Camogie

Last updated

Camogie
Garda V Defence Forces (8121575528).jpg
Garda vs Defence Forces camogie match in 2012
Highest governing body Camogie Association
First played1904;118 years ago (1904)
  • Ireland
Registered playersOver 100,000
Clubs536
Characteristics
Contact Contact
Team members15 player per side,
substitutes are permitted
Type
Equipment

Camogie ( /kəˈmɡi/ kə-MOH-ghee; Irish : camógaíocht [kəˈmˠoːɡiːxt̪ˠ] ) is an Irish stick-and-ball team sport played by women. Camogie is played by 100,000 women in Ireland and worldwide, largely among Irish communities. [1] [2]

Contents

A variant of the game of hurling (which is played by men only), it is organised by the Dublin-based Camogie Association or An Cumann Camógaíochta. [3] [4] The annual All Ireland Camogie Championship has a record attendance of 33,154, [5] while average attendances in recent years are in the region of 15,000 to 18,000. The final is broadcast live, with a TV audience[ when? ] of as many as over 300,000. [6]

UNESCO lists Camogie as an element of Intangible Cultural Heritage. [7] The game is referenced in Waiting for Godot by Irish playwright Samuel Beckett.

Game and rules

The game consists of two thirty-minute halves. There is a half-time interval of 15 minutes. In event of extra time, halves must consist of 10 minutes each. Each team has 15 players on the field. Within the 15 players the team must consist of one goalkeeper, three full back players, three half back players, two centre-field players, three half forward players and three full forward players. There is a minimum requirement of 12 players on the pitch at all times. [8] The rules are almost identical to hurling, with a few exceptions. [9]

A camogie match in action Garda V Defence Forces (8121574946).jpg
A camogie match in action
Players may catch the ball with their hand Garda V Defence Forces (8121567016).jpg
Players may catch the ball with their hand

Under the original 1903 rules both the match and the field were shorter than their hurling equivalents. Matches were 40 minutes, increased to 50 minutes in 1934, and playing fields 125–130 yards (114–119 m) long and 65–70 yards (59–64 m) wide. From 1929 until 1979 a second crossbar, a "points bar" was also used, meaning that a point would not be allowed if it travelled over this bar, a somewhat contentious rule through the 75 years it was in use. Teams were regulated at 12 a side, using an elliptical formation, although it was more a "squeezed lemon" formation with the three midfield players grouped more closely together than their counterpart on the half back and half-forward lines. In 1999 camogie moved to the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) field-size and 15-a-side, adopting the standard GAA butterfly formation.

Field and equipment

A camogie helmet lies beside a hurley Garda 1255 (8121328116).jpg
A camogie helmet lies beside a hurley

Field

The field is not of a fixed size, but must be 130 to 145 metres (142 to 159 yd) long by 80 to 90 metres (87 to 98 yd) wide.

Sticks

The length of the stick, called a "hurley", varies depending on the player's height.

Goals and scoring

Goalposts and scoring system used in camogie Scoring in Gaelic games - H shaped posts.png
Goalposts and scoring system used in camogie

H-shaped goals are used. A team achieves a score by making the ball go between the posts. If the ball goes over the bar for a "point", the team earns one point. If the ball goes under the bar for a "goal", the team earns three points. [11]

History

Foundation

A camogie team pictured in Waterford in October 1915 Camogie Team, Waterford, 17 October 1915.jpg
A camogie team pictured in Waterford in October 1915
A camogie game in 1934 Lil Kirby.jpg
A camogie game in 1934

The name was invented by Tadhg Ua Donnchadha (Tórna) at meetings in 1903 in advance of the first matches in 1904. [12] The term camogie is derived from the name of the stick used in the game. Men play hurling using a curved stick called a camán in Irish. Women in the early camogie games used a shorter stick described by the diminutive form camóg. The suffix -aíocht (originally "uidheacht") was added to both words to give names for the sports: camánaíocht (which became iománaíocht) and camógaíocht. When the Gaelic Athletic Association was founded in 1884 the English-origin name "hurling" was given to the men's game. When an organisation for women was set up in 1904, it was decided to anglicise the Irish name camógaíocht to camogie. [1]

The experimental rules were drawn up for the female game by Máire Ní Chinnéide, Seán (Sceilg) Ó Ceallaigh, Tadhg Ó Donnchadha and Séamus Ó Braonáin. The Official Launch of Camogie took place with the first public match between Craobh an Chéitinnigh (Keatings branch of the Gaelic League) and Cúchulainns on 17 July at a Feis in Navan. The sport's governing body, the Camogie Association or An Cumann Camógaíochta was founded in 1905 and re-constituted in 1911, 1923 and 1939. Until June 2010 it was known as Cumann Camógaíochta na nGael.

Máire Ní Chinnéide and Cáit Ní Dhonnchadha, two prominent Irish-language enthusiasts and cultural nationalists, were credited with having created the sport, with the assistance of Ní Dhonnchadha's scholarly brother Tadhg Ó Donnchadha, who drew up its rules. Thus, although camogie was founded by women, and independently run (although closely linked to the GAA), there was, from the outset, a small yet powerful male presence within its administrative ranks. It was no surprise that camogie emanated from the Gaelic League, nor that it would be dependent upon the structures and networks provided by that organisation during the initial expansion of the sport. Of all the cultural nationalist organisations for adults that emerged during the fin de siècle, the Gaelic League was the only one to accept female and male members on an equal footing. [13]

Leagues

Ireland

An Cumann Camógaíochta has a similar structure to the Gaelic Athletic Association, with an Annual Congress every spring which decides on policy and major issues such as rule changes, and an executive council, the Árd Chómhairle which deals with short-term issues and governance. The game is administered from a headquarters in Croke Park in Dublin. Each of 28 county boards takes control of its own affairs (all of the Irish counties except Fermanagh, Leitrim and Sligo), with the number of clubs ranging from 58 in Cork to one in Leitrim. There are four provincial councils and affiliates in Asia, Australia, Britain, Europe, New York, New Zealand and North America.

Clubs

Ireland

There are[ when? ] 539 camogie clubs, of which 513 are based on the island of Ireland, 47 in Connacht, 196 in Leinster, 160 in Munster, and 110 in Ulster.

Connacht

There are 47 camogie teams in Connacht.

Connacht
ClubTeamsWebsite
Galway 34
Leitrim 1
Mayo 4
Roscommon 7
Sligo 2

Leinster

There are 196 camogie teams in Leinster.

Leinster
ClubTeamsWebsite
Carlow 6
Dublin 39
Kildare 19
Kilkenny 33
Laois 7
Longford 1
Louth 6
Meath 14
Offaly 12
Westmeath 13
Wexford 33
Wicklow 13

Munster

There are 160 camogie teams in Munster.

Munster
ClubTeamsWebsite
Clare 26
Cork 58
Kerry 3
Limerick 25
Tipperary 32
Waterford 16

Ulster

There are 110 camogie teams in Ulster.

Ulster
ClubTeamsWebsite
Antrim 22
Armagh 18
Cavan 9
Derry 23
Donegal 3
Down 21
Fermanagh 0
Monaghan 4
Tyrone 5

Overseas

Competitions in Ireland

All-Ireland Championship

The O'Duffy Cup, named after Sean O'Duffy, is the prize presented to the winners of the All-Ireland Senior Camogie Championship Sean O'Duffy(c. 1885-1981) in his volunteer uniform from the 1916 Rebellion.png
The O'Duffy Cup, named after Seán O'Duffy, is the prize presented to the winners of the All-Ireland Senior Camogie Championship

The county is the unit of structure in elite competition, responsible for organising club competitions within the county unit and for fielding inter-county teams in the various grades of the All-Ireland championships and National Camogie League. The All Ireland Club Championship is staged at Senior, Intermediate and Junior level, usually reaching the final stages in November–December or the following March. London competed in the National Camogie League in the 2010 season, but not in 2011.

Counties compete for the elite All-Ireland Senior Camogie Championship in which the O'Duffy Cup is awarded. The All-Ireland Final is held every year in Croke Park during September, usually on the week between the hurling final and Gaelic football final, and attracts attendances of up to 33,000. [5]

There are age-graded All Ireland championships at Minor A, Minor B, and Minor C, and Under-16 A, B and C level.

Six teams contest the fourth-tier Nancy Murray Cup (or Junior A championship), Carlow, Cavan, Monaghan, Tyrone, Westmeath, and the second team of Offaly.

Three teams contest the fifth-tier Máire Ní Chinnéide Cup, (or Junior B championship), Wicklow, and the second teams of Kildare and Meath.

Although six counties do not compete at adult level: Donegal, Fermanagh, Leitrim, Longford, Mayo and Sligo do not compete at adult level, clubs from Fermanagh, Kerry and Mayo have won honours and Donegal have contested divisional finals at under-14 Feile na nGael level. Both Louth (in 1934 and 1936) and Mayo (in 1959) have contested the All Ireland senior final in the past.

National League

The National League is staged during the winter-spring months, with four divisions of team graded by ability.

Provincial championships

Provincial championships take place at all levels, independent of the All Ireland series which has been run on an open draw basis since 1973.

International and inter-provincial

Ireland plays a camogie-shinty international against Scotland each year. The Gael Linn Cup is an inter-provincial competition played at senior and junior level. The sport is closely associated with the Celtic Congress. Two former Camogie Association presidents Máire Ní Chinnéide and Agnes O'Farrelly were also presidents of Celtic Congress and exhibition matches have been held at the Celtic Congress since 1938. The first such exhibition match, on the Isle of Man in 1938, marked the first appearance of Kathleen Cody, who became one of the stars of the 1940s.

Inter-collegiate

The Ashbourne and Purcell Cups and Father Meachair seven-a-side are the principal inter-collegiate competitions.

Schools

There is also a programme of provincial and All Ireland championships at secondary schools senior and junior levels, differentiated by the years of secondary school cycle, with years 4–6 competing in the senior competition, and years 1–3 competing at junior level. Cumann na mBunscoil organises competitions at primary school level.

Féile na nGael

Camogie competitions for club teams featuring under-14 players are played in four divisions as part of the annual Féile na nGael festival. The county that is selected for a particular year, all their clubs host teams from all around the country representing their county. Host clubs get families to take in two or three children for a couple of days.

International presence

Though camogie is played predominantly in its native homeland of Ireland, it has spread to other countries, largely among the Irish diaspora due to immigrants and the immigrant population. The sport is known to have arrived in places in such as Great Britain, North America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Argentina. [14]

In North America camogie is played in the United States, Canada, and in parts of the Caribbean. Camogie has also been included as a part of the GAA World Games.

GAA World Games

2019 Renault GAA World Games

Renault GAA World Games - Camogie (Native Born) [15]

2019 Camogie (Native Born) final standings [16]
PosCountry / TeamPWDLFAPts
1 Flag of the United States.svg Twin Cities (USGAA)109101192619
2 Flag of the United States.svg The Warriors (USGAA)10532563613
3 Flag of the United States.svg Heartland (USGAA)10523583512
4 Flag of the United States.svg MidAtlantic (USGAA)10424674210
5 Flag of Europe.svg Europe Rovers1020815954
6 Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada Native (CAGAA) [17] 1010913942

North American presence

Camogie teams in North America [18] have existed for at least a century.[ citation needed ]

United States

The national organizing body for Gaelic Games in the United States, with the exception of New York City, is the USGAA [19] where camogie can be found. It is the governing body which promotes camogie in the United States along with other Gaelic sports. The USGAA also maintains a close relationship with other GAA groups in North America including Canada (Gaelic Games Canada), the New York GAA, and the Caribbean.

GAA World Games

The United States has sent a number of camogie teams from the US to compete in the in the GAA World Games in 2016 and 2019.

Canada

The national organizing body for Gaelic Games in Canada is Gaelic Games Canada (GGC) a.k.a. Canadian GAA (CGAA) [20] where camogie can be found. [21] Canada and the CGAA are home to a number of camogie clubs.

Clubs

Canada
Canadian Camogie Clubs
ClubCity/ProvinceEst.Website
Montreal Shamrocks [17] [22] Coat of arms of Quebec.svg Montreal, Québec 1948 Montreal Shamrocks GAC
Calgary Chieftains / Chieftainettes Coat of arms of Alberta.svg Calgary, Alberta 1977
Edmonton Wolfe Tones Coat of arms of Alberta.svg Edmonton, Alberta
Le Chéile Camogie Club Toronto Arms of Ontario.svg Toronto, Ontario Toronto Camogie
ISSC Camogie Arms of British Columbia.svg Vancouver, British Columbia ISSC Camogie
ISSC Shamrocks Arms of British Columbia.svg Vancouver, British Columbia 2021 ISSC Camogie
ISSC Pearse Arms of British Columbia.svg Vancouver, British Columbia 2021 ISSC Camogie

GAA World Games

Canada has sent a number of camogie teams from Canada to compete in the GAA World Games in 2016 and 2019. [17]

Records

Ireland

All-Ireland Senior Camogie Championship

Cork have won the most Camogie All-Ireland titles with 28, the last being in 2018.

National Camogie League titles

Cork have won the most National Camogie League titles with 16.

Results

2018 All Ireland Championship

Eleven counties competed for the elite All-Ireland Senior Camogie Championship in 2018: Clare, Cork, Dublin, Galway, Kilkenny, Limerick, Meath, Offaly, Tipperary, Waterford, and Wexford.

Eleven teams contested the second-tier Jack McGrath Cup in 2018 (All Ireland intermediate championship): Antrim, Carlow, Derry, Down, Kildare, Laois, and Westmeath, and the second teams of Cork, Galway, Kilkenny, and Tipperary.

Seven teams contested the third-tier Kay Mills Cup (All Ireland junior or 'Premier Junior" championship) in 2018: Armagh, Kerry, Roscommon, and the second teams of Clare, Dublin, Limerick, and Offaly.

Only fourteen points were scored by the winning team in the 2018 senior final, and most points in the game followed the awarding of frees. [23] Ten points was sufficient to determine the winner of the 2017 senior final. [23]

Awards

Camogie All Stars Awards are awarded annually to the elite players who have performed best in each of the 15 positions on a traditional camogie team. Player of the year and other achievement awards have also been awarded to leading players for several decades.

Team of the Century

Picked in 2004 [24]

Criticism

Partly due to biological and physiological differences between men and women, some argue that Camogie lacks the physical drama found in the male equivalent sport, hurling. [25]

You can't ... deny what you've seen, you can't pretend you don't notice the gulf in physical prowess. This applies across the board, internationally and domestically, where camogie and women's Gaelic football also suffer by comparison to the physical drama contained in the male versions. [26]

Conlon, Tommy (March 8, 2020), Tide is rising but we are only at the beginning of a whole new ball game, Independent.ie

There are lower score tallies in the senior camogie championship finals than in comparison to men's hurling championships. [23]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hurling</span> Outdoor team stick and ball game

Hurling is an outdoor team game of ancient Gaelic Irish origin, played by men. One of Ireland's native Gaelic games, it shares a number of features with Gaelic football, such as the field and goals, the number of players and much terminology. The same game played by women is called camogie, which shares a common Gaelic root.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sliotar</span> Ball used in hurling

A sliotar or sliothar is a hard solid sphere slightly larger than a tennis ball, consisting of a cork core covered by two pieces of leather stitched together. Sometimes called a "hurling ball", it resembles a baseball with more pronounced stitching. It is used in the Gaelic games of hurling, camogie, rounders and shinty.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gaelic games</span> Set of sports originating, and mainly played in Ireland

Gaelic games are sports played in Ireland under the auspices of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA). They include Gaelic football, hurling, Gaelic handball, and rounders. Women's versions of hurling and football are also played: camogie, organised by the Camogie Association of Ireland, and ladies' Gaelic football, organised by the Ladies' Gaelic Football Association. While women's versions are not organised by the GAA, they are closely associated with it.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dublin GAA</span> County board of the Gaelic Athletic Association in Ireland

The Dublin County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) or Dublin GAA is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland, and is responsible for Gaelic games in the Dublin Region and the Dublin county teams. The teams and their fans are known as "The Dubs" or "Boys in Blue". The fans have a special affiliation with the Hill 16 end of Croke Park.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Carlow GAA</span> County board of the Gaelic Athletic Association in Ireland

The Carlow County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) or Carlow GAA is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland, and is responsible for Gaelic games in County Carlow and the Carlow county teams.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kilkenny GAA</span> County board of the Gaelic Athletic Association in Ireland

The Kilkenny County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland and is responsible for Gaelic games in County Kilkenny. The county board has its head office and main grounds at Nowlan Park and is also responsible for Kilkenny county teams in all codes at all levels. The Kilkenny branch of the Gaelic Athletic Association was founded in 1887.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tipperary GAA</span> County board of the Gaelic Athletic Association in Ireland

The Tipperary County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) or Tipperary GAA is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland, and is responsible for Gaelic games in County Tipperary and the Tipperary county teams.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Limerick GAA</span> County board of the Gaelic Athletic Association in Ireland

The Limerick County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) or Limerick GAA is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland, and is responsible for Gaelic games in County Limerick. The county board is also responsible for the Limerick county teams.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Westmeath GAA</span> County board of the Gaelic Athletic Association in Ireland

The Westmeath County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) or Westmeath GAA is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland, and is responsible for Gaelic games in County Westmeath. The county board is also responsible for the Westmeath county teams.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Down GAA</span> Gaelic games governing body

The Down County Board or Down GAA is one of the 32 county boards of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) in Ireland, and is responsible for the administration of Gaelic games in County Down, Northern Ireland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wicklow GAA</span> County board of the Gaelic Athletic Association in Ireland

The Wicklow County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) or Wicklow GAA is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland, and is responsible for Gaelic games in County Wicklow. The county board is also responsible for the Wicklow county teams.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mayo GAA</span> County board of the Gaelic Athletic Association in Ireland

The Mayo County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) or Mayo GAA is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland, and is responsible for Gaelic games in County Mayo and the Mayo county teams.

The following is an alphabetical list of terms and jargon used in relation to Gaelic games. See also list of Irish county nicknames, and these are very interesting.

The All-Ireland Junior Camogie Championship is a competition for third-tier county teams in the women's field sport of camogie and for second-string teams of first-tier counties. In accordance with the practice in GAA competitions the term junior applies to the level of competition rather than the age group.

The All-Ireland Intermediate Camogie Championship is a competition in the women’s field sport of camogie for second-tier county teams and for second-string teams of first-tier counties. If the winning team comes from a second-tier county, that county is promoted to the following year's senior championship. Similarly, the winner of the All-Ireland junior championship is promoted to the following year's Intermediate Championship. The grade mirrors Division 2 of the National Camogie League. The final is played in Croke Park Dublin alongside the Senior and Junior finals. The 2021 competition was contested by Antrim, Carlow, Derry, Laois, Kerry, Kildare, Meath and the second teams of Cork, Dublin, Galway, Kilkenny and Tipperary.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Camogie Association</span> Governing body for the sport of camogie

The Camogie Association organises and promotes the sport of camogie in Ireland and around the world. The association has close ties with the Gaelic Athletic Association, but is still a separate organisation.

The 1972 All Ireland Camogie Championship was won by Cork who defeated Killkenny by a four margin in the final for their third successive success of a four-in-a-row. It was the first final in which the new look camogie uniform of the 1970s was used. The match drew an attendance of 4,000. It marked the first appearance in a final of the 15-year-old Angela Downey, arguably the greatest player in the history of camogie.

The 1986 All-Ireland Senior Camogie Championship was the high point of the 1986 season. The championship was won by Killkenny who defeated Dublin by a nine-point margin in the final. The match drew an attendance of 5,000.

The 1982 All Ireland Camogie Championship was won by Cork, beating Dublin by a single point in the final.

The 1983 All-Ireland Senior Camogie Championship was won by Cork, beating Dublin by a two-point margin in the final.

References

  1. 1 2 Moran, Mary (2011). A Game of Our Own: The History of Camogie. Dublin, Ireland: Cumann Camógaíochta. p. 460.
  2. Arlott, John (1977). Oxford Companion to Sports and Games. London, England: Flamingo. p. 1024.
  3. Vuepoint.ie. "The Camogie Association : About Camogie". Camogie.ie. Retrieved 5 May 2017.
  4. "GAA.ie". Gaa.ie. Retrieved 5 May 2017.
  5. 1 2 2007 All Ireland final reports in Irish Examiner, Irish Independent, Irish Times and Gorey Guardian Archived 19 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  6. Corry, Eoghan (2005). Illustrated History of the GAA. Dublin, Ireland: Gill & MacMillan. p. 250.
  7. "Hurling - intangible heritage - Culture Sector - UNESCO". ich.unesco.org. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  8. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2018.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. "Rule Differences on Camogie.ie website" . Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  10. "Ladies sticking with skirts as O'Flynn backs rules makeover - Independent.ie" . Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  11. "Rules of Camogie on Camogie.ie website". Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  12. Puirséil, Pádraig (1984). Scéal na Camógaíochta. Dublin, Ireland: Cumann Camógaíochta na nGael. p. 64.
  13. Ríona Nic Congáil “'Looking on for centuries from the side-line': Gaelic Feminism and the rise of Camogie", Éire-Ireland (Spring / Summer 2013): 168–192.Gaelic Feminism and the rise of Camogie
  14. "MONTREAL SHAMROCKS | GAELIC ATHLETIC CLUB". montrealshamrocks.com. Montreal Shamrocks GAA. Retrieved 21 May 2022.
  15. "World Games | 2019 Renault GAA World Games Teams". gaa.ie. GAA. 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
  16. "World Games Camogie (Native) | Renault GAA World Games Camogie Native". GAA. 2019. Archived from the original on 10 December 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
  17. 1 2 3 GAA (12 August 2019). "Renault GAA World Games - Canada GAA". youtube.com. OfficialGAA. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  18. "Play Hurling | Find A Club Near You". playhurling.com. Play Hurling. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
  19. "Welcome to the USGAA". usgaa.org. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
  20. "Gaelic Games Canada". gaelicgamescanada.com. Retrieved 21 May 2022.
  21. "Hurling and Camogie". gaelicgamecanada.com. Retrieved 21 May 2022.
  22. "Gaelic football provides opportunity of a lifetime for three West Prince women". www.theguardian.pe.ca. 26 July 2019. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  23. 1 2 3 Crowe, Dermot (8 September 2019). "Breaking new ground on final day as Kilkenny look to bury pain of defeat". Sunday Independent . Retrieved 8 September 2019. Recent finals have been without goals and scorelines have stayed relatively low compared to hurling. Ten points won the final two years ago. The winning total last year was 14 points. The majority of the scores in last year's final came from frees.
  24. "Team of the century". Camogie.ie. Archived from the original on 23 July 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  25. "Tide is rising but we are only at the beginning of a whole new ball game". Sunday Independent. 8 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  26. Tommy Conlon (8 March 2020). "Tide is rising but we are only at the beginning of a whole new ball game". independent.ie. Independent.ie . Retrieved 5 May 2022.