Campanian

Last updated
System/
Period
Series/
Epoch
Stage/
Age
Age (Ma)
Paleogene Paleocene Danian younger
Cretaceous Upper/
Late
Maastrichtian 66.072.1
Campanian 72.183.6
Santonian 83.686.3
Coniacian 86.389.8
Turonian 89.893.9
Cenomanian 93.9100.5
Lower/
Early
Albian 100.5~113.0
Aptian ~113.0~125.0
Barremian ~125.0~129.4
Hauterivian ~129.4~132.9
Valanginian ~132.9~139.8
Berriasian ~139.8~145.0
Jurassic Upper/
Late
Tithonian older
Subdivision of the Cretaceous system
according to the ICS, as of 2017. [1]

The Campanian is the fifth of six ages of the Late Cretaceous epoch on the geologic timescale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS). In chronostratigraphy, it is the fifth of six stages in the Upper Cretaceous series. Campanian spans the time from 83.6 (± 0.7) to 72.1 (± 0.6) million years ago. It is preceded by the Santonian and it is followed by the Maastrichtian. [2]

A geologic age is a subdivision of geologic time that divides an epoch into smaller parts. A succession of rock strata laid down in a single age on the geologic timescale is a stage.

The Late Cretaceous is the younger of two epochs into which the Cretaceous period is divided in the geologic timescale. Rock strata from this epoch form the Upper Cretaceous series. The Cretaceous is named after the white limestone known as chalk which occurs widely in northern France and is seen in the white cliffs of south-eastern England, and which dates from this time.

In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age but shorter than a period. The current epoch is the Holocene Epoch of the Quaternary Period. Rock layers deposited during an epoch are called a series. Series are subdivisions of the stratigraphic column that, like epochs, are subdivisions of the geologic timescale. Like other geochronological divisions, epochs are normally separated by significant changes in the rock layers to which they correspond.

Contents

The Campanian was an age when a worldwide sea level rise covered many coastal areas. The morphology of some of these areas has been preserved: it is an unconformity beneath a cover of marine sedimentary rocks. [3] [4]

Marine transgression Geologic event in which sea level rises relative to the land

A marine transgression is a geologic event during which sea level rises relative to the land and the shoreline moves toward higher ground, resulting in flooding. Transgressions can be caused either by the land sinking or the ocean basins filling with water. Transgressions and regressions may be caused by tectonic events such as orogenies, severe climate change such as ice ages or isostatic adjustments following removal of ice or sediment load.

Geomorphology The scientific study of landforms and the processes that shape them

Geomorphology is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface. Geomorphologists seek to understand why landscapes look the way they do, to understand landform history and dynamics and to predict changes through a combination of field observations, physical experiments and numerical modeling. Geomorphologists work within disciplines such as physical geography, geology, geodesy, engineering geology, archaeology, climatology and geotechnical engineering. This broad base of interests contributes to many research styles and interests within the field.

Unconformity distorted sediment deposition

An unconformity is a buried erosional or non-depositional surface separating two rock masses or strata of different ages, indicating that sediment deposition was not continuous. In general, the older layer was exposed to erosion for an interval of time before deposition of the younger, but the term is used to describe any break in the sedimentary geologic record. The significance of angular unconformity was shown by James Hutton, who found examples of Hutton's Unconformity at Jedburgh in 1787 and at Siccar Point in 1788.

Naming

The Campanian was introduced in scientific literature by Henri Coquand in 1857. It is named after the French village of Champagne in the département Charente-Maritime. The original type locality was an outcrop near the village of Aubeterre-sur-Dronne in the same region. Due to changes of the stratigraphic definitions, this section is now part of the Maastrichtian stage.

Henri Coquand was a French geologist and paleontologist.

France Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

Champagne, Charente-Maritime Commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Champagne is a commune in the Charente-Maritime department in southwestern France.

Definition

The base of the Campanian stage is defined as a place in the stratigraphic column where the extinction of crinoid species Marsupites testudinarius is located. (A Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point or GSSP had not yet been ratified as of 2009: one possible candidate is a section near a dam at Waxahachie, Texas.) The top of the Campanian stage is defined as the place in the stratigraphic column where the ammonite Pachydiscus neubergicus first appears.

Extinction Termination of a taxon by the death of the last member

In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), usually a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point. Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively. This difficulty leads to phenomena such as Lazarus taxa, where a species presumed extinct abruptly "reappears" after a period of apparent absence.

Crinoid class of echinoderms

Crinoids are marine animals that make up the class Crinoidea of the echinoderms. The name comes from the Greek word krinon, "a lily", and eidos, "form". They live in both shallow water and in depths as great as 9,000 meters (30,000 ft). Those crinoids which in their adult form are attached to the sea bottom by a stalk are commonly called sea lilies. The unstalked forms are called feather stars or comatulids.

<i>Marsupites</i> genus of echinoderms

Marsupites is an extinct genus of crinoids from the Cretaceous.

Subdivisions

The Campanian can be subdivided into Lower, Middle and Upper subages. In the Tethys domain, the Campanian encompasses six ammonite biozones. They are, from young to old:

Tethys Ocean Mesozoic ocean between Gondwana and Laurasia

The Tethys Ocean, also called the Tethys Sea or the Neotethys, was an ocean during much of the Mesozoic Era located between the ancient continents of Gondwana and Laurasia, before the opening of the Indian and Atlantic oceans during the Cretaceous Period.

Biozone

Biostratigraphic unit or biozones are intervals of geological strata that are defined on the basis of their characteristic fossil taxa.

<i>Nostoceras</i> genus of molluscs (fossil)

Nostoceras is an extinct genus of ammonites. The etymology of the name Nostoceras comes from "nostos" meaning return and "ceros" meaning horn, named as such by Alpheus Hyatt because it bends back on itself.

<i>Didymoceras</i> genus of molluscs (fossil)

Didymoceras is an extinct genus of ammonite cephalopod. It is one of the most bizarrely shaped genera, with a shell that spirals upwards into a loose, hooked tip. It is thought to have drifted in the water vertically, moving up and down. The generic name is Latin for "paired horns".

<i>Bostrychoceras</i> genus of molluscs (fossil)

Bostrychoceras is a genus of heteromorph ammonite from the family Nostoceratidae. Fossils have been found in Late Cretaceous sediments in Europe and North America.

Paleontology

During the Campanian age, a radiation among dinosaur species occurred. In North America, for example, the number of known dinosaur genera rises from 4 at the base of the Campanian to 48 in the upper part. This development is sometimes referred to as the "Campanian Explosion". However, it is not yet clear if the event is artificial, i.e. the low number of genera in the lower Campanian can be caused by a lower preservation chance for fossils in deposits of that age. The generally warm climates and large continental area covered in shallow sea during the Campanian probably favoured the dinosaurs. In the following Maastrichtian stage, the number of North American dinosaur genera found is 30% less than in the upper Campanian. [5]

Animals that lived in the Campanian include:

†Ankylosaurs

Ankylosaurs of the Campanian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages

Aletopelta

Point Loma Formation, California, USAA medium-sized ankylosaurid, estimated to be around 6 m (20 ft) long.
Edmontonia Edmontonia dinosaur.png
Edmontonia
Euoplocephalus Euoplocephalus BW.jpg
Euoplocephalus
Pinacosaurus Pinacosaurus.JPG
Pinacosaurus

Antarctopelta

Santa Marta Formation, James Ross Island, AntarcticaA stocky ankylosaur protected by armor plates embedded in the skin. Although a complete skeleton has not been found, the species is estimated to have reached a maximum length of 4 meters (13 feet). Displays characteristics of both ankylosaurids and nodosaurids.

Edmontonia

Campanian to Maastrichtian Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, CanadaA bulky nodosaurid at roughly 6.6 m (22 ft) long. It had small, ridged bony plates on its back and many sharp spikes along its body sides. The four largest spikes jutted out from the shoulders on each side, two of which were split into subspines in some specimens. Its skull had a pear-like shape when viewed from above.

Euoplocephalus

Nodocephalosaurus

Palaeoscincus

Judith River Formation known from a single tooth

Panoplosaurus

Judith River Formation, Alberta, Canada; Montana, USAA 5.5–7 m long nodosaurid.

Pinacosaurus

Saichania

Shanxia

Struthiosaurus

Tarchia

Tianzhenosaurus

Birds (avian theropods)

Birds of the Campanian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages

Hesperornis

Hesperornis Hesperornis BW.jpg
Hesperornis

Ichthyornis

Neogaeornis wetzeli

A marine bird from Chile. It had the midfeet of a foot-propelled diving bird, but its relationships are enigmatic. The only known species is from the Campanian-Maastrichtian boundary.

Bony fish

Bony fish of the Campanian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages

Xiphactinus

Xiphactinus XiphactinusDB.jpg
Xiphactinus

Cartilaginous fish

Cartilaginous fish of the Campanian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages

Chlamydoselachus

Chlamydoselachus Frilled shark.png
Chlamydoselachus

Schizorhiza

†Ceratopsians

Ceratopsians of the Campanian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages

Achelousaurus

  1. Achelousaurus horneri
74.2 million years ago
Achelousaurus Achelousaurus BW.jpg
Achelousaurus
Agujaceratops Agujaceratops BW.jpg
Agujaceratops
Albertaceratops Albertaceratops BW.jpg
Albertaceratops
Anchiceratops Anchiceratops dinosaur.png
Anchiceratops
Avaceratops Avaceratops dinosaur.png
Avaceratops
Bagaceratops Bagaceratops BW.jpg
Bagaceratops
Brachyceratops Brachyceratops BW.jpg
Brachyceratops
Centrosaurus Centrosaurus dinosaur.png
Centrosaurus
Cerasinops Cerasinops BW.jpg
Cerasinops
Chasmosaurus Chasmosaurus BW.jpg
Chasmosaurus
Coahuilaceratops Coahuilaceratops NT.jpg
Coahuilaceratops
Diabloceratops Diabloceratops NT.jpg
Diabloceratops
Einiosaurus Einiosaurus BW.jpg
Einiosaurus
Graciliceratops Graciliceratops BW.jpg
Graciliceratops
Kosmoceratops Kosmoceratops NT.jpg
Kosmoceratops
Medusaceratops Medusaceratops NT.jpg
Medusaceratops
Pentaceratops Pentaceratops BW.jpg
Pentaceratops
Prenoceratops Prenoceratops BW.jpg
Prenoceratops
Protoceratops Protoceratops BW.jpg
Protoceratops
Rubeosaurus Rubeosaurus NT.jpg
Rubeosaurus
Spinops Spinops NT.jpg
Spinops
Styracosaurus Styracosaurus dinosaur.png
Styracosaurus
Titanoceratops Titanoceratops NT.jpg
Titanoceratops
Udanoceratops Udanoceratops BW.jpg
Udanoceratops
Utahceratops Utahceratops NT.jpg
Utahceratops
Vagaceratops Vagaceratops NT.jpg
Vagaceratops

Agujaceratops

  1. Agujaceratops mariscalensis
77 million years ago

Albertaceratops

  1. Albertaceratops nesmoi

Anchiceratops

  1. Anchiceratops longirostris

Avaceratops

  1. Avaceratops lammersi

Bagaceratops

  1. Bagaceratops rozhdestvenskyi

Bainoceratops

  1. Bainoceratops efremovi

Brachyceratops

  1. Brachyceratops montanensis

Breviceratops

  1. Breviceratops kozlowskii

Centrosaurus

  1. Centrosaurus apertus

Cerasinops

  1. Cerasinops hodgskissi

Ceratops

  1. Ceratops montanus

Chasmosaurus

  1. Chasmosaurus russelli
  2. Chasmosaurus belli

Coahuilaceratops

  1. Coahuilaceratops magnacuerna

Coronosaurus

  1. Coronosaurus brinkmani

Diabloceratops

  1. Diabloceratops eatoni

? Dysganus

  1. Dysganus encaustus
  2. Dysganus bicarinatus
  3. Dysganus peiganus

Einiosaurus

  1. Einiosaurus procurvicornis

Eoceratops

  1. Eoceratops canadensis

Graciliceratops

  1. Graciliceratops mongoliensis

Gryphoceratops

  1. Gryphoceratops morrisoni

Judiceratops

  1. Judiceratops tigris

Kosmoceratops

  1. Kosmoceratops richardsoni

Lamaceratops

  1. Lamaceratops tereschenkoi

Magnirostris

  1. Magnirostris dodsoni

Medusaceratops

  1. Medusaceratops lokii

Mercuriceratops

  1. Mercuriceratops gemini

Mojoceratops

  1. Mojoceratops perifania

Monoclonius

  1. Monoclonius crassus

Nasutoceratops

  1. Nasutoceratops titusi

? Notoceratops

  1. Notoceratops bonarellii
Chubut Province, ArgentinaA dubious genus of possible ceratopsian affinity

Pachyrhinosaurus

  1. Pachyrhinosaurus canadensis
  2. Pachyrhinosaurus lakustai
  3. Pachyrhinosaurus perotorum

Pentaceratops

  1. Pentaceratops sternbergii

Platyceratops

  1. Platyceratops tatarinovi

Prenoceratops

  1. Prenoceratops pieganensis

Protoceratops

  1. Protoceratops andrewsi
  2. Protoceratops hellenikorhinus

Rubeosaurus

  1. Rubeosaurus ovatus

Spiclypeus

  1. Spiclypeus shipporum

Spinops

  1. Spinops sternbergorum

Styracosaurus

  1. Styracosaurus albertensis

Titanoceratops

  1. Titanoceratops ouranos

Udanoceratops

  1. Udanoceratops tschizhovi

Unescoceratops

  1. Unescoceratops koppelhusae

Utahceratops

  1. Utahceratops gettyi

Vagaceratops

  1. Vagaceratops irvinensis

Xenoceratops

  1. Xenoceratops foremostensis

Crocodylomorphs

Crocodylomorphs of the Campanian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages

Deinosuchus

Mammals

Mammals of the Campanian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages

Alphadon

Didelphodon

Kamptobaatar

Kennalestes

Kryptobaatar

Zalambdalestes

†Ornithopods

Ornithopods of the Campanian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages

Aralosaurus

85.8 mya Asia Aralosaurus was about the size of an elephant. Although very little is known about Aralosaurus (only one near complete skull has been found); it was identified by a beak with nearly 1,000 small teeth in 30 rows. These teeth were used for breaking up plant matter by chewing, a feature common in herbivorous dinosaurs, but unusual for reptiles.The back of an Aralosaurus skull was wide, a feature suggestive of large jaw muscles used to power its chewing apparatus.
Edmontosaurus Edmontosaurus BW.jpg
Edmontosaurus
Gasparinisaura Gasparinisaura BW.jpg
Gasparinisaura
Hypacrosaurus Hypacrosaurus-v2.jpg
Hypacrosaurus
Maiasaura Maiasaura BW.jpg
Maiasaura
Mochlodon Mochlodon vorosi.png
Mochlodon
Nipponosaurus Nipponosaurus dinosaur.png
Nipponosaurus
Prosaurolophus Prosaurolophus Maximus.jpg
Prosaurolophus
Shantungosaurus Shantungosaurus-v4.jpg
Shantungosaurus
Velafrons Velafrons BW.jpg
Velafrons

Brachylophosaurus

76.5 mya Montana, USA; Alberta, CanadaBrachylophosaurus was a typical hadrosaur which reached an adult length of 9 meters (30 feet).

Corythosaurus

77-76.5 myaAlberta, CanadaCorythosaurus weighed in at 4 tonnes and measured roughly 10 metres (33 feet) from nose to tail. Like other hadrosaurs it had a toothless beak, the back of the jaws contained a dental battery composed of hundreds of small, interlocking teeth. These were used to crush and grind plant matter and were continually replaced as they wore away.

Diclonius

75 mya Montana, USA

Edmontosaurus

73.0-76.5 mya Canada Edmontosaurus included some of the largest hadrosaurid species, measuring up to 12 metres (39 feet) long and weighing around 4.0 metric tons (4.4 short tons).

Gasparinisaura

85 mya Argentina Gasparinisaura was a small bipedal herbivore. In 2010 Gregory S. Paul estimated the length at 1.7 metres, the weight at thirteen kilogrammes.

Gilmoreosaurus

72 mya Mongolia

Gryposaurus

83-75.5 mya Alberta, CanadaGryposaurus was a hadrosaurid of typical size and shape.

Hadrosaurus

79.5 mya New Jersey, USAIt was likely bipedal for the purposes of running, but could use its forelegs to support itself while feeding.

Hypacrosaurus

75-67 myaAlberta, CanadaHypacrosaurus is most easily distinguished from other hollow-crested duckbills by its tall neural spines and the form of its crest. The neural spines, which project from the top of the vertebrae, are 5 to 7 times the height of the body of their respective vertebrae in the back,[4] which would have given it a tall back in profile. The skull's hollow crest is like that of Corythosaurus, but is more pointed along its top, not as tall, wider side to side, and has a small bony point at the rear

Hypsibema

North Carolina and Missouri, USA

Kritosaurus

73 mya North America The type specimen of Kritosaurus navajovius is only represented by a partial skull and lower jaws, and associated postcranial remains.

Lambeosaurus

76-75 myaAlberta, Canada

Lophorhothon

80 mya Alabama, USA

Maiasaura

76.7 myaMontana, USAMaiasaura was large, attaining an adult length of about 9 metres (30 feet) and had the typical hadrosaurid flat beak and a thick nose. It had a small, spiky crest in front of its eyes. The crest may have been used in headbutting contests between males during the breeding season.

Mandschurosaurus

Asia

Microhadrosaurus

China

Mochlodon

AustriaA rhabdodontid.

Naashoibitosaurus

73 mya New Mexico, USANaashoibitosaurus, based as it is on a single partial skeleton, is not well known in terms of anatomy. Its skull, the most thoroughly described portion, has a low nasal crest that peaks in front of the eyes, but does not strongly arch as in Gryposaurus .

Nipponosaurus

Russia

Orodromeus

76.7 myaMontana, USAOrodromeus was a small fast bipedal herbivore that probably coexisted with dinosaurs such as Daspletosaurus and Einiosaurus . Its length was estimated by Horner & Weishampel at 2.5 metres.

Parasaurolophus

76.5-73 myaAlberta, Canada; New Mexico and Utah, USA

Prosaurolophus

76-75 myaAlberta, CanadaProsaurolophus was a large-headed duckbill; the most complete described specimen has a skull around 0.9 meters (3.0 feet) long on a ~8.5 meter long skeleton (~28 ft).[2] It had a small, stout, triangular crest in front of the eyes; the sides of this crest were concave, forming depressions. The upper arm was relatively short.

Pteropelyx

Montana, USA

Rhabdodon

72 myaFrance; Spain; Haţeg Island, RomaniaIt is unclear whether it was an iguanodont or a hypsilophodont, and may be a "missing link" between the two. Current evidence indicates it is an iguanodont similar to Tenontosaurus .

Saurolophus

69.5-68.5 myaNorth America, AsiaSaurolophus is known from material including nearly complete skeletons, giving researchers a clear picture of its bony anatomy. S. osborni, the rarer Albertan species, was around 9.8 meters (32 feet) long, with its skull a meter long (3.3 feet). Its weight is estimated at 1.9 tonnes (2.1 tons). S. angustirostris, the Mongolian species, was larger; the type skeleton is roughly 12 meters (39 feet) long, and larger remains are reported.

Shantungosaurus

72 myaChinaIt is one of the longest and largest known hadrosaurids; the composite skeleton of a medium-sized individual mounted at the Geological Institute of China in Beijing measures 14.72 metres (48.3 feet) in length.

Stephanosaurus

Dinosaur Park Formation, Alberta

Tanius

China

Trachodon

77 myaMontana, USA

Tsintaosaurus

72 myaSouthern China

Velafrons

72 mya Mexico

†Pachycephalosaurs

Pachycephalosaurs of the Campanian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages

Alaskacephale

Prince Creek Formation, Alaska, USA
Alaskacephale Alaskacephale gangloffi copia.jpg
Alaskacephale
Homalocephale Homalocephale body.jpg
Homalocephale

Colepiocephale

Alberta, CanadaThe oldest known pachycephalosaurid.

Goyocephale

Mongolia

Gravitholus

Hanssuesia

Alberta, Canada; Montana, USADistinguished from other pachycephalosaurs by having a depressed parietal region, wide frontoparietal dome, broad nasal characteristics, reduced prefontal lobes, and a reduced parietosquamosal shelf.

? Heishansaurus

Homalocephale

MongoliaSporting a flat, wedge-shaped skull roof, Homalocephale was different from other pachycephalosaurs.

? Micropachycephalosaurus

Ornatotholus

Prenocephale

Sphaerotholus

Stegoceras

Tylocephale

Wannanosaurus

†Plesiosaurs

Plesiosaurs of the Campanian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages

Elasmosaurus

80.5 mya Pierre Shale, Kansas, USAElasmosaurus is a genus of plesiosaur with an extremely long neck.
Elasmosaurus Elasmosaurus2.jpg
Elasmosaurus
Styxosaurus Styxosaurus BW.jpg
Styxosaurus

Styxosaurus

83.5-80.5 mya Logan County, Kansas Styxosaurus is an Elasmosaurid plesiosaur.

†Pterosaurs

Pterosaurs of the Campanian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages

Aerotitan

Campanian-Maastrichtian Allen Formation, Patagonia, Argentina
Pteranodon Pteranodon longiceps mmartyniuk wiki.png
Pteranodon
Quetzalcoatlus Quetzalcoatlus07.jpg
Quetzalcoatlus

Bogolubovia

Rybushka Formation, Petrovsk, Russia

Geosternbergia

USA, North AmericaGeosternbergia was originally a species of Pteranodon and is famous for its oddly shaped crest.

Montanazhdarcho

Montana, USASmall azhdarchoid pterosaur, probably a tapejarid

Navajodactylus

New Mexico, USA, and Alberta, CanadaKnown primarily from forearm elements; tentatively assigned to Azhdarchidae, though most likely not part of it.

Nyctosaurus

mid-western United States Nyctosaurus is a genus of pterodactyloid pterosaur.

Piksi

Montana, USAPiksi is a genus of pterosaurs containing the single species Piksi barbarulna.

Pteranodon

Kansas, USA, North AmericaPteranodon is a genus of pterosaurs which included some of the largest known flying reptiles, with wingspans over 6 metres

Quetzalcoatlus

Texas, USAQuetzalcoatlus was a pterodactyloid pterosaur known from the Late Cretaceous of North America and one of the largest known flying animals of all time.

Volgadraco

Saratov, RussiaAzhdarchid pterosaur.

†Sauropods

Sauropods of the Campanian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages

Alamosaurus

Southwestern United States Alamosaurus is a genus of titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous Period of what is now North America. It was a large quadrupedal herbivore.
Alamosaurus AlamosaurusDB.jpg
Alamosaurus
Saltasaurus Saltasaurus dinosaur.png
Saltasaurus

Andesaurus

Neuquén Province, Argentina Andesaurus is a genus of basal titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur.

Dreadnoughtus

Cerro Fortaleza Formation, Argentina Dreadnoughtus is one of the largest titanosaurs known.

Gondwanatitan

Adamantina Formation and Cambabe Formation, Brazil

Huabeisaurus

North East, China A member of the Euhelopodidae sauropods.

Laplatasaurus

Allen Formation and Anacleto Formation, both in Argentina; Palacio Formation, Uruguay

Loricosaurus

Campanian-Maastrichtian Allen Formation, Argentina

Microcoelus

Santonian-Campanian Bajo de la Carpa Formation, Argentina

Neuquensaurus

Anacleto Formation, Argentina

Overosaurus

Neuquén Province, Argentina Small-sized titanosaur.

Quaesitosaurus

Shar Tsav, Mongolia Quaesitosaurus is a genus of titanosaurian sauropod.

Saltasaurus

north-west Argentina; Uruguay Saltasaurus is a genus of titanosaurid sauropod dinosaur. An estimated length of 12 metres (39 feet) and a mass of 7 tonnes (8 tons).

Rocasaurus

Campanian-Maastrichtian Allen Formation, Rio Negro Province, Argentina

Squamates

Squamates of the Campanian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages

Halisaurus

Mosasaurus Mosasaurus beaugei1DB.jpg
Mosasaurus
Taniwhasaurus Taniwhasaurus.jpg
Taniwhasaurus

Mosasaurus

Plotosaurus

Taniwhasaurus

New Zealand, Japan, Antarctica

Tylosaurus

Testudines

Testudines of the Campanian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages

Archelon

Reconstruction of Archelon Archelon1DB.jpg
Reconstruction of Archelon

†Theropods (non-avian)

David J. Varrichio observes that during the late Campanian Alberta and Montana had very similar theropods despite significant differences in the types of herbivorous dinosaur faunas. [6]

Non-avian theropods of the Campanian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages

Abelisaurus

Allen Formation?, Anacleto Formation?, ArgentinaBipedal carnivore that probably reached 7 to 9 meters in length; known from only one partial skull.
Abelisaurus Abelisaurus BW.jpg
Abelisaurus
Bambiraptor Bambiraptor 4.1.jpg
Bambiraptor
Citipati Citipati profiles1.jpg
Citipati
Portrait of Saurornithoides Zanabazar.jpg
Portrait of Saurornithoides
Velociraptor Velociraptor mongoliensis.jpg
Velociraptor

Albertosaurus

Appalachiosaurus

Archaeornithomimus

Bambiraptor

Byronosaurus

Citipati

Carnotaurus

Chirostenotes

Daspletosaurus

Deinodon

Judith River Formation

Dromaeosaurus

Dromiceiomimus

Dryptosaurus

Gobivenator

Gorgosaurus

Harpymimus

Khaan

Kol

Linheraptor

Lythronax

Wahweap Formation, UtahA 7-meter tyrannosaurid known from a partially complete skull, some vertebrae and a complete pubis

Luanchuanraptor

Mahakala

Nanshiungosaurus

Noasaurus

Ornithomimus

Oviraptor

Mongolia

Parvicursor

Pyroraptor

Var, France

Saurornithoides

Saurornitholestes

Shuvuuia

Struthiomimus

Troodon

Tsaagan

Variraptor

Var, France

Velociraptor

Mongolia and China

Xenotarsosaurus

Zhuchengtyrannus

Wangshi Group, Zhucheng, ChinaOne of the largest tyrannosaurids at between 10–12 meters. Known from a lower jaw and maxilla slightly smaller than those of the later Tyrannosaurus .

Related Research Articles

The Barremian is an age in the geologic timescale between 129.4 ± 1.5 Ma and 125.0 ± 1.0 Ma). It is a subdivision of the Early Cretaceous epoch. It is preceded by the Hauterivian and followed by the Aptian stage.

In the geological timescale the Tithonian is the latest age of the Late Jurassic epoch or the uppermost stage of the Upper Jurassic series. It spans the time between 152.1 ± 4 Ma and 145.0 ± 4 Ma. It is preceded by the Kimmeridgian and followed by the Berriasian stage.

The Toarcian is, in the ICS' geologic timescale, an age and stage in the Early or Lower Jurassic. It spans the time between 182.7 Ma and 174.1 Ma. It follows the Pliensbachian and is followed by the Aalenian.

The Albian is both an age of the geologic timescale and a stage in the stratigraphic column. It is the youngest or uppermost subdivision of the Early/Lower Cretaceous epoch/series. Its approximate time range is 113.0 ± 1.0 Ma to 100.5 ± 0.9 Ma. The Albian is preceded by the Aptian and followed by the Cenomanian.

In the geologic timescale, the Bajocian is an age and stage in the Middle Jurassic. It lasted from approximately 170.3 Ma to around 168.3 Ma. The Bajocian age succeeds the Aalenian age and precedes the Bathonian age.

In the geologic timescale the Bathonian is an age and stage of the Middle Jurassic. It lasted from approximately 168.3 Ma to around 166.1 Ma. The Bathonian age succeeds the Bajocian age and precedes the Callovian age.

In the geologic timescale, the Valanginian is an age or stage of the Early or Lower Cretaceous. It spans between 139.8 ± 3.0 Ma and 132.9 ± 2.0 Ma. The Valanginian stage succeeds the Berriasian stage of the Lower Cretaceous and precedes the Hauterivian stage of the Lower Cretaceous.

The Maastrichtian is, in the ICS geologic timescale, the latest age of the Late Cretaceous epoch or Upper Cretaceous series, the Cretaceous period or system, and of the Mesozoic era or erathem. It spanned the interval from 72.1 to 66 million years ago. The Maastrichtian was preceded by the Campanian and succeeded by the Danian.

In the geologic timescale, the Callovian is an age and stage in the Middle Jurassic, lasting between 166.1 ± 4.0 Ma and 163.5 ± 4.0 Ma. It is the last stage of the Middle Jurassic, following the Bathonian and preceding the Oxfordian.

The Hauterivian is, in the geologic timescale, an age in the Early Cretaceous epoch or a stage in the Lower Cretaceous series. It spans the time between 132.9 ± 2 Ma and 129.4 ± 1.5 Ma. The Hauterivian is preceded by the Valanginian and succeeded by the Barremian.

The Cenomanian is, in the ICS' geological timescale the oldest or earliest age of the Late Cretaceous epoch or the lowest stage of the Upper Cretaceous series. An age is a unit of geochronology: it is a unit of time; the stage is a unit in the stratigraphic column deposited during the corresponding age. Both age and stage bear the same name.

The Turonian is, in the ICS' geologic timescale, the second age in the Late Cretaceous epoch, or a stage in the Upper Cretaceous series. It spans the time between 93.9 ± 0.8 Ma and 89.8 ± 1 Ma. The Turonian is preceded by the Cenomanian stage and underlies the Coniacian stage.

The Coniacian is an age or stage in the geologic timescale. It is a subdivision of the Late Cretaceous epoch or Upper Cretaceous series and spans the time between 89.8 ± 1 Ma and 86.3 ± 0.7 Ma. The Coniacian is preceded by the Turonian and followed by the Santonian.

The Santonian is an age in the geologic timescale or a chronostratigraphic stage. It is a subdivision of the Late Cretaceous epoch or Upper Cretaceous series. It spans the time between 86.3 ± 0.7 mya and 83.6 ± 0.7 mya. The Santonian is preceded by the Coniacian and is followed by the Campanian.

The Hettangian is the earliest age and lowest stage of the Jurassic period of the geologic timescale. It spans the time between 201.3 ± 0.2 Ma and 199.3 ± 0.3 Ma. The Hettangian follows the Rhaetian and is followed by the Sinemurian.

In the geologic timescale, the Sinemurian is an age and stage in the Early or Lower Jurassic epoch or series. It spans the time between 199.3 ± 2 Ma and 190.8 ± 1.5 Ma. The Sinemurian is preceded by the Hettangian and is followed by the Pliensbachian.

The Oxfordian is, in the ICS' geologic timescale, the earliest age of the Late Jurassic epoch, or the lowest stage of the Upper Jurassic series. It spans the time between 163.5 ± 4 Ma and 157.3 ± 4 Ma. The Oxfordian is preceded by the Callovian and is followed by the Kimmeridgian.

In the geologic timescale, the Kimmeridgian is an age or stage in the Late or Upper Jurassic epoch or series. It spans the time between 157.3 ± 1.0 Ma and 152.1 ± 0.9 Ma. The Kimmeridgian follows the Oxfordian and precedes the Tithonian.

The Ladinian is a stage and age in the Middle Triassic series or epoch. It spans the time between 242 Ma and ~237 Ma. The Ladinian was preceded by the Anisian and succeeded by the Carnian.

The Norian is a division of the Triassic geological period. It has the rank of an age (geochronology) or stage (chronostratigraphy). The Norian lasted from ~227 to 208.5 million years ago. It was preceded by the Carnian and succeeded by the Rhaetian.

References

  1. http://www.stratigraphy.org/index.php/ics-chart-timescale
  2. See Gradstein et al. (2004) for a detailed version of the geological timescale
  3. Lidmar-Bergström, Karna; Bonow, Johan M.; Japsen, Peter (2013). "Stratigraphic Landscape Analysis and geomorphological paradigms: Scandinavia as an example of Phanerozoic uplift and subsidence". Global and Planetary Change . 100: 153–171. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2012.10.015.
  4. Surlyk, Finn; Sørensen, Anne Mehlin (2010). "An early Campanian rocky shore at Ivö Klack, southern Sweden". Cretaceous Research. 31: 567–576. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2010.07.006.
  5. See Weishampel et al. (2004)
  6. "Abstract," in Varricchio (2001). Page 42.