Cambyses II

Last updated
Cambyses II
King of Kings
Great King
King of Persia
King of Babylon
Pharaoh of Egypt
King of Countries
Stela Cambyses Apis closeup.jpg
Cambyses (left, kneeling) as pharaoh while worshipping an Apis bull (524 BC)
King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire
Reign530 – July 522 BC
Predecessor Cyrus the Great
Successor Bardiya
Co-ruler Cyrus the Great (530 BC)
Pharaoh of Egypt
Reign525 – July 522 BC
Predecessor Psamtik III
Successor Bardiya
DiedJuly 522 BC
Hamag, Eber-Nari
Consort See below
House Achaemenid
Father Cyrus the Great
Mother Cassandane
Religion Indo-Iranian religion
(possibly Zoroastrianism)

Cambyses II (Old Persian : 𐎣𐎲𐎢𐎪𐎡𐎹Kabūjiya) was the second King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire from 530 to 522 BC. He was the son and successor of Cyrus the Great (r. 550  530 BC) and his mother was Cassandane.


Before his accession, Cambyses had briefly served as the governor of northern Babylonia under his father from April 539 BC to December 538 BC. Afterwards, he continued to roam in the Babylonian cities of Babylon and Sippar, before being appointed by his father as co-ruler in 530 BC, who set off to mount an expedition against the Massagetae of Central Asia, where he met his end. Cambyses thus became the sole ruler of the vast Achaemenid Empire, facing no noticeable opposition.

His relatively brief reign was marked by his conquests in Africa, notably Egypt, which he conquered after his victory over the Egyptian pharaoh Psamtik III (r. 526–525 BC) at the battle of Pelusium in 525 BC. After having established himself in Egypt, he expanded his holdings in Africa even further, such as his conquest of Cyrenaica. In the spring of 522 BC, Cambyses hurriedly left Egypt to deal with a rebellion in Persia.

While en route in Syria (Eber-Nari), he received a wound to the thigh, which was soon affected by gangrene. Cambyses died three weeks later at a location called Agbatana, which is most likely the modern city of Hama. He died childless, and was thus succeeded by his younger brother Bardiya, who ruled for a short period before being overthrown by Darius the Great (r. 522–486 BC), who went on to increase the power of the Achaemenids even further.


The origins of the name of "Cambyses" (Old Persian : 𐎣𐎲𐎢𐎪𐎡𐎹Kabūjiya) [2] is disputed in scholarship; according to some scholars, the name is of Elamite origin, whilst others associate it with Kambojas, an Iranian people who inhabited northwestern India. [3] The name of Cambyses is known in other languages as; Elamite Kanbuziya; Akkadian Kambuziya; Aramaic Kanbūzī. [3]


Cambyses was the eldest son of Cyrus the Great (r. 550–530 BC) and Cassandane. [3] [lower-alpha 1] Cambyses had a younger brother named Bardiya, and three sisters named Artystone, Atossa and Roxane. [4] Cambyses' paternal grandfather was his namesake Cambyses I, the king of Persis from 600 to 559 BC. [3] The family was descended from a line of rulers of Persian tribes, who starting with Cyrus, expanded their reach over Persis, subjugating the Median Empire, the Neo-Babylonian Empire, Lydia and Central Asia, thus establishing the Achaemenid Empire, [4]

Early life

Overview of the ruins of Babylon. Babylon city Iraq.jpg
Overview of the ruins of Babylon.

In April 539 BC, Cambyses was appointed by his father as the governor of the northern part of Babylonia, including its city Babylon, whilst the central and southern part continued to be directly supervised by Cyrus and his bureaucrats. [3] Before his appointment, Cambyses had taken part in the ritual that was arbitrary for the king at the regular New Year festival on 27 March 538 BC, where he received the royal sceptre in Esagila, a temple dedicated to the god Marduk. [3] His governorship, however, lasted only 9 months, when Cyrus had dismissed him from the post in December 538 BC for unknown reasons. [3] After his dismissal, Cambyses continued to reside in the Babylonian cities of Babylon and Sippar the majority of his time. [3]

According to Babylonian records, both Cambyses and Cyrus carried the title of "King of Babylon, King of the lands" in 538/7 BC, which indicates that Cyrus had appointed him as co-ruler some years before his campaign against the Massagetae. [3] [5] Cyrus' younger son, Bardiya, was given his own powerful realm in Central Asia, which was exempted to pay tribute. [6] Cambyses reportedly took part in the expedition against the Massagetae, but due to being the heir of the throne, he was sent back to Persia, before Cyrus fell to the Massagetae. [3] Cambyses had his father's body carried to Pasargadae in Persis, where he was buried in a tomb that had been prepared for him earlier. [6]

Military campaigns

Preparations against Egypt and the conquest of Cyprus

Evolution of the Achaemenid Empire. Achaemenid Empire under different kings (flat map).svg
Evolution of the Achaemenid Empire.

Cambyses' accession to the Achaemenid throne was relatively smooth. [6] Ruling over a vast but young empire, Cambyses was to preserve his authority over the subjugated lands, but also expand his dominion over Egypt, the last prominent power in the Near East. [7] According to the French Iranologist Pierre Briant, "this must not be seen as a more or less irrational and uncontrollable desire to take over the entire inhabited world." [7] On the contrary, Cambyses' plan was in reality already planned by his father, who wanted to unify Babylonia with the lands of the Trans-Euphrates (an area that stretched from Posideium to Egypt). [8] This meant that it would eventually demand the conquest of the lands that was situated between the Euphrates and the Nile river, and therefore made it necessary for conflict with Egypt, a kingdom, that had prior, and also lately, shown aspirations in the area. [7]

The incumbent pharaoh of Egypt was Amasis II, who had been ruling since 570. [7] His ally, Polycrates, a Greek ruler of Samos, posed a considerable threat to the Achaemenids, launching several raids that jeopardized Achaemenid authority. [9] However, Polycrates eventually forsook his Egyptian allies, and reached out to Cambyses, whose plans he was well acquainted with. [7] His sudden change of alliances was undoubtly due to his uneasy position, with the Spartans raising a force against him, and the rising hostility of some of the Samian aristocrats, who preferred partnership with Egypt. [10] Another former ally of Amasis II, the Carian military leader Phanes of Halicarnassus, had also joined Cambyses after escaping assassins sent by the pharaoh. [10] Cambyses, before starting his expedition into Egypt, had seized Cyprus from Amasis II, which was reportedly a heavy blow to the latter. [7]

Conquest of Egypt and its surroundings

Imaginary 19th-century illustration of Cambyses II meeting Psamtik III. Meeting Between Cambyses II and Psammetichus III.jpg
Imaginary 19th-century illustration of Cambyses II meeting Psamtik III.

By 526 BC, Amasis II had died, and his son Psamtik III had succeeded him, thus weakening Egypt's position. [9] In the meantime, Cambyses had made substantial preparations for his army. [10] He had essentially laid the foundations to the Persian navy, which was crucial to his ambitions to conquer Egypt. [10] The navy was created by men and equipment from Phoenicia and Asia Minor. [10] During his march to Egypt, Cambyses made a treaty with the Arabs, who controlled the desert area between Gaza and the Egyptian frontier. [10] This treaty granted Cambyses sufficient water to arrive to the Nile. [10] This also paved the way for Cambyses to extend his authority over the unsubdued lands between Egypt and Persia, including Gaza, a prominent commercial region, which equalled that of Sardis in Lydia. [11] The region served as the headquarters of the Persian expedition into Egypt. [12]

In 525 BC, Cambyses finally invaded Egypt; in the spring of the same year, the Persian and Egyptian forces clashed at Pelusium, where the Persians emerged victorious. [3] The forces of Cambyses shortly laid siege to Memphis, where Psamtik III and his men had fortified themselves. [12] Despite the considerable resistance put by the pharaoh, Cambyses captured Memphis, and established a Persian-Egyptian garrison there. [12] The length of the siege is not specified by the 5th-century BC Greek historian Herodotus. [12] Regardless, by summer, all of Egypt was under Persian suzerainty. [3] Cambyses now adopted the aspirations of the last pharaohs towards the west (Libya and Cyrenaica) and south (Nubia). [12]

Further conquests

The Libyans, and soon the Greeks of Cyrene and Barca as well, willingly acknowledged the authority of Cambyses, and as proof of their submission, sent offerings to Cambyses. [12] [3] As a demonstration of his generosity, Cambyses had Amasis II's Greek widow returned to Cyrene. [12] Cambyses originally intended to make an expedition against the Phonenician state of Carthage, but it was ultimately called off due to his Phoenician subjects' reluctance to make war against their own kind. [12] In the south, Cambyses, followed the same policy of the last pharaohs to keep the Kingdom of Kush in check, and had a garrison established at Elephantine. [13]

According to Herodotus, Cambyses' campaigns against Amnion and Ethiopia ended catastrophically. [14] He states that the reason behind this defeat was the "madness" of Cambyses, who "at once began his march against Ethiopia, without any orders for the provision of supplies, and without for a moment considering the fact that he was to take his men to the ends of the earth". [14] However, according to Briant, "the deliberate bias against Cambyses raises doubts about the accuracy of Herodotus's version." [14] Herodotus' statement is contradicted by other sources that does not suggest a catastrophe for his forces, even though the obstacles of the campaign possibly compelled Cambyses to withdraw. [14] Archaeological proof indicates that the Achaemenids made use of the stronghold of Dorginarti (south of Buhen) throughout their history. [14]

Policies in Egypt

Statue of an Apis. Louvres-antiquites-egyptiennes-p1020068.jpg
Statue of an Apis.

In accordance with the traditional Egyptian royal custom, Cambyses took the titles of "king of Upper and Lower Egypt" and "descendant of (the gods) Ra, Horus, Osiris," used by the previous Egyptian pharaohs. [3] Cambyses used propaganda to show his Egyptian conquest as a legitimate unification with the native Egyptians, and that he was himself of Egyptian descent, claiming to be the son of Princess Nitetis, a daughter of the pharaoh Apries. [3] At Sais, Cambyses had himself crowned in the temple of the goddess Neith under a religious ritual, where he made sacrifices to the Egyptian gods. [3]

According to ancient historians, Cambyses' rule of Egypt was marked by brutality, looting temples, ridiculing the local gods, and defilement of the royal tombs. [3] Historians such as Herodotus put an emphasis on Cambyses' supposed killing of the Egyptian sacred bull Apis. [3] [15] However, no looting of temples has been reported by contemporary Egyptian sources. [3] In addition, Cambyses is said to have ordered the burial of an Apis in a sarcophagus. [3] [16] The successor of the Apis died in 518 BC, four years after Cambyses had already died. [3]

The epitaph of the Apis buried in 524 BC, states the following: [15]

"[Year] 6, third month of the season Shemou, day 10 (?), under the Majesty of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt [. ..] endowed with eternal life, the god was brought in [peace toward the good West and laid to rest in the necropolis in] his [place] which is the place which his Majesty had made for him, [after] all [the ceremonies had been done for him] in the embalming hall [..] It was done according to everything his Majesty had said [.. .]."

A legend on the sarcophagus also says the following: [15]

"(Cambyses], the king of Upper and Lower Egypt.. . made as his monument to his father Apis-Osiris a large sarcophagus of granite, dedicated by the king [.. .], endowed with all life, with all perpetuity and prosperity (?), with all health, with all joy, appearing eternally as king of Upper and Lower Egypt."

This thus debunks Cambyses' supposed killing of the Apis, and according to Briant, proves that Herodotus documented bogus reports. [15] On the contrary, Cambyses took part in the preservation and burial ceremony of an Apis. [15] Other similar sources also makes mention of Cambyses' careful treatment towards Egyptian culture and religion. [16] According to the Egyptian Demotic Chronicle, Cambyses decreased the immense income that the Egyptian temples received from the Egyptian pharaohs. [3] Only the three main temples were given permission to maintain all their entitlements. [3] This caused the Egyptian priests that had lost their entitlements to circulate spurious stories about Cambyses. [3] [17] The issue with the temples dated back to the earlier pharaohs, who had also tried to reduce the economic authority of the temples. [18] This issue would carry on throughout the history of ancient Egypt. [18] Like Cyrus in Babylon, Cambyses allowed the Egyptian nobility to maintain their jurisdiction. [16]


Achaemenid coin minted at Sardis, possibly under Cambyses II. KINGS of LYDIA. Time of Cyrus to Darios I. Circa 545-520 BC.jpg
Achaemenid coin minted at Sardis, possibly under Cambyses II.

Although a tax system existed both during the reign of both Cyrus and Cambyses, it was not a systematic one, and thus the subjects of the king were either obligated to give gifts, or pay taxes. [19] Like under his father, Cambyses' satraps were all of Persian stock: Gubaru in Babylonia-Trans-Euphrates: Aryandes in Egypt: Oroetes in Sardis, Mitrobates in Dascylium, Dadarsi in Bactria, and Vivana in Arachosia. [20] Likewise, the imperial treasurer in Babylon, Mithradata, was also from a Persian family. [20] Indeed, the retinue of Cambyses in Egypt was composed solely of Persians. [20] The most notable of these Persians were relatives of the king himself, such as his cousin Darius, who occupied high offices under Cyrus and Cambyses, serving as a spear-bearer under the latter. [21] Darius' father, Hystaspes, served as the governor of Parthia and Hyrcania, or at least held a prominent role there. [20] Important offices centered around the king was also occupied by the Persians, as in the case of Prexaspes, who served as the "message-bearer" of Cambyses, and Sisamnes, who was the royal judge, and later executed by Cambyses. [20]


According to Herodotus, Cambyses was labelled "despot" by the Persians due to being "half-mad, cruel, and insolent". [3] However, this is part of the Persian and Egyptian propaganda used against Cambyses. [3] Indeed, due to Cambyses' proneness to consolidate authority by himself, the Persian tribal nobility were antagonistic towards him. [3]


In Achaemenid Persia, marriages between family members, such as half-siblings, nieces, and cousins took place, however, they were not seen as incestuous. [22] Greek sources, however, state that allegedly brother-sister and father-daughter marriages took place inside the royal family, yet it remains problematic to measure their accuracy. [22] According to Herodotus, Cambyses supposedly married two of his sisters, Atossa and Roxane. [3] [22] This was seen as an illegal action. [22] However, Herodotus himself also states that Cambyses married Otanes' daughter Phaidyme, whilst his contemporary Ctesias names Roxane as Cambyses' wife, but she is not labelled as his sister. [22]

The accusations against of Cambyses of committing incest is mentioned as part of his "blasphemous actions", which were mentioned to point out his "madness and vanity". [22] These reports all derive from the same Egyptian source that was antagonistic towards Cambyses, and some of these "crimes", such as the killing of the Apis bull, have been confirmed as fake, which thus makes the report of Cambyses' supposed incestious acts questionable. [22]

Death and succession

In the spring of 522 BC, Cambyses hurriedly left Egypt to deal with a rebellion in Persia. [23] Before he left the country, he made it into a satrapy under the governorship of the Persian Aryandes. [23]

However Cambyses died shortly after under disputed circumstances. By most accounts, while Cambyses was en route in Syria (Eber-Nari), he received a wound to the thigh, which was soon affected by gangrene. [23] Cambyses died three weeks later (in July) at a location called Agbatana, which is most likely the modern city of Hama. [3] He died childless, [3] and was succeeded by his younger brother Bardiya. [24] According to Darius, who was Cambyses' lance-bearer at the time, he decided that success was impossible, and died by his own hand in 522 BC. Herodotus and Ctesias ascribe his death to an accident. Ctesias writes that Cambyses, despondent from the loss of family members, stabbed himself in the thigh while working with a piece of wood, and died eleven days later from the wound. Herodotus' story is that while mounting his horse, the tip of Cambyses' scabbard broke and his sword pierced his thigh. Some modern historians suspect that Cambyses was assassinated, either by Darius as the first step to usurping the empire for himself, or by supporters of Bardiya. [25]

At the time of Cambyses' death, the Achaemenid Empire was stronger than ever, reaching from Cyrenaica to the Hindu Kush, and from the Syr Darya to the Persian Gulf. [26]


  1. According to 5th-century BC Greek historian Ctesias, the mother of Cambyses II was Amytis, a daughter of the last Median king Astyages (r. 585–550 BC). However, according to the Russian Iranologist Muhammad Dandamayev, this statement is not trustworthy. [3]

Related Research Articles

Amasis II Egyptian pharaoh

Amasis II or Ahmose II was a pharaoh of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt, the successor of Apries at Sais. He was the last great ruler of Egypt before the Persian conquest.

The 6th century BC started the first day of 600 BC and ended the last day of 501 BC.

Xerxes I Ancient Persian king

Xerxes I, commonly known as Xerxes the Great, was the fourth King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, ruling from 486 to 465 BC. He was the son and successor of Darius the Great and his mother was Atossa, a daughter of Cyrus the Great, the first Achaemenid king. Like his father and predecessor Darius I, he ruled the empire at its territorial apex. He ruled from 486 BC until his assassination in 465 BC at the hands of Artabanus, the commander of the royal bodyguard.

Darius the Great 4th king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire (550–486 BC)

Darius I, commonly known as Darius the Great, was the third Persian King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, reigning from 522 BCE until his death in 486 BCE. He ruled the empire at its peak, when it included much of West Asia, parts of the Caucasus, parts of the Balkans, most of the Black Sea coastal regions, Central Asia, as far as the Indus Valley in the far east and portions of north and northeast Africa including Egypt (Mudrâya), eastern Libya, and coastal Sudan.

This article concerns the period 529 BC – 520 BC.

Ctesias, also known as Ctesias the Cnidian or Ctesias of Cnidus, was a Greek physician and historian from the town of Cnidus in Caria, when Caria was part of the Achaemenid Empire.

Bardiya Son of Cyrus the Great

Bardiya, also known as Smerdis among the Greeks, was a son of Cyrus the Great and the younger brother of Cambyses II, both Persian kings. There are sharply divided views on his life. Bardiya either ruled the Achaemenid Empire for a few months in 522 BC, or was impersonated by a magus called Gaumāta, until he was toppled by Darius the Great.

Cyrus the Great King and founder of the Achaemenid Empire

Cyrus II of Persia, commonly known as Cyrus the Great, and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire. Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Western Asia and much of Central Asia. From the Mediterranean Sea and Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east, Cyrus the Great created the largest empire the world had yet seen. Under his successors, the empire eventually stretched at its maximum extent from parts of the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east. His regal titles in full were The Great King, King of Persia, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, and King of the Four Corners of the World. The Nabonidus Chronicle notes the change in his title from simply "King of Anshan," a city, to "King of Persia." Assyriologist François Vallat wrote that "When Astyages marched against Cyrus, Cyrus is called 'King of Anshan," but when Cyrus crosses the Tigris on his way to Lydia, he is 'King of Persia.' The coup therefore took place between these two events."

Psamtik III Egyptian pharaoh

Psamtik III was the last Pharaoh of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt from 526 BC to 525 BC. Most of what is known about his reign and life was documented by the Greek historian Herodotus in the 5th century BC. Herodotus states that Psamtik had ruled Egypt for only six months before he was confronted by a Persian invasion of his country led by King Cambyses II of Persia. Psamtik was subsequently defeated at the Battle of Pelusium, and fled to Memphis where he was captured. The deposed pharaoh was carried off to Susa in chains, and later committed suicide.

Cyaxares II was said to be a king of the Medes whose reign is described by the Greek historian Xenophon. Some theories have equated this figure with the "Darius the Mede" named in the Book of Daniel. He is not mentioned in the histories of Herodotus or Ctesias, and many scholars doubt that he actually existed. The question of his existence impacts on whether the kingdom of the Medes merged peacefully with that of the Persians in about 537 BC, as narrated by Xenophon, or was subjugated in the rebellion of the Persians against Cyrus' grandfather in 559 BC, a date derived from Herodotus (1.214) and almost universally accepted by current scholarship.

Carmania (region)

Carmania is a historical region that approximately corresponds to the modern province of Kerman and was a province of the Achaemenid, Seleucid, Arsacid, and Sasanian Empire. The region bordered Persia in the west, Gedrosia in the south-east, Parthia in the north, and Aria to the north-east. Carmania was considered part of Ariana.

Battle of Opis final battle of the Persian conquest of Babylonia

The Battle of Opis, fought in September 539 BC, was a major engagement between the armies of Persia under Cyrus the Great and the Neo-Babylonian Empire under Nabonidus during the Persian invasion of Mesopotamia. At the time, Babylonia was the last major power in western Asia that was not yet under Persian control. The battle was fought in or near the strategic riverside city of Opis, north of the capital Babylon. It resulted in a decisive victory for the Persians. A few days later, the city of Sippar surrendered to the Persians and Cyrus's forces entered Babylon apparently without a fight. Cyrus was subsequently proclaimed king of Babylonia and its subject territories, thus ending the independence of Babylon and incorporating the Babylonian Empire into the greater Persian Empire.

Battle of Pelusium (525 BC) Battle between the Achaemenid Empire and Egypt

The Battle of Pelusium was the first major battle between the Achaemenid Empire and Egypt. This decisive battle transferred the throne of the Pharaohs to Cambyses II of Persia, marking the beginning of the Achaemenid Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt. It was fought near Pelusium, an important city in the eastern extremes of Egypt's Nile Delta, 30 km to the southeast of the modern Port Said, in 525 BC. The battle was preceded and followed by sieges at Gaza and Memphis.

Fall of Babylon End of the Neo-Babylonian Empire

The Fall of Babylon denotes the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire after it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire in 539 BCE.

Petubastis III Native Egyptian leader (r.c. 522 – 520 BC) who led revolt against Persian rule

Seheruibre Padibastet better known by his hellenised name Petubastis III was a native ancient Egyptian ruler, c. 522 – 520 BC, who revolted against Persian rule.

Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt dynasty and satrap in 5th and 6th centuries BC

The Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt, also known as the First Egyptian Satrapy, was effectively a province (satrapy) of the Achaemenid Persian Empire between 525 BC and 404 BC. It was founded by Cambyses II, the King of Persia, after the Battle of Pelusium and his conquest of Egypt, and his subsequent crowning as Pharaoh of Egypt. It was disestablished upon the rebellion and crowning of Amyrtaeus as Pharaoh. A second period of Achaemenid rule in Egypt occurred under the Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt.

Arsames (satrap of Egypt) satrap of Egypt in 5th century BC

Arsames was an Achaemenid satrap of ancient Egypt during the 5th century BC, at the time of the 27th Dynasty of Egypt.

Teispids were an Iron Age dynasty originally ruling southern Zagros, in ancient Anshan. The dynasty’s realm was later expanded under Cyrus II who conquered a vast area in southwestern Asia, later happened to be known as the Achaemenid Empire under Darius I. The titulary of Teispids is recorded in Cyrus Cylinder, in which Cyrus II identifies himself and his ancestors with the title King of Anshan, as an Elamite tradition. Teispes being the eponymous ancestor and founder, the dynasty furthermore included Cyrus I, Cambyses I, Cyrus II, Cambyses II and Bardiya.

Phanes of Halicarnassus council man, tactician, and mercenary from Halicarnassus, serving the Egyptian pharaoh Amasis II (570–526 BC)

Phanes of Halicarnassus was a wise council man, a tactician, and a mercenary from Halicarnassus, serving the Egyptian pharaoh Amasis II. Most of what history recounts of Phanes is from the account of Herodotus in his grand historical text, The Histories. According to Herodotus, Phanes of Halicarnassus was "a resourceful man and a brave fighter" serving Amasis II on matters of state, and was well connected within the Egyptian pharaoh's troops. Phanes of Halicarnassus was also very well respected within the military and royal community of Egypt.

Achaemenid Empire 550 BC – 330 BC Iranian empire founded by Cyrus the Great

The Achaemenid Empire, Xšāça (Old Persian); translation: The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Great. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was larger than any previous empire in history, spanning 5.5 million square kilometers. Incorporating various peoples of different origins and faiths, it is notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration, for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system, the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army. The empire's successes inspired similar systems in later empires.


  1. Posener, Georges (1936). Bibliothèque de l'Université Bordeaux Montaigne (ed.). La première domination perse en Égypte. Cairo: Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale. pp. 30–36. ISSN   0259-3823. OCLC   5042163.
  2. Bachenheimer 2018, p. 184.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Dandamayev 1990, pp. 726–729.
  4. 1 2 Dandamayev 1993, pp. 516–521.
  5. Briant 2002, p. 519.
  6. 1 2 3 Briant 2002, p. 50.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Briant 2002, p. 51.
  8. Briant 2002, pp. 49, 51.
  9. 1 2 Briant 2002, p. 52.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Briant 2002, p. 53.
  11. Briant 2002, pp. 53–54.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Briant 2002, p. 54.
  13. Briant 2002, pp. 54-55.
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 Briant 2002, p. 55.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 Briant 2002, p. 57.
  16. 1 2 3 Llewellyn-Jones 2017, p. 69.
  17. Llewellyn-Jones 2017, p. 68.
  18. 1 2 Briant 2002, p. 60.
  19. Dandamayev 2000.
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 Briant 2002, p. 82.
  21. Briant 2002, pp. 82, 771.
  22. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Brosius 2000.
  23. 1 2 3 Briant 2002, p. 61.
  24. Briant 2002, p. 102.
  25. Van De Mieroop 2003, p. 336.
  26. Briant 2002, p. 62.


Cambyses II
Preceded by
Cyrus the Great
King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire
530 BC – July 522 BC
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Psamtik III
Pharaoh of Egypt
525 BC – July 522 BC