasr means "gate of victory," and Bab al-Amud means "gate of the column." The latter name, in use continuously since at least as early as the 10th century, preserves the memory of a Roman column towering over the square behind the gate and dating to the 2nd century AD.

Biblical references and etymology

Altar at the traditional site of Golgotha
The altar at the traditional site of Golgotha Golgofa.jpg
The altar at the traditional site of Golgotha
Chapel of Mount Calvary, painted by Luigi Mayer Illustration from Views in the Ottoman Dominions by Luigi Mayer, digitally enhanced by rawpixel-com 65.jpg
Chapel of Mount Calvary, painted by Luigi Mayer

The recorded form Γολγοθα may be a simplified pronunciation of an Aramaic golgolta, [6] corresponding to Hebrew gulgōleṯ (גֻּלְגֹּלֶת) "skull". [2]

English Calvary is the anglicized form of the Latin gloss from the Vulgate (Calvariæ), to refer to Golgotha in Luke 23:33, where the Greek text gives Κρανίον rather than the explicit Κρανίου Τόπος of Matthew 26:33 and Mark 15:22. The adoption the Latin form has a long tradition in English Bible translations, going back to at least the late 10th century (Wessex Gospels [7] ), and is retained in Wycliffe's Bible and Tyndale's Bible as well as in the King James Version. By contrast, Martin Luther translates Luke's Κρανίον into German as Schädelstätte ("place of skull(s)"). [8] The Latinism is also current in various other languages within the Latin sphere of influence, including Spanish and Italian Calvario, French Calvaire, Polish Kalwaria, Lithuanian Kalvarijos.

Vulgate Latin translation of the Bible

The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that was to become the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century, and is still used fundamentally in the Latin Church to this day. The translation was largely the work of Jerome, who in 382 had been commissioned by Pope Damasus I to revise the Vetus Latina Gospels then in use by the Roman Church. Jerome, on his own initiative, extended this work of revision and translation to include most of the books of the Bible; and once published, the new version became widely adopted; and over succeeding centuries eventually eclipsed the Vetus Latina, so that by the 13th century it had taken over from the former version the appellation of versio vulgata or vulgata for short, and in Greek as βουλγάτα ("Voulgata").

Luke 23

Luke 23 is the twenty-third chapter of the Gospel of Luke in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The book containing this chapter is anonymous, but early Christian tradition uniformly affirmed that Luke composed this Gospel as well as the Acts of the Apostles. This chapter records the trial of Jesus Christ before Pontius Pilate, Jesus' meeting with Herod Antipas, and his crucifixion, death and burial.

Matthew 26 Gospel according to Matthew, chapter 26

Matthew 26 is the 26th chapter of the Gospel of Matthew, part of the New Testament. This chapter covers the beginning of the passion narrative, which continues to chapter 28, containing the narratives of the Jewish leaders' plot to kill Jesus, Judas Iscariot's agreement to betray Jesus to Caiphas, the Last Supper with the Twelve apostles and institution of the Eucharist, the agony in the garden of Gethsemane and the subsequent vindication of Jesus' predictions that one of the twelve will betray him and that he will be disowned by Peter.

The church fathers offer different interpretations for the name; either deriving it from a topographic feature resembling a cranium (Pseudo-Tertullian), [9] or alternatively as the site where the skull of Adam was said to be buried (Origenes), or from the skulls of those executed there (Jerome, locum decollatorum). [10]

Pseudo-Tertullian is the scholarly name for the unknown author of Adversus Omnes Haereses, an appendix to the work De praescriptionem haereticorum of Tertullian. It lists 32 heresies, and there is consensus that this work is not by Tertullian himself.

Adam and Eve The first man and woman according to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions

Adam and Eve, according to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions, were the first man and woman. They are central to the belief that humanity is in essence a single family, with everyone descended from a single pair of original ancestors. It also provides the basis for the doctrines of the fall of man and original sin that are important beliefs in Christianity, although not held in Judaism or Islam.

Jerome 4th and 5th-century Catholic priest, theologian, and saint

Jerome was a Latin Catholic priest, confessor, theologian, and historian, commonly known as Saint Jerome. He was born at Stridon, a village near Emona on the border of Dalmatia and Pannonia. He is best known for his translation of most of the Bible into Latin, and his commentaries on the Gospels. His list of writings is extensive.

The association of the site with the "skull of Adam" is expanded in a number of noncanonical Christian writings, including the Kitab al-Magall, the Conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan , the Cave of Treasures , as well as by Patriarch Eutychius of Alexandria (9th century). According to these accounts, Shem and Melchizedek traveled to the resting place of Noah's Ark, retrieved the body of Adam from it, and were led by Angels to Golgotha – described as a skull-shaped hill at the centre of the Earth, where also the serpent's head had been crushed following the Fall of Man. [10]

While the Gospels merely identify Calvary as a "place" (τόπος), Christian tradition since at least the 6th century has described the location as a "mountain" or "hill". [10]

The location itself is mentioned in all four canonical Gospels:

An alternative suggestion, due to Krafft (1846) [11] proposes that the reported association with the word "skull" is a popular etymology of an original name Gol Goatha, interpreted (by Krafft) as meaning "heap of death", or "hill of execution"; the supposed toponym Goatha has also been identified, by Ferguson (1847), with the location called Goʿah (גֹּעָה) [12] in Jeremiah 31:39, in a description of the geography of Jerusalem. [13]

Location

There is no consensus as to the location of the site. John (19:20) describes the crucifixion site as being "near the city". According to Hebrews ( Hebrews 13:12 ), it was "outside the city wall". Matthew 27:39 and Mark 15:29 both note that the location would have been accessible to "passers-by". Thus, locating the crucifixion site involves identifying a site that, in the city of Jerusalem some four decades before its destruction in AD 70, would have been outside the city walls and well visible to passers-by.

Church of the Holy Sepulchre

Christian tradition since the 4th century has favoured a location now within the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. This places it well within today's Jerusalem's Old City Walls, which were built in the 16th century. Proponents of the traditional Holy Sepulchre location point out at the fact that 1st-century Jerusalem had a different shape and size from the 16th-century city, leaving the church's site outside the pre-AD 70 city walls. Those opposing it doubt this.

Defenders of the traditional site have argued that the site of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre was only brought within the city limits by Herod Agrippa (41–44), who built the so-called Third Wall around a newly-settled northern district, while at the time of Jesus' crucifixion around AD 30 it would still have been just outside the city.

Henry Chadwick (2003) argued that when Hadrian's builders replanned the old city, they "incidentally confirm[ed] the bringing of Golgotha inside a new town wall." [14]

In 2007 Dan Bahat, the former City Archaeologist of Jerusalem and Professor of Land of Israel Studies at Bar-Ilan University, stated that "Six graves from the first century were found on the area of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. That means, this place [was] outside of the city, without any doubt…", [15] thus maintaining that there are no scientific, archaeological grounds for rejecting the traditional location for Calvary.

Alternative theories

Some Protestant advocates of an alternative site claim that a wall would imply the existence of a defensive ditch outside it, so an earlier wall couldn't be immediately adjacent to the Golgotha site, which, combined with the presence of the Temple Mount, would make the city inside the wall quite thin. Essentially, for the traditional site to have been outside the wall, the city would have had to be limited to the lower parts of the Tyropoeon Valley, rather than including the defensively advantageous western hill. Since these geographic considerations imply that not including the hill within the walls would be willfully making the city prone to attack from it, some scholars, including the late 19th century surveyors of the Palestine Exploration Fund, consider it unlikely that people would build a wall that cut the hill off from the city in the valley. [16] However, archaeological digs within the Church of the Holy Sepulchre proved the existence of six graves from the first century on the area of the church, placing it outside the city area [15] and casting doubt on the "Strategic Weakness" and "Defensive Ditch" hypotheses.

Joan Taylor supports a location inside the Old City, east of Jaffa Gate, southwest of the David and Habad Street junction, but still north of St Mark's Street. [5] She considers that canonical as well as apocryphal Gospels, in connection with the known history and archaeology of Aelia Capitolina and Byzantine Jerusalem, together with the works of Melito of Sardis and Eusebius, indicate that Golgotha was the name of an area created by a large First Temple Period quarry, and not just of the crucifixion site, the latter of which she locates at the southern margin of this area. [5] At the same time, Taylor supports the traditional location of the tomb. [5]

Church of the Holy Sepulchre

Jerusalem Holy Sepulchre BW 4.JPG
Pilgrims queue to touch the rock of Calvary in Chapel of the Crucifixion
5208-20080122-1255UTC--jerusalem-calvary.jpg
Disc marking traditional place, under the altar, where Jesus' cross stood.
The Holy Sepulchre (1) in the Christian Quarter of Jerusalem Jerusalem Christian Quarter.jpg
The Holy Sepulchre (1) in the Christian Quarter of Jerusalem

The traditional location of Golgotha derives from its identification by Helena, the mother of Constantine I, in 325. Only a few steps away (within 45 metres (50 yd)), Helena also identified the location of the tomb of Jesus and claimed to have discovered the True Cross; her son, Constantine, then built the Church of the Holy Sepulchre around the whole site. In 333, the Pilgrim of Bordeaux, entering from the east described the result:

On the left hand is the little hill of Golgotha where the Lord was crucified. About a stone's throw from thence is a vault [crypta] wherein his body was laid, and rose again on the third day. There, at present, by the command of the Emperor Constantine, has been built a basilica; that is to say, a church of wondrous beauty. [17]

In Nazénie Garibian de Vartavan's doctoral thesis, now published as La Jérusalem Nouvelle et les premiers sanctuaires chrétiens de l’Arménie. Méthode pour l’étude de l’église comme temple de Dieu, she concluded, through multiple arguments (mainly theological and archaeological), that the true site of Golgotha was precisely at the vertical of the now buried Constantinian basilica's altar and away from where the traditional rock of Golgotha is situated. [18] The plans published in the book indicate the location of the Golgotha within a precision of less than two meters, below the circular passage situated a metre away from where the blood stained shirt of Christ was traditionally recovered and immediately before the stairs leading down to "St. Helena's Chapel" (the above-mentioned mother of Emperor Constantine), alternatively called "St. Vartan's Chapel".

Temple to Aphrodite

Jerusalem after being rebuilt by Hadrian. Two main east-west roads were built rather than one. Roman Jerusalem.PNG
Jerusalem after being rebuilt by Hadrian. Two main east–west roads were built rather than one.

Prior to Helena's identification, the site had been a temple to Aphrodite. Constantine's construction took over most of the site of the earlier temple enclosure, and the Rotunda and cloister (which was replaced after the 12th century by the present Catholicon and Calvary chapel) roughly overlap with the temple building itself; the basilica church Constantine built over the remainder of the enclosure was destroyed at the turn of the 11th century, and has not been replaced. Christian tradition claims that the location had originally been a Christian place of veneration, but that Hadrian had deliberately buried these Christian sites and built his own temple on top, on account of his alleged hatred for Christianity. [19]

There is certainly evidence that circa 160, at least as early as 30 years after Hadrian's temple had been built, Christians associated it with the site of Golgotha; Melito of Sardis, an influential mid-2nd century bishop in the region, described the location as "in the middle of the street, in the middle of the city", [20] which matches the position of Hadrian's temple within the mid-2nd century city.

Romans typical built a city according to a Hippodamian grid plan—a North-South arterial road, the Cardo (which is now the Suq Khan-ez-Zeit), and an East-West arterial road, the Decumanus Maximus (which is now the Via Dolorosa). [21] The forum would traditionally be located on the intersection of the two roads, with the main temples adjacent. [21] However, due to the obstruction posed by the Temple Mount, as well as the Tenth Legion encampment on the Western Hill, Hadrian's city had two Cardo, two Decamanus Maximus, two forums, [21] and several temples. The Western Forum (now Muristan) is located on the crossroads of the West Cardo and what is now El-Bazar/David Street, with the Temple of Aphrodite adjacent, on the intersection of the Western Cardo and the Via Dolorossa. The Northern Forum is located north of the Temple Mount, on the junction of the Via Dolorossa and the Eastern Cardo, adjacent to the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus intentionally built atop the Temple Mount. [22] Another popular holy site that Hadrian converted to a pagan temple was the Pool of Bethesda, possibly referenced to in the fifth chapter of the Gospel of John, [23] [24] on which was built the Temple of Asclepius and Serapis. While the positioning of the Temple of Aphrodite may be, in light of the common Colonia layout, entirely unintentional, Hadrian is known to have concurrently built pagan temples on top of other holy sites in Jerusalem as part of an overall Romanization policy. [25] [26] [27] [28] [29]

Archaeological excavations under the Church of the Holy Sepulchre have revealed Christian pilgrims' graffiti, dating from the period that the Temple of Aphrodite was still present, of a ship, a common early Christian symbol [30] [31] [32] and the etching "DOMINVS IVIMVS", meaning "Lord, we went", [33] [34] lending possible support to the statement by Melito of Sardis asserting that early Christians identified Golgotha as being in the middle of Hadrian's city rather than outside.

Rockface

Natural stone of Golgotha in the Chapel of Adam below site Golgotha Stone Chapel of Adam.jpg
Natural stone of Golgotha in the Chapel of Adam below site

During 1973–1978 restoration works and excavations inside the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and under the nearby Muristan, it was found that the area was originally a quarry, from which white Meleke limestone was struck; [35] surviving parts of the quarry to the north-east of the chapel of St. Helena are now accessible from within the chapel (by permission). Inside the church is a rock, about 7 m long by 3 m wide by 4.8 m high, [35] that is traditionally believed to be all that now remains visible of Golgotha; the design of the church means that the Calvary Chapel contains the upper foot or so of the rock, while the remainder is in the chapel beneath it (known as the tomb of Adam). Virgilio Corbo, a Franciscan priest and archaeologist, present at the excavations, suggested that from the city the little hill (which still exists) could have looked like a skull. [36]

During a 1986 repair to the floor of the Calvary Chapel by the art historian George Lavas and architect Theo Mitropoulos, a round slot of 11.5 cm (4.5 in) diameter was discovered in the rock, partly open on one side (Lavas attributes the open side to accidental damage during his repairs); [37] although the dating of the slot is uncertain, and could date to Hadrian's temple of Aphrodite, Lavas suggested that it could have been the site of the crucifixion, as it would be strong enough to hold in place a wooden trunk of up to 2.5 metres (8 ft 2 in) in height (among other things). [38] [39] The same restoration work also revealed a crack running across the surface of the rock, which continues down to the Chapel of Adam; [37] the crack is thought by archaeologists to have been a result of the quarry workmen encountering a flaw in the rock. [40]

Based on the late 20th century excavations of the site, there have been a number of attempted reconstructions of the profile of the cliff face. These often attempt to show the site as it would have appeared to Constantine. However, as the ground level in Roman times was about 4–5 feet (1.2–1.5 m) lower and the site housed Hadrian's temple to Aphrodite, much of the surrounding rocky slope must have been removed long before Constantine built the church on the site. The height of the Golgotha rock itself would have caused it to jut through the platform level of the Aphrodite temple, where it would be clearly visible. The reason for Hadrian not cutting the rock down is uncertain, but Virgilio Corbo suggested that a statue, probably of Aphrodite, was placed on it, [41] a suggestion also made by Jerome. Some archaeologists have suggested that prior to Hadrian's use, the rock outcrop had been a nefesh - a Jewish funeral monument, equivalent to the stele. [42]

Pilgrimages to Constantine's Church

Icon of Jesus being led to Golgotha, 16th century, Theophanes the Cretan (Stavronikita Monastery, Mount Athos) Jesus in Golgotha by Theophanes the Cretan.jpg
Icon of Jesus being led to Golgotha, 16th century, Theophanes the Cretan (Stavronikita Monastery, Mount Athos)

The Itinerarium Burdigalense speaks of Golgotha in 333: "... On the left hand is the little hill of Golgotha where the Lord was crucified. About a stone's throw from thence is a vault (crypta) wherein His body was laid, and rose again on the third day. There, at present, by the command of the Emperor Constantine, has been built a basilica, that is to say, a church of wondrous beauty," [43] Cyril of Jerusalem, a distinguished theologian of the early Church, and eyewitness to the early days of Constantine's edifice, speaks of Golgotha in eight separate passages, sometimes as near to the church where he and his listeners assembled: [44] "Golgotha, the holy hill standing above us here, bears witness to our sight: the Holy Sepulchre bears witness, and the stone which lies there to this day." [45] And just in such a way the pilgrim Egeria often reported in 383: "… the church, built by Constantine, which is situated in Golgotha …" [46] and also bishop Eucherius of Lyon wrote to the island presbyter Faustus in 440: "Golgotha is in the middle between the Anastasis and the Martyrium, the place of the Lord's passion, in which still appears that rock which once endured the very cross on which the Lord was.", [47] and Breviarius de Hierosolyma reports in 530: "From there (the middle of the basilica), you enter into Golgotha, where there is a large court. Here the Lord was crucified. All around that hill, there are silver screens." [48] (See also: Eusebius in 338 [49] ).

Gordon's Calvary

Rocky escarpment resembling a skull, located northwest of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, near the Garden Tomb with c. 1900s picture posted on pole for comparison Golgotha photo.JPG
Rocky escarpment resembling a skull, located northwest of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, near the Garden Tomb with c. 1900s picture posted on pole for comparison

In 1842, heavily relying on the research of Edward Robinson, a German theologian and biblical scholar from Dresden named Otto Thenius was the first to publish a proposal that the rocky knoll north of Damascus Gate was the biblical Golgotha. [50] [51] In 1882–83, Major-General Charles George Gordon endorsed this view, and subsequently the site has sometimes been known as Gordon's Calvary. The location, usually referred to today as Skull Hill , is beneath a cliff that contains two large sunken holes, which Gordon regarded as resembling the eyes of a skull. He and a few others before him believed that the skull-like appearance would have caused the location to be known as Golgotha. [52]

Nearby is an ancient rock-cut tomb known today as the Garden Tomb, which Gordon proposed as the tomb of Jesus. The Garden Tomb contains several ancient burial places, although the archaeologist Gabriel Barkay has proposed that the tomb dates to the 7th century BC and that the site may have been abandoned by the 1st century. [53]

Eusebius comments that Golgotha was in his day (the 4th century) pointed out north of Mount Zion. [54] While "Mount Zion" was used previously in reference to the Temple Mount itself, Josephus, the first-century AD historian who knew the city as it was before the Roman destruction of Jerusalem, identified Mount Zion as being the Western Hill (the current Mount Zion), [55] [56] which is south of both the Garden Tomb and the Holy Sepulchre. Eusebius' comment therefore offers no additional argument for either location.

On Aelia Capitolina's Decumanus

See Joan Taylor's theory in the article's introduction and under Alternative theories.

Outside Lions Gate

The hill having the appearance of a cranium (the skull-pan of the head), approx. 200 meters northeast of where the curtain at the Temple entrance once stood Skulltotemple.jpg
The hill having the appearance of a cranium (the skull-pan of the head), approx. 200 meters northeast of where the curtain at the Temple entrance once stood

Another alternative location has been proposed by Rodger Dusatko, a missionary in Germany. He claims that the location of Golgotha is just outside the Lions Gate. [57]

All four Gospels use the Greek word 'Kranion' to describe the place where Jesus was crucified. Unlike Skufion (skull), Kranion (in English - cranium) [58] is the upper part of the skull excluding the face bones.

Since the temple faced east, [59] the curtain in front of the entrance [60] of the temple would have been in direct view of those gathered on this mount at the northeast corner of the Temple Mount, just outside the city wall. And to testify that the curtain ripped at the very moment when Jesus died, [61] there must have been eyewitnesses.

The Gospel of John refers to Golgotha as being very near the city, so near that all who passed by could read the inscription [19:20] . Considering also the prophecy in Psalms 69:12 [69:12] , his place of crucifixion would have been near enough to the gate that Jesus could hear what the people were saying about him there. And just as Eusebius comments in Onomasticon concerning Golgotha as being a hill just outside Jerusalem, north of the ancient Mount Zion, this hill fits his description.

See also

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Saint Peter's tomb is a site under St. Peter's Basilica that includes several graves and a structure said by Vatican authorities to have been built to memorialize the location of Saint Peter's grave. St. Peter's tomb is near the west end of a complex of mausoleums that date between about AD 130 and AD 300. The complex was partially torn down and filled with earth to provide a foundation for the building of the first St. Peter's Basilica during the reign of Constantine I in about AD 330. Though many bones have been found at the site of the 2nd-century shrine, as the result of two campaigns of archaeological excavation, Pope Pius XII stated in December 1950 that none could be confirmed to be Saint Peter's with absolute certainty. Following the discovery of bones that had been transferred from a second tomb under the monument, on June 26, 1968, Pope Paul VI claimed that the relics of Saint Peter had been identified in a manner considered convincing.

<i>Via Dolorosa</i> thoroughfare in Jerusalem

The Via Dolorosa is a processional route in the Old City of Jerusalem, believed to be the path that Jesus walked on the way to his crucifixion. The winding route from the Antonia Fortress west to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre—a distance of about 600 metres —is a celebrated place of Christian pilgrimage. The current route has been established since the 18th century, replacing various earlier versions. It is today marked by nine Stations of the Cross; there have been fourteen stations since the late 15th century, with the remaining five stations being inside the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

Religious significance of Jerusalem

The city of Jerusalem is sacred to a number of religious traditions, including the Abrahamic religions Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, which consider it a holy city. Some of the most sacred places for each of these religions are found in Jerusalem and the one shared between all three is the Temple Mount.

The Garden Tomb

The Garden Tomb is a rock-cut tomb in Jerusalem, which was unearthed in 1867 and is considered by some Christians to be the site of the burial and resurrection of Jesus. The tomb has been dated by Israeli archaeologist Gabriel Barkay to the 8th–7th centuries BCE. The re-use of old tombs was not an uncommon practice in ancient times, but this would contradict the biblical text that speaks of a new, not reused, tomb made for himself by Joseph of Arimathea. Also, the trough in front of the tomb and the nearby cistern, described by proponents of the Garden Tomb as part of the tomb's sealing system and as the surrounding garden's source of water, respectively, have both been archaeologically dated to the Crusader period. The organisation maintaining the Garden Tomb refrains from claiming that this is the authentic tomb of Jesus, while pointing out the similarities with the site described in the Bible, and the fact that the Garden Tomb better preserves its ancient outlook than the more traditional, but architecturally altered and time-damaged tomb from the mostly crowded Church of the Holy Sepulchre; for all of these reasons, they suggest that the Garden Tomb is more evocative of the events described in the Gospels.

Muristan former hospital in Palestine

The Muristan is a complex of streets and shops in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem. The site was the location of the first hospital of the Knights Hospitaller.

Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre

The Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre, or the Holy Community of the All-Holy Sepulchre, is an Eastern Orthodox monastic fraternity guarding the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and other Christian holy places in the Holy Land, founded in its present form during the British Mandate in Palestine (1920-1948). Headed by the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, the brotherhood also administers the Greek Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, such as metropolitans, archbishops, bishops, archimandrites, hieromonks, hierodeacons, and monks.

Chapel of Saint Helena, Jerusalem church building in Jerusalem

The Chapel of Saint Helena is a 12th-century Armenian church in the lower level of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, constructed during the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

A holy place is a place that people consider holy and/or a religion considers to be of special religious significance. A holy place may be visited by visitors, known as pilgrims.

The New Church of the Theotokos was a Byzantine church erected in Jerusalem by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I. Like the later Nea Ekklesia in Constantinople, it is sometimes referred to in English as "The Nea".

Santo Stefano, Bologna minor basilica

The basilica of Santo Stefano encompasses a complex of religious edifices in the city of Bologna, Italy. Located on Piazza Santo Stefano, it is locally known as Sette Chiese and Santa Gerusalemme. It has the dignity of minor basilica.

References

  1. e.g. Johannem Luzac, Institutiones ad fundamenta linguæ Hebrææ (1737), p. 334; Joseph Francis Thrupp, Antient Jerusalem (1855), p. 272 (fn 1).
  2. 1 2 Lande, George M. (2001) [1961]. Building Your Biblical Hebrew Vocabulary Learning Words by Frequency and Cognate. Resources for Biblical Study 41. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature. p. 115. ISBN   1-58983-003-2.Strong's Concordance H1538.
  3. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Calvary"  . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  4. Matthew 27:33; Mark 15:22
  5. 1 2 3 4 Taylor, Joan (Spring 2002). "Golgotha: A Reconsideration of the Evidence". Bible and Spade . Associates for Biblical Research. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  6. so John Lightfoot (ed. Dove 1822) iii.164. Lightfoot points out that golgotha is the Samaritan form of Biblical Hebrew גֻּלְגֹּלֶת in Numeri 1:18 (לְגֻלְגְּלֹתָֽם "by their polls"). see also Samuel James Andrews, The Life of Our Lord Upon the Earth Considered in Its Historical, Chronological, and Geographical Relations (1873), p. 559
  7. Da Halgan Godspel on Englisc ed. Thorpe (1842), p. 176.
  8. Luther in this diverges from the pre-Lutheran Lübeck translation, which like Wycliffe retains Latin calvarie. Biblia, Lübeck, 1494 (Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek Rar. 880, p. 430).
  9. Golgotha is described as "A spot there is called Golgotha, – of old the fathers' earlier tongue thus called its name, 'The skull-pan of a head'." by Five Books in Reply to Marcion, Book 2, Ante-Nicene Fathers Volume 4[ page needed ]
  10. 1 2 3 Mount Calvary. Catholic Encyclopedia . Vol. III. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1908.
  11. Wilhelm Ludwig Krafft, Die Topographie Jerusalems, Bonn (1846)
  12. Strong's Concordance H1601 "Goah, a place near Jerusalem:—Goath."
  13. James Fergusson, An Essay on the Ancient Topography of Jerusalem (1847), 80f. Ferguson in this disagrees with Krafft, who identified the Goath of Jeremiah with the Gennath Γεννάθ of Josephus, i.e. the "garden gate" to the west of the Temple mount.
  14. Chadwick, H. (2003). The Church in Ancient Society: From Galilee to Gregory the Great. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 21. ISBN   0-19-926577-1.
  15. 1 2 Dan Bahat in German television ZDF, April 11, 2007
  16. Colonel Claude R. Conder, The City of Jerusalem (1909), (republished 2004); for details about Conder himself, see Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener#Survey of Western Palestine
  17. Itinerarium Burdigalense , pages 593, 594
  18. Garibian de Vartavan, N. (2008). La Jérusalem Nouvelle et les premiers sanctuaires chrétiens de l’Arménie. Méthode pour l’étude de l’église comme temple de Dieu. London: Isis Pharia. ISBN   0-9527827-7-4.
  19. Eusebius, Life of Constantine, 3:26
  20. Melito of Sardis, On Easter
  21. 1 2 3 Ball, Warwick. Rome in the East: The Transformation of an Empire. p. 294.
  22. Clermont-Ganneau, Charles. Archaeological researches in Palestine during the years 1873-1874.
  23. John 5:1-18
  24. Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, The Holy Land, (2008), page 29
  25. Peter Schäfer (2003). The Bar Kokhba war reconsidered: new perspectives on the second Jewish revolt against Rome. Mohr Siebeck. pp. 36–. ISBN   978-3-16-148076-8 . Retrieved 4 December 2011.
  26. Lehmann, Clayton Miles (22 February 2007). "Palestine: History". The On-line Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces. The University of South Dakota. Archived from the original on 10 March 2008. Retrieved 18 April 2007.
  27. Cohen, Shaye J. D. (1996). "Judaism to Mishnah: 135–220 C.E". In Hershel Shanks (ed.). Christianity and Rabbinic Judaism: A Parallel History of their Origins and Early Development. Washington DC: Biblical Archaeology Society. p. 196.
  28. Emily Jane Hunt, Christianity in the second century: the case of Tatian , p. 7, at Google Books, Psychology Press, 2003, p. 7
  29. E. Mary Smallwood The Jews under Roman rule: from Pompey to Diocletian : a study in political relations , p. 460, at Google Books BRILL, 1981, p. 460.
  30. Nave New Advent encyclopedia, accessed 25 March 2014.
  31. Ship as a Symbol of the Church (Bark of St. Peter) Jesus Walk, accessed 11 February 2015.
  32. "Ship hangs in balance at Pella Evangelical Lutheran Church". Sidney (Montana) Herald. 10 June 2008. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
  33. Clermont-Ganneau, Charles. Archaeological researches in Palestine during the years 1873-1874. p. 103.
  34. followinghadrian (5 November 2014). "Exploring Aelia Capitolina, Hadrian's Jerusalem". Archived from the original on 18 February 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  35. 1 2 Hesemann, Michael (1999). Die Jesus-Tafel (in German). Freiburg. p. 170. ISBN   3-451-27092-7.
  36. Hesemann 1999, p.170: "Von der Stadt aus muß er tatsächlich wie eine Schädelkuppe ausgesehen haben," and page 190: a sketch; and page 172: a sketch of the geological findings by C. Katsimbinis, 1976: "der Felsblock ist zu 1/8 unterhalb des Kirchenbodens, verbreitert sich dort auf etwa 6,40 Meter und verläuft weiter in die Tiefe"; and page 192, a sketch by Corbo, 1980: Golgotha is distant 10 meters outside from the southwest corner of the Martyrion-basilica
  37. 1 2 George Lavas, The Rock of Calvary, published (1996) in The Real and Ideal Jerusalem in Jewish, Christian and Islamic Art (proceedings of the 5th International Seminar in Jewish Art), pages 147-150
  38. Hesemann 1999, pp. 171-172:"....Georg Lavas and ... Theo Mitropoulos, ... cleaned off a thick layer of rubble and building material from one to 45 cm thick that covered the actual limestone. The experts still argue whether this was the work of the architects of Hadrian, who aimed thereby to adapt the rock better to the temple plan, or whether it comes from 7th century cleaning....When the restorers progressed to the lime layer and the actual rock....they found they had removed a circular slot of 11.5 cm diameter".
  39. Vatican-magazin.com, Vatican 3/2007, page 12/13; Vatican 3/2007, page 11, here page 3 photo No. 4, quite right, photo by Paul Badde: der steinere Ring auf dem Golgothafelsen.
  40. "502 Bad Gateway nginx openresty 208.80.154.49". www.holyplacesinisrael.com. Archived from the original on March 18, 2009.
  41. Virgilio Corbo, The Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem (1981)
  42. Dan Bahat, Does the Holy Sepulchre Church Mark the Burial of Jesus?, in Biblical Archaeology Review May/June 1986
  43. abela, john. "Bordeaux Pilgrim - Text 7b: Jerusalem (second part)". Archived from the original on 2016-05-13. Retrieved 2011-10-25.
  44. "St. Cyril of Jerusalem, page 51, note 313" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-16. Retrieved 2007-06-12.
  45. "Cyril, Catechetical Lectures, year 347, lecture X, page 160, note 1221" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-16. Retrieved 2007-06-12.
  46. Iteneraria Egeriae
  47. Letter To The Presbyter Faustus Archived 2008-06-13 at the Wayback Machine , by Eucherius. "What is reported, about the site of the city Jerusalem and also of Judaea"; Epistola Ad Faustum Presbyterum. "Eucherii, Quae fertur, de situ Hierusolimitanae urbis atque ipsius Iudaeae." Corpus Scriptorum Eccles. Latinorum XXXIX Itinera Hierosolymitana, Saeculi IIII–VIII, P. Geyer, 1898
  48. Whalen, Brett Edward, Pilgrimage in the Middle Ages, page 40, University of Toronto Press, September 2011, ISBN   978-1-4426-0199-4; Iteneraria et alia geographica, Corpus Christianorum Series Latina, vol. 175 (Turnhout, Brepols 1965), pages 109-112
  49. "NPNF2-01. Eusebius Pamphilius: Church History, Life of Constantine, Oration in Praise of Constantine - Christian Classics Ethereal Library".
  50. Charles W. Wilson, Golgotha and The Holy Sepulchre (1906, The Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund), pp. 103-120
  51. Otto Thenius, "Golgatha et Sanctum Sepulchrum" in Zeitschrift fir die historische Theologie (1842)
  52. Bill White, A Special Place: The Story of the Garden Tomb (1989).
  53. Gabriel Barkay, The Garden Tomb, published in Biblical Archaeology Review March/April 1986
  54. Eusebius, Onomasticon , 365
  55. "Zion, Encyclopædia Britannica".
  56. The Unknown Mount Zion
  57. "Golgotha Rediscovered".
  58. cranium - The bony case enclosing the brain, excluding the bones of the face; braincase - American Heritage Medical Dictionary
  59. "East orientation of Jewish temples and altars".
  60. "Peshitta Mat 27".
  61. But Yeshua cried again with a loud voice, and his Spirit departed. And at once the curtain entrance of The Temple was ripped in two from top to bottom. Mt 27,50-51 Peshitta

Coordinates: 31°46′43″N35°13′46″E / 31.77861°N 35.22944°E / 31.77861; 35.22944