Cameroon People's Democratic Movement

Last updated
Cameroon People's Democratic Rally
Rassemblement démocratique du Peuple Camerounais
President Paul Biya
Founded1985 (as RDPC)
Headquarters Yaoundé, Cameroon
Ideology Big tent
Nationalism
Francophilia
Seats in the National Assembly
139 / 180
Website
http://www.rdpcpdm.cm/

The Cameroon People's Democratic Movement (CPDM, French : Rassemblement démocratique du Peuple Camerounais, RDPC) is the ruling political party in Cameroon. Previously known as the Cameroonian National Union, which had dominated Cameroon politics since independence in the 1960s, it was renamed in 1985. The national president of the CPDM is Paul Biya, the president of Cameroon, [1] while the secretary-general of the RDPC's Central Committee is Jean Nkuete.

Contents

History

Cameroonian National Union

Cameroonian National Union
Union nationale camérounaise
Founder Ahmadou Ahidjo
Founded1 September 1966
Dissolved1985
Headquarters Yaoundé, Cameroon
Ideology African nationalism
Colors Green

The Cameroonian National Union (CNU) (French Union nationale camérounaise [UNC]) was formed in 1966 through a merger of the Cameroon Union (Union Camerounaise) and the Kamerun National Democratic Party, the major political organizations, respectively, of the state of west Cameroon and the state of east Cameroon, and four smaller parties. The UNC sponsored labor, youth, and women's organizations and provided the only list of candidates for the 1973, 1978, and 1983 legislative elections.

Ahmadou Ahidjo became the first head of the UNC in 1966 and continued in that capacity after his resignation as the nation's president in 1982. Following President Paul Biya's assumption of emergency powers in August 1983, Ahidjo, then in France, resigned as party leader. Biya was subsequently elected party chief at a special party congress in September.

CPDM

In 1985, the UNC was renamed the Cameroon People's Democratic Movement (CPDM or Rassemblement Démocratique du Peuple Camerounaise—RDPC). Opposition parties were legalized in 1990.

The CPDM won 88 of the 180 seats in the National Assembly of Cameroon in the March 1992 parliamentary election, and through an alliance with the Movement for the Defense of the Republic (MDR), which won six seats, it obtained a parliamentary majority. [2] [3] Biya subsequently won the October 1992 presidential election with about 40% of the vote, ahead of John Fru Ndi of the Social Democratic Front (SDF), who won about 36%. [2] The CPDM gained 116 of the 180 seats in the May 1997 parliamentary election [4] (it initially won 109 seats, [5] but it subsequently won in the three constituencies where the election was held over again in August, gaining seven more seats [4] ) and in the October 1997 presidential election, Biya received 92.6% of the vote amidst an opposition boycott. [3]

Political Opposition and Alliances in 2000

The SDF and its allies in the Union for Change remain critical of Biya but are also critical of France, which they call an "accomplice of those in power." However, in 2000 the alliance reportedly was falling apart as the SDF sought to distance itself from the Southern Cameroon National Council (SCNC). The SCNC apparently was accusing the SDF of delaying independence for the northwest and southwest English-speaking provinces by refusing to force its English-speaking members of parliament to resign from the Francophone-dominated National Assembly. Moreover, some members of the opposition wanted their party leaders to join Biya's coalition government so they could share the spoils of office.

By 2000, Biya had shored up his government by forming a coalition with the northern-based UNDP, which had 13 Assembly seats, and with the UPC, which had one seat. Together, the ruling coalition gave Biya a four-fifth's majority in the Assembly. The coalition government enjoyed support from seven of Cameroon's 10 provinces, and thus secured former president Ahidjo's north–south alliance, which he had created in 1958.

From 2002

In the parliamentary election held on 30 June 2002, the party won 149 out of 180 seats, including 16 seats won in a revote on 15 September for constituencies where the election had been invalidated. [6] In the presidential election held on 11 October 2004, Biya won 70.9% of the vote.

The CPDM won 140 out of the 163 initially declared seats in the July 2007 parliamentary election, [7] [8] and it won another 13 seats (out of 17 at stake) in constituencies where the vote was held over again in September, thus winning a total of 153 seats. [9]

Congresses

The party held its first ordinary congress, at which Biya told the party to prepare for competition as the move toward multiparty democracy was beginning, on June 28, 1990, in Yaoundé. The CPDM's first extraordinary congress was held in Yaoundé on October 7, 1995, and its second ordinary congress was held on December 1719, 1996. [10] The party held its second extraordinary congress on July 7, 2001 [10] [11] and its third extraordinary congress on July 21, 2006, in Yaoundé. [10] [12] Biya has been consistently re-elected as the CPDM's National President. [10]

Electoral history

Presidential Elections

ElectionParty candidateVotes%Result
1970 Ahmadou Ahidjo 3,478,942100%ElectedGreen check.svg
1975 3,483,165100%ElectedGreen check.svg
1980 3,329,145100%ElectedGreen check.svg
1984 Paul Biya 3,878,138100%ElectedGreen check.svg
1988 3,321,872100%ElectedGreen check.svg
1992 1,185,46640.0%ElectedGreen check.svg
1997 3,167,82092.57%ElectedGreen check.svg
2004 2,665,35970.92%ElectedGreen check.svg
2011 3,772,52777.99%ElectedGreen check.svg
2018 2,521,93471.28%ElectedGreen check.svg

National Assembly elections

ElectionParty leaderVotes%Seats+/–PositionOutcome
1970 Ahmadou Ahidjo 2,926,224100%
50 / 50
Increase2.svg 50Increase2.svg 1stSole legal party
1973 3,293,428100%
120 / 120
Increase2.svg 70Steady2.svg 1stSole legal party
1978 3,614,768100%
120 / 120
Steady2.svgSteady2.svg 1stSole legal party
1983 Paul Biya 3,628,469100%
120 / 120
Steady2.svgSteady2.svg 1stSole legal party
1988 3,179,898100%
180 / 180
Increase2.svg 70Steady2.svg 1stSole legal party
1992 989,04445.5%
88 / 180
Decrease2.svg 92Steady2.svg 1stMinority government
1997 1,399,75148.0%
109 / 180
Increase2.svg 21Steady2.svg 1stMajority government
2002
149 / 180
Increase2.svg 40Steady2.svg 1stSupermajority government
2007 2,105,50367.30%
153 / 180
Increase2.svg 4Steady2.svg 1stSupermajority government
2013
148 / 180
Decrease2.svg 5Steady2.svg 1stSupermajority government
2020
139 / 180
Decrease2.svg 9Steady2.svg 1stSupermajority government

See also

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References

  1. "Les membres du bureau politique" Archived 2007-06-30 at the Wayback Machine , RDPC website (in French).
  2. 1 2 John Mukum Mbaku, "Decolonization, Reunification and Federation in Cameroon", in The Leadership Challenge in Africa: Cameroon Under Paul Biya, pages 33–34.
  3. 1 2 "UK Home Office Immigration and Nationality Directorate Country Assessment - Cameroon", UNHCR.org.
  4. 1 2 Victor Julius Ngoh, "Biya and the Transition to Democracy", The Leadership Challenge in Africa: Cameroon Under Paul Biya, page 444.
  5. "Cameroon: Opposition arrests reported after announcement of election results", Radio France Internationale (nl.newsbank.com), June 8, 1997.
  6. "Législatives partielles: le parti au pouvoir remporte 16 des 17 sièges" Archived 2012-07-21 at archive.today , AFP (Cameroon-info.net), September 27, 2002 (in French).
  7. "Les résultats des législatives du 22 juillet 2007 proclamés.", Cameroonian government website (in French).
  8. "Cameroun: l'écrasante victoire du parti de Biya aux législatives confirmée", AFP (Jeuneafrique.com), August 10, 2007 (in French).
  9. "Les résulats des législatives partielles proclamés par la Cour suprême", Xinhua (Jeuneafrique.com), October 15, 2007 (in French).
  10. 1 2 3 4 "21 ANS DE TÂTONNEMENT", Camerounlink.net, July 21, 2007 (in French).
  11. "Notre revue de presse de la semaine du 9 au 15 juillet 2001", Cameroon-Info.net, July 16, 2001 (in French).
  12. "Paul Biya réélu sans surprise à la tête du RDPC", rfi.fr, July 22, 2006 (in French).

Bibliography