Camagüey

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Camagüey
Camaguey rooftops 3.jpg
Camaguey escudo.jpg
Coat of arms
Camaguey (Cuban municipal map).png
Camagüey municipality (red) within
Camagüey Province (yellow) and Cuba
Coordinates: 21°23′2″N77°54′27″W / 21.38389°N 77.90750°W / 21.38389; -77.90750 Coordinates: 21°23′2″N77°54′27″W / 21.38389°N 77.90750°W / 21.38389; -77.90750
Country Cuba
Province Camagüey
Founded1528
Area
[1]
  Total1,106 km2 (427 sq mi)
Elevation
95 m (312 ft)
Population
 (2011) [2]
  Total321,992
  Density290/km2 (750/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Camagüeyano
Time zone UTC-5 (EST)
Postal code
70100
Area code(s) +53 322
Climate Aw
Official nameHistoric Centre of Camagüey
Criteria Cultural: (iv), (v)
Reference 1270
Inscription2008 (32nd Session)
Area54 ha (0.21 sq mi)
Buffer zone276 ha (1.07 sq mi)

Camagüey (Spanish pronunciation:  [kamaˈɣwej] ) is a city and municipality in central Cuba and is the nation's third-largest city with more than 321,000 inhabitants. It is the capital of the Camagüey Province.

Cuba Country in the Caribbean

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet. It is east of the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico), south of both the U.S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Havana is the largest city and capital; other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and Camagüey. The area of the Republic of Cuba is 110,860 square kilometers (42,800 sq mi). The island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of 105,006 square kilometers (40,543 sq mi), and the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants.

Camagüey Province Province of Cuba

Camagüey is the largest of the provinces of Cuba. Its capital is Camagüey. Other towns include Florida and Nuevitas.

Contents

It was founded as Santa María del Puerto del Príncipe in 1514, by Spanish colonists on the northern coast and moved inland in 1528, to the site of a Taino village named Camagüey. It was one of the seven original settlements (villas) founded in Cuba by the Spanish. After Henry Morgan burned the city in the 17th century, it was redesigned like a maze so attackers would find it hard to move around inside the city.

Henry Morgan Welsh privateer and political office holder

Sir Henry Morgan was a Welsh privateer, plantation owner, and, later, Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica. From his base in Port Royal, Jamaica, he raided settlements and shipping on the Spanish Main, becoming wealthy as he did so. With the prize money from the raids he purchased three large sugar plantations on the island.

Maze puzzle game in the form of a complex branching passage

A maze is a path or collection of paths, typically from an entrance to a goal. The word is used to refer both to branching tour puzzles through which the solver must find a route, and to simpler non-branching ("unicursal") patterns that lead unambiguously through a convoluted layout to a goal. The pathways and walls in a maze are typically fixed, but puzzles in which the walls and paths can change during the game are also categorised as mazes or tour puzzles.

The symbol of the city of Camagüey is the clay pot or tinajón, used to capture rain water and keep it fresh. Camagüey is also the birthplace of Ignacio Agramonte (1841), an important figure of the Ten Years' War against Spain. A monument by Italian sculptor Salvatore Buemi, erected in the center of the area to Ignacio Agramonte, was unveiled by his wife in 1912. It is composed of an equestrian statue, reliefs in bronze that reveal fragments of the life of Agramonte, and a sculpture of a woman that symbolizes the motherland.

Clay A finely-grained natural rock or soil containing mainly clay minerals

Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter. Geologic clay deposits are mostly composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure. Clays are plastic due to particle size and geometry as well as water content, and become hard, brittle and non–plastic upon drying or firing. Depending on the soil's content in which it is found, clay can appear in various colours from white to dull grey or brown to deep orange-red.

Ignacio Agramonte Cuban revolutionary

Ignacio Agramonte y Loynáz (1841–1873) was a Cuban revolutionary, who played an important part in the Ten Years' War (1868–1878).

Ten Years War armed conflict in Cuba between 1868 and 1878

The Ten Years' War (1868–1878), also known as the Great War and the War of '68, was part of Cuba's fight for independence from Spain. The uprising was led by Cuban-born planters and other wealthy natives. On October 10, 1868 sugar mill owner Carlos Manuel de Céspedes and his followers proclaimed independence, beginning the conflict. This was the first of three liberation wars that Cuba fought against Spain, the other two being the Little War (1879–1880) and the Cuban War of Independence (1895–1898). The final three months of the last conflict escalated with United States involvement, leading to the Spanish–American War.

In July 2008, the old town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

World Heritage Site place listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or natural significance

A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area which is chosen by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity.

History

Camagüey was founded as Santa María del Puerto del Príncipe in 1514, by Spanish colonists led by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar at a location now known as Nuevitas on the northern coast. It was one of the seven original settlements (villas) founded in Cuba by the Spanish. The settlement was moved inland in 1528 to the site of a Taino village named Camagüey. The village may have been named for a local chief, or perhaps for a tree endemic to the region.

Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Spanish governor of Cuba

Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar was a Spanish conquistador. He conquered and governed Cuba on behalf of Spain and moved Havana from the south coast of western Cuba to the north coast, placing it well as a port for Spanish trade.

Nuevitas Municipality in Camagüey, Cuba

Nuevitas is a municipality and port town in the Camagüey Province of Cuba. The large bay was sighted by Christopher Columbus in 1492.

The new city was built with a confusing lay-out of winding alleys. There are many blind alleys and forked streets that lead to squares of different sizes. One explanation is that this was done by design, to make the city easier to defend from any raiders; by the same version, the reason that there is only one exit from the city was that should pirates ever return and succeed in entering the city, it would be possible for local inhabitants to entrap and kill them. However, locals dispute this reasoning as a myth, asserting that in truth the city developed without planning, and that winding streets developed out of everybody wanting to stay close to their local church (the city has 15 of them).

Geography

Located on a plain in the middle of its province, the municipality borders with Vertientes, Florida, Esmeralda, Sierra de Cubitas, Minas, Sibanicú and Jimaguayú.

Plain Extensive flat region that generally does not vary much in elevation

In geography, a plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that generally does not change much in elevation. Plains occur as lowlands along valleys or on the doorsteps of mountains, as coastal plains, and as plateaus or uplands.

Vertientes Municipality in Camagüey, Cuba

Vertientes is a municipality and town in the Camagüey Province of Cuba.

Florida, Cuba Municipality in Camagüey, Cuba

Florida is a municipality and city in the Camagüey Province of Cuba. It is located 40 km (25 mi) north-west of Camagüey, along the Carretera Central highway. The city was established in 1907, and the municipality was established in 1924. Of all the municipalities of the Cuban province of Camagüey, Florida is third in area size. The name is Spanish for Land of flowers.

Demographics

In 2004, the municipality of Camagüey had a population of 324,921. [2] With a total area of 1,106 km2 (427 sq mi), [1] it has a population density of 293.8/km2 (761/sq mi).

Culture

The clay pots in Camaguey Mud jar in Camaguey.jpg
The clay pots in Camagüey

The symbol of the city of Camagüey is the clay pot or tinajón, used to capture rain water to be used later, keeping it fresh. Clay pots are everywhere, some as small as a hand, some large enough for two people to stand up in, either as monuments or for real use. A local legend is that if you drink water from a "tinajon", you will stay in Camagüey. (Quien tome agua del tinajón, en Camagüey se queda). Meaning that if you meet a Camagüayense girl, you will fall in love with her and never leave.The main secondary education institutions are the University of Camagüey and the Instituto Pedagógico de Camagüey.

In July 2008, the old town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Infrastructure

Street layout

The old city layout resembles a real maze, with narrow, short streets always turning in one direction or another. After Henry Morgan burned the city in the 17th century, it was designed like a maze so attackers would find it hard to move around inside the city.

Transport

Camagüey counts an important railway station on the main Havana-Santiago line with connections to minor lines. The station lies in the central "Avenida Van Horne", at the corner with "Avenida Finlay". The city is crossed by the Carretera Central highway and counts a beltway. The A1 motorway, that will link Havana to Guantánamo, and partly built, is in project phase in the city area.

Airports

Camagüey has its own international airport, Ignacio Agramonte International Airport located in the north-eastern suburb. Most tourists going to or leaving the Beach of Santa Lucía do so through this airport.

Climate

According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Camagüey has a tropical savanna climate, abbreviated "Aw" on climate maps. [3]

Climate data for Camagüey
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)32.8
(91.0)
34.4
(93.9)
36.7
(98.1)
37.8
(100.0)
38.9
(102.0)
38.3
(100.9)
37.8
(100.0)
38.9
(102.0)
36.7
(98.1)
36.1
(97.0)
33.9
(93.0)
33.9
(93.0)
38.9
(102.0)
Average high °C (°F)27.2
(81.0)
28.3
(82.9)
30.0
(86.0)
31.7
(89.1)
31.7
(89.1)
31.7
(89.1)
32.8
(91.0)
32.8
(91.0)
32.2
(90.0)
30.6
(87.1)
28.9
(84.0)
27.8
(82.0)
30.5
(86.9)
Daily mean °C (°F)22.2
(72.0)
23.1
(73.6)
24.5
(76.1)
25.8
(78.4)
26.4
(79.5)
26.7
(80.1)
27.5
(81.5)
27.5
(81.5)
27.0
(80.6)
25.8
(78.4)
24.2
(75.6)
22.8
(73.0)
25.3
(77.5)
Average low °C (°F)17.2
(63.0)
17.8
(64.0)
18.9
(66.0)
20.0
(68.0)
21.1
(70.0)
21.7
(71.1)
22.2
(72.0)
22.2
(72.0)
21.7
(71.1)
21.1
(70.0)
19.4
(66.9)
17.8
(64.0)
20.1
(68.2)
Record low °C (°F)7.8
(46.0)
9.4
(48.9)
11.1
(52.0)
13.9
(57.0)
13.3
(55.9)
16.7
(62.1)
18.9
(66.0)
18.9
(66.0)
17.8
(64.0)
15.6
(60.1)
10.0
(50.0)
7.2
(45.0)
7.2
(45.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches)38.1
(1.50)
35.6
(1.40)
61.0
(2.40)
91.4
(3.60)
193.0
(7.60)
266.7
(10.50)
142.2
(5.60)
139.7
(5.50)
185.4
(7.30)
137.2
(5.40)
78.7
(3.10)
50.8
(2.00)
1,419.8
(55.90)
Source: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial [4]

Sport

The local baseball club is Camagüey, nicknamed Alfareros, and its home ground is the Estadio Cándido González. The association football club is FC Camagüey and its home ground is the Estadio Patricio Lumumba.

Education

Instituto Pre-Universitario Vocacional de Ciencias Exactas

Institute of Secondary Education Instituto De Segunda Ensenanza.jpg
Institute of Secondary Education

Although it is not the only high school in the City, the Pre-Universitario, sometimes referred to as "Vocational School" but formally known as "Instituto Pre-Universitario Vocacional de Ciencias Exactas" (IPVCE) Máximo Gómez Báez es:Instituto Preuniversitario Vocacional de Ciencias Exactas – or, in English, Vocational Pre-University Institute of Exact Sciences Máximo Gómez Báez – is the largest of its kind in the province of Camagüey. The size of the institution qualifies it as a "learning city". This center is homologous to others existing in the rest of the country's provinces. Students usually form close bonds and lasting friendships while at the institution, but family bonds sometimes suffer and "traditional" moral attitudes tend to shift as teenagers spend weeks away from their family. To be admitted into the IPVCE, students must take an entrance exam after completing the preparation of the Basic Secondary Education (7th to 9th grade). During the following three years they receive intensive preparation in order to gain acceptance to college.

Other high schools

What we know in United States as High Schools (9-12 grade), in Cuba is called Secundaria from (7-9grade) and Pre-Universtario from (10-12grade). Some relevant Secundarias in Camagüey are La Avellaneda, Torre Blanca, Javier de la Vega, Ana Betancourt de Mora, Ignacio Agramonte and much more. In Camagüey city, there are other high schools, as well as schools for athletes (ESPA, and EIDE), for artists (The School of Art), and the Military High School "Camilo Cienfuegos" (also known as "Camilitos", in honor of Camilo Cienfuegos, hero of the Cuban Revolution).

University

The University of Camagüey, with engineering and basic and humanitarian sciences programs, is located in the city. There are a separate university college for medical education (Carlos J Finlay University of Medical Science). Since 2016, the University of Camaguey is a blending between Sports University and Pedagogical Sciences University, counting over 12 000 students and 3 000 professors.

Notable residents

Camagüey is the birthplace of professional boxer Luis Ortiz (1979).

The statue of Ignacio Agramonte Ignacio agramonte statue.jpg
The statue of Ignacio Agramonte

Camagüey is also the birthplace of Ignacio Agramonte (1841), an important figure of the Ten Years' War against Spain between 1868 and 1878. Agramonte drafted the first Cuban Constitution in 1869, and later, as a Major General, formed the fearsome Camagüey cavalry corps that had the Spaniards on the run. He died in combat on May 11, 1873; his body was burned in the city because the Spanish feared the rebels would attack the city to recover his body.

The outline of Ignacio Agramonte's horseback statue in the Park that bears his name is a symbol of Camagüey. It was set there in 1911, uncovered by his widow, Amalia Simoni.

Artists include José Iraola, a contemporary painter who was born in Camagüey, on September 19, 1961, and sculptor Roberto Estopiñán, born in Camagüey, in 1921.

The city is the birthplace of Major League Baseball Hall of Fame member Atanasio Perez Rigal (Tony Pérez), who won two World Series titles with the Cincinnati Reds and was the 1967 All Star Game MVP.

The city is also the birthplace of the Cuban national poet Nicolás Guillén, and of Carlos J. Finlay, an outstanding physician and scientist, who first identified the Aedes aegyptis mosquito as the vector of yellow fever.

Camagüey is also the hometown of volleyball player Mireya Luis, Gertrudis Gomez de Avellanada (poet), Silvestre de Balboa (1563–1649, writer), Salvador Cisneros Betancourt, Marqués de Santa Lucia (Cuban patriot, signatory of the Guaimaro Constitution of 1869 and President of the Cuban Republic in Arms).

Father José Olallo Valdés worked there, and was beatified in the city on November 29, 2008.

Olympic champion amateur boxer at 75 kg in Sydney 2000 was Jorge Gutiérrez Espinosa, born on 18 September 1975 in Camagüey.

It is the birthplace of the Cuban writer Severo Sarduy, a member of the European intellectual community that consolidated in the 1960s behind Tel Quel, a journal of critical thought. Sarduy, censored in Cuba throughout the 20th century, lived in Paris as an exile from 1960 until his death in 1993. He holds the position within literary history of having reformulated the transatlantic reconfigurations of the Hispanic Baroque aesthetic under the term "Neobaroque".

See also

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Our Lady of Candelaria Cathedral, Camagüey Church in Camagüey, Cuba

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The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Camagüey, Cuba.

References

  1. 1 2 Statoids. "Municipios of Cuba" . Retrieved 2007-10-05.
  2. 1 2 Atenas.cu (2004). "2004 Population trends, by Province and Municipality" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2006-07-14. Retrieved 2007-10-05.
  3. Climate Summary for Camagüey, Cuba
  4. "Cuba–Camaguey Interna". Centro de Investigaciones Fitosociológicas. Retrieved June 14, 2015.

Bibliography