|Subdivision of the Cretaceous system|
according to the ICS, as of 2017.
The Campanian is the fifth of six ages of the Late Cretaceous epoch on the geologic timescale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS). In chronostratigraphy, it is the fifth of six stages in the Upper Cretaceous series. Campanian spans the time from 83.6 (± 0.7) to 72.1 (± 0.6) million years ago. It is preceded by the Santonian and it is followed by the Maastrichtian.
A geologic age is a subdivision of geologic time that divides an epoch into smaller parts. A succession of rock strata laid down in a single age on the geologic timescale is a stage.
The Late Cretaceous is the younger of two epochs into which the Cretaceous period is divided in the geologic timescale. Rock strata from this epoch form the Upper Cretaceous series. The Cretaceous is named after the white limestone known as chalk which occurs widely in northern France and is seen in the white cliffs of south-eastern England, and which dates from this time.
In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age but shorter than a period. The current epoch is the Holocene Epoch of the Quaternary Period. Rock layers deposited during an epoch are called a series. Series are subdivisions of the stratigraphic column that, like epochs, are subdivisions of the geologic timescale. Like other geochronological divisions, epochs are normally separated by significant changes in the rock layers to which they correspond.
The Campanian was an age when a worldwide sea level rise covered many coastal areas. The morphology of some of these areas has been preserved: it is an unconformity beneath a cover of marine sedimentary rocks.
A marine transgression is a geologic event during which sea level rises relative to the land and the shoreline moves toward higher ground, resulting in flooding. Transgressions can be caused either by the land sinking or the ocean basins filling with water. Transgressions and regressions may be caused by tectonic events such as orogenies, severe climate change such as ice ages or isostatic adjustments following removal of ice or sediment load.
Geomorphology is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface. Geomorphologists seek to understand why landscapes look the way they do, to understand landform history and dynamics and to predict changes through a combination of field observations, physical experiments and numerical modeling. Geomorphologists work within disciplines such as physical geography, geology, geodesy, engineering geology, archaeology, climatology and geotechnical engineering. This broad base of interests contributes to many research styles and interests within the field.
An unconformity is a buried erosional or non-depositional surface separating two rock masses or strata of different ages, indicating that sediment deposition was not continuous. In general, the older layer was exposed to erosion for an interval of time before deposition of the younger, but the term is used to describe any break in the sedimentary geologic record. The significance of angular unconformity was shown by James Hutton, who found examples of Hutton's Unconformity at Jedburgh in 1787 and at Siccar Point in 1788.
The Campanian was introduced in scientific literature by Henri Coquand in 1857. It is named after the French village of Champagne in the département Charente-Maritime. The original type locality was an outcrop near the village of Aubeterre-sur-Dronne in the same region. Due to changes of the stratigraphic definitions, this section is now part of the Maastrichtian stage.
Henri Coquand was a French geologist and paleontologist.
France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
Champagne is a commune in the Charente-Maritime department in southwestern France.
The base of the Campanian stage is defined as a place in the stratigraphic column where the extinction of crinoid species Marsupites testudinarius is located. (A Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point or GSSP had not yet been ratified as of 2009: one possible candidate is a section near a dam at Waxahachie, Texas.) The top of the Campanian stage is defined as the place in the stratigraphic column where the ammonite Pachydiscus neubergicus first appears.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), usually a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point. Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively. This difficulty leads to phenomena such as Lazarus taxa, where a species presumed extinct abruptly "reappears" after a period of apparent absence.
Crinoids are marine animals that make up the class Crinoidea of the echinoderms. The name comes from the Greek word krinon, "a lily", and eidos, "form". They live in both shallow water and in depths as great as 9,000 meters (30,000 ft). Those crinoids which in their adult form are attached to the sea bottom by a stalk are commonly called sea lilies. The unstalked forms are called feather stars or comatulids.
Marsupites is an extinct genus of crinoids from the Cretaceous.
The Campanian can be subdivided into Lower, Middle and Upper subages. In the Tethys domain, the Campanian encompasses six ammonite biozones. They are, from young to old:
The Tethys Ocean, also called the Tethys Sea or the Neotethys, was an ocean during much of the Mesozoic Era located between the ancient continents of Gondwana and Laurasia, before the opening of the Indian and Atlantic oceans during the Cretaceous Period.
Biostratigraphic unit or biozones are intervals of geological strata that are defined on the basis of their characteristic fossil taxa.
Nostoceras is an extinct genus of ammonites. The etymology of the name Nostoceras comes from "nostos" meaning return and "ceros" meaning horn, named as such by Alpheus Hyatt because it bends back on itself.
Didymoceras is an extinct genus of ammonite cephalopod. It is one of the most bizarrely shaped genera, with a shell that spirals upwards into a loose, hooked tip. It is thought to have drifted in the water vertically, moving up and down. The generic name is Latin for "paired horns".
Bostrychoceras is a genus of heteromorph ammonite from the family Nostoceratidae. Fossils have been found in Late Cretaceous sediments in Europe and North America.
During the Campanian age, a radiation among dinosaur species occurred. In North America, for example, the number of known dinosaur genera rises from 4 at the base of the Campanian to 48 in the upper part. This development is sometimes referred to as the "Campanian Explosion". However, it is not yet clear if the event is artificial, i.e. the low number of genera in the lower Campanian can be caused by a lower preservation chance for fossils in deposits of that age. The generally warm climates and large continental area covered in shallow sea during the Campanian probably favoured the dinosaurs. In the following Maastrichtian stage, the number of North American dinosaur genera found is 30% less than in the upper Campanian.
Animals that lived in the Campanian include:
|Ankylosaurs of the Campanian|
|Point Loma Formation, California, USA||A medium-sized ankylosaurid, estimated to be around 6 m (20 ft) long.|
|Santa Marta Formation, James Ross Island, Antarctica||A stocky ankylosaur protected by armor plates embedded in the skin. Although a complete skeleton has not been found, the species is estimated to have reached a maximum length of 4 meters (13 feet). Displays characteristics of both ankylosaurids and nodosaurids.|
|Campanian to Maastrichtian||Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada||A bulky nodosaurid at roughly 6.6 m (22 ft) long. It had small, ridged bony plates on its back and many sharp spikes along its body sides. The four largest spikes jutted out from the shoulders on each side, two of which were split into subspines in some specimens. Its skull had a pear-like shape when viewed from above.|
|Judith River Formation||known from a single tooth|
|Judith River Formation, Alberta, Canada; Montana, USA||A 5.5–7 m long nodosaurid.|
|Birds of the Campanian|
|A marine bird from Chile. It had the midfeet of a foot-propelled diving bird, but its relationships are enigmatic. The only known species is from the Campanian-Maastrichtian boundary.|
|Bony fish of the Campanian|
|Cartilaginous fish of the Campanian|
|Ceratopsians of the Campanian|
|74.2 million years ago|
|77 million years ago|
|Chubut Province, Argentina||A dubious genus of possible ceratopsian affinity|
|Crocodylomorphs of the Campanian|
|Mammals of the Campanian|
|Ornithopods of the Campanian|
|85.8 mya||Asia||Aralosaurus was about the size of an elephant. Although very little is known about Aralosaurus (only one near complete skull has been found); it was identified by a beak with nearly 1,000 small teeth in 30 rows. These teeth were used for breaking up plant matter by chewing, a feature common in herbivorous dinosaurs, but unusual for reptiles.The back of an Aralosaurus skull was wide, a feature suggestive of large jaw muscles used to power its chewing apparatus.|
|76.5 mya||Montana, USA; Alberta, Canada||Brachylophosaurus was a typical hadrosaur which reached an adult length of 9 meters (30 feet).|
|77-76.5 mya||Alberta, Canada||Corythosaurus weighed in at 4 tonnes and measured roughly 10 metres (33 feet) from nose to tail. Like other hadrosaurs it had a toothless beak, the back of the jaws contained a dental battery composed of hundreds of small, interlocking teeth. These were used to crush and grind plant matter and were continually replaced as they wore away.|
|75 mya||Montana, USA|
|73.0-76.5 mya||Canada||Edmontosaurus included some of the largest hadrosaurid species, measuring up to 12 metres (39 feet) long and weighing around 4.0 metric tons (4.4 short tons).|
|85 mya||Argentina||Gasparinisaura was a small bipedal herbivore. In 2010 Gregory S. Paul estimated the length at 1.7 metres, the weight at thirteen kilogrammes.|
|83-75.5 mya||Alberta, Canada||Gryposaurus was a hadrosaurid of typical size and shape.|
|79.5 mya||New Jersey, USA||It was likely bipedal for the purposes of running, but could use its forelegs to support itself while feeding.|
|75-67 mya||Alberta, Canada||Hypacrosaurus is most easily distinguished from other hollow-crested duckbills by its tall neural spines and the form of its crest. The neural spines, which project from the top of the vertebrae, are 5 to 7 times the height of the body of their respective vertebrae in the back, which would have given it a tall back in profile. The skull's hollow crest is like that of Corythosaurus, but is more pointed along its top, not as tall, wider side to side, and has a small bony point at the rear|
|North Carolina and Missouri, USA|
|73 mya||North America||The type specimen of Kritosaurus navajovius is only represented by a partial skull and lower jaws, and associated postcranial remains.|
|76-75 mya||Alberta, Canada|
|80 mya||Alabama, USA|
|76.7 mya||Montana, USA||Maiasaura was large, attaining an adult length of about 9 metres (30 feet) and had the typical hadrosaurid flat beak and a thick nose. It had a small, spiky crest in front of its eyes. The crest may have been used in headbutting contests between males during the breeding season.|
|73 mya||New Mexico, USA||Naashoibitosaurus, based as it is on a single partial skeleton, is not well known in terms of anatomy. Its skull, the most thoroughly described portion, has a low nasal crest that peaks in front of the eyes, but does not strongly arch as in Gryposaurus .|
|76.7 mya||Montana, USA||Orodromeus was a small fast bipedal herbivore that probably coexisted with dinosaurs such as Daspletosaurus and Einiosaurus . Its length was estimated by Horner & Weishampel at 2.5 metres.|
|76.5-73 mya||Alberta, Canada; New Mexico and Utah, USA|
|76-75 mya||Alberta, Canada||Prosaurolophus was a large-headed duckbill; the most complete described specimen has a skull around 0.9 meters (3.0 feet) long on a ~8.5 meter long skeleton (~28 ft). It had a small, stout, triangular crest in front of the eyes; the sides of this crest were concave, forming depressions. The upper arm was relatively short.|
|72 mya||France; Spain; Haţeg Island, Romania||It is unclear whether it was an iguanodont or a hypsilophodont, and may be a "missing link" between the two. Current evidence indicates it is an iguanodont similar to Tenontosaurus .|
|69.5-68.5 mya||North America, Asia||Saurolophus is known from material including nearly complete skeletons, giving researchers a clear picture of its bony anatomy. S. osborni, the rarer Albertan species, was around 9.8 meters (32 feet) long, with its skull a meter long (3.3 feet). Its weight is estimated at 1.9 tonnes (2.1 tons). S. angustirostris, the Mongolian species, was larger; the type skeleton is roughly 12 meters (39 feet) long, and larger remains are reported.|
|72 mya||China||It is one of the longest and largest known hadrosaurids; the composite skeleton of a medium-sized individual mounted at the Geological Institute of China in Beijing measures 14.72 metres (48.3 feet) in length.|
|Dinosaur Park Formation, Alberta|
|77 mya||Montana, USA|
|72 mya||Southern China|
|Pachycephalosaurs of the Campanian|
|Prince Creek Formation, Alaska, USA|
|Alberta, Canada||The oldest known pachycephalosaurid.|
|Alberta, Canada; Montana, USA||Distinguished from other pachycephalosaurs by having a depressed parietal region, wide frontoparietal dome, broad nasal characteristics, reduced prefontal lobes, and a reduced parietosquamosal shelf.|
|Mongolia||Sporting a flat, wedge-shaped skull roof, Homalocephale was different from other pachycephalosaurs.|
|Plesiosaurs of the Campanian|
|80.5 mya||Pierre Shale, Kansas, USA||Elasmosaurus is a genus of plesiosaur with an extremely long neck.|
|83.5-80.5 mya||Logan County, Kansas||Styxosaurus is an Elasmosaurid plesiosaur.|
|Pterosaurs of the Campanian|
|Campanian-Maastrichtian||Allen Formation, Patagonia, Argentina|
|Rybushka Formation, Petrovsk, Russia|
|USA, North America||Geosternbergia was originally a species of Pteranodon and is famous for its oddly shaped crest.|
|Montana, USA||Small azhdarchoid pterosaur, probably a tapejarid|
|New Mexico, USA, and Alberta, Canada||Known primarily from forearm elements; tentatively assigned to Azhdarchidae, though most likely not part of it.|
|mid-western United States||Nyctosaurus is a genus of pterodactyloid pterosaur.|
|Montana, USA||Piksi is a genus of pterosaurs containing the single species Piksi barbarulna.|
|Kansas, USA, North America||Pteranodon is a genus of pterosaurs which included some of the largest known flying reptiles, with wingspans over 6 metres|
|Texas, USA||Quetzalcoatlus was a pterodactyloid pterosaur known from the Late Cretaceous of North America and one of the largest known flying animals of all time.|
|Saratov, Russia||Azhdarchid pterosaur.|
|Sauropods of the Campanian|
|Southwestern United States||Alamosaurus is a genus of titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous Period of what is now North America. It was a large quadrupedal herbivore.|
|Neuquén Province, Argentina||Andesaurus is a genus of basal titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur.|
|Cerro Fortaleza Formation, Argentina||Dreadnoughtus is one of the largest titanosaurs known.|
|Adamantina Formation and Cambabe Formation, Brazil|
|North East, China||A member of the Euhelopodidae sauropods.|
|Allen Formation and Anacleto Formation, both in Argentina; Palacio Formation, Uruguay|
|Campanian-Maastrichtian||Allen Formation, Argentina|
|Santonian-Campanian||Bajo de la Carpa Formation, Argentina|
|Anacleto Formation, Argentina|
|Neuquén Province, Argentina||Small-sized titanosaur.|
|Shar Tsav, Mongolia||Quaesitosaurus is a genus of titanosaurian sauropod.|
|north-west Argentina; Uruguay||Saltasaurus is a genus of titanosaurid sauropod dinosaur. An estimated length of 12 metres (39 feet) and a mass of 7 tonnes (8 tons).|
|Campanian-Maastrichtian||Allen Formation, Rio Negro Province, Argentina|
|Squamates of the Campanian|
|New Zealand, Japan, Antarctica|
|Testudines of the Campanian|
David J. Varrichio observes that during the late Campanian Alberta and Montana had very similar theropods despite significant differences in the types of herbivorous dinosaur faunas.
|Non-avian theropods of the Campanian|
|Allen Formation?, Anacleto Formation?, Argentina||Bipedal carnivore that probably reached 7 to 9 meters in length; known from only one partial skull.|
|Judith River Formation|
|Wahweap Formation, Utah||A 7-meter tyrannosaurid known from a partially complete skull, some vertebrae and a complete pubis|
|Mongolia and China|
|Wangshi Group, Zhucheng, China||One of the largest tyrannosaurids at between 10–12 meters. Known from a lower jaw and maxilla slightly smaller than those of the later Tyrannosaurus .|
The Barremian is an age in the geologic timescale between 129.4 ± 1.5 Ma and 125.0 ± 1.0 Ma). It is a subdivision of the Early Cretaceous epoch. It is preceded by the Hauterivian and followed by the Aptian stage.
In the geological timescale the Tithonian is the latest age of the Late Jurassic epoch or the uppermost stage of the Upper Jurassic series. It spans the time between 152.1 ± 4 Ma and 145.0 ± 4 Ma. It is preceded by the Kimmeridgian and followed by the Berriasian stage.
The Toarcian is, in the ICS' geologic timescale, an age and stage in the Early or Lower Jurassic. It spans the time between 182.7 Ma and 174.1 Ma. It follows the Pliensbachian and is followed by the Aalenian.
The Albian is both an age of the geologic timescale and a stage in the stratigraphic column. It is the youngest or uppermost subdivision of the Early/Lower Cretaceous epoch/series. Its approximate time range is 113.0 ± 1.0 Ma to 100.5 ± 0.9 Ma. The Albian is preceded by the Aptian and followed by the Cenomanian.
In the geologic timescale, the Bajocian is an age and stage in the Middle Jurassic. It lasted from approximately 170.3 Ma to around 168.3 Ma. The Bajocian age succeeds the Aalenian age and precedes the Bathonian age.
In the geologic timescale the Bathonian is an age and stage of the Middle Jurassic. It lasted from approximately 168.3 Ma to around 166.1 Ma. The Bathonian age succeeds the Bajocian age and precedes the Callovian age.
In the geologic timescale, the Valanginian is an age or stage of the Early or Lower Cretaceous. It spans between 139.8 ± 3.0 Ma and 132.9 ± 2.0 Ma. The Valanginian stage succeeds the Berriasian stage of the Lower Cretaceous and precedes the Hauterivian stage of the Lower Cretaceous.
The Maastrichtian is, in the ICS geologic timescale, the latest age of the Late Cretaceous epoch or Upper Cretaceous series, the Cretaceous period or system, and of the Mesozoic era or erathem. It spanned the interval from. The Maastrichtian was preceded by the Campanian and succeeded by the Danian.
In the geologic timescale, the Callovian is an age and stage in the Middle Jurassic, lasting between 166.1 ± 4.0 Ma and 163.5 ± 4.0 Ma. It is the last stage of the Middle Jurassic, following the Bathonian and preceding the Oxfordian.
The Hauterivian is, in the geologic timescale, an age in the Early Cretaceous epoch or a stage in the Lower Cretaceous series. It spans the time between 132.9 ± 2 Ma and 129.4 ± 1.5 Ma. The Hauterivian is preceded by the Valanginian and succeeded by the Barremian.
The Cenomanian is, in the ICS' geological timescale the oldest or earliest age of the Late Cretaceous epoch or the lowest stage of the Upper Cretaceous series. An age is a unit of geochronology: it is a unit of time; the stage is a unit in the stratigraphic column deposited during the corresponding age. Both age and stage bear the same name.
The Turonian is, in the ICS' geologic timescale, the second age in the Late Cretaceous epoch, or a stage in the Upper Cretaceous series. It spans the time between 93.9 ± 0.8 Ma and 89.8 ± 1 Ma. The Turonian is preceded by the Cenomanian stage and underlies the Coniacian stage.
The Coniacian is an age or stage in the geologic timescale. It is a subdivision of the Late Cretaceous epoch or Upper Cretaceous series and spans the time between 89.8 ± 1 Ma and 86.3 ± 0.7 Ma. The Coniacian is preceded by the Turonian and followed by the Santonian.
The Santonian is an age in the geologic timescale or a chronostratigraphic stage. It is a subdivision of the Late Cretaceous epoch or Upper Cretaceous series. It spans the time between 86.3 ± 0.7 mya and 83.6 ± 0.7 mya. The Santonian is preceded by the Coniacian and is followed by the Campanian.
The Hettangian is the earliest age and lowest stage of the Jurassic period of the geologic timescale. It spans the time between 201.3 ± 0.2 Ma and 199.3 ± 0.3 Ma. The Hettangian follows the Rhaetian and is followed by the Sinemurian.
In the geologic timescale, the Sinemurian is an age and stage in the Early or Lower Jurassic epoch or series. It spans the time between 199.3 ± 2 Ma and 190.8 ± 1.5 Ma. The Sinemurian is preceded by the Hettangian and is followed by the Pliensbachian.
The Oxfordian is, in the ICS' geologic timescale, the earliest age of the Late Jurassic epoch, or the lowest stage of the Upper Jurassic series. It spans the time between 163.5 ± 4 Ma and 157.3 ± 4 Ma. The Oxfordian is preceded by the Callovian and is followed by the Kimmeridgian.
In the geologic timescale, the Kimmeridgian is an age or stage in the Late or Upper Jurassic epoch or series. It spans the time between 157.3 ± 1.0 Ma and 152.1 ± 0.9 Ma. The Kimmeridgian follows the Oxfordian and precedes the Tithonian.
The Ladinian is a stage and age in the Middle Triassic series or epoch. It spans the time between 242 Ma and ~237 Ma. The Ladinian was preceded by the Anisian and succeeded by the Carnian.
The Norian is a division of the Triassic geological period. It has the rank of an age (geochronology) or stage (chronostratigraphy). The Norian lasted from ~227 to 208.5 million years ago. It was preceded by the Carnian and succeeded by the Rhaetian.