Canadian federal electoral redistribution, 2012

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The federal electoral redistribution of 2012 was a redistribution of electoral districts ("ridings") in Canada following the results of the 2011 Canadian Census. As a result of changes to the Electoral Boundaries Readjustment Act, the number of seats in the House of Commons of Canada increased from 308 to 338. The previous electoral redistribution was in 2003. [1]

Contents

Background and previous attempts at reform

Prior to 2012, the redistribution rules for increasing the number of seats in the House of Commons of Canada was governed by section 51 of the Constitution Act, 1867 , as last amended in 1985. As early as 2007, attempts were made to reform the calculation of how that number was determined, as the 1985 formula did not fully take into account the rapid population growth being experienced in the provinces of Alberta, British Columbia and Ontario. [2]

The revised formula, as originally presented, was estimated to have the following impact:

Allocation of Seats in the House of Commons (2010 proposal) [3]
Province/ TerritoryCurrent seatsProjected seats after the 2011 census
Under the 1985 formulaUnder the new formula
British Columbia363843
Alberta282933
Saskatchewan141414
Manitoba141414
Ontario106110124
Quebec757575
New Brunswick101010
Nova Scotia111111
Prince Edward Island444
Newfoundland and Labrador777
Yukon111
Northwest Territories111
Nunavut111
Total308315338

Three successive bills were presented by the Government of Canada before its final form was passed by the House of Commons and Senate in 2011. [4]

Passage of the Fair Representation Act (2011)

The expansion of the House from 308 seats to 338 seats is pursuant to the Fair Representation Act, which came into force on December 16, 2011. [5] In introducing the bill, the government's stated aims were: [6]

  1. allocating more seats to better reflect population grown in Ontario, British Columbia, and Alberta;
  2. maintaining the number of seats for slower-growing provinces; and
  3. maintaining the proportional representation of Quebec according to population.

The Act replaced s. 51(1) of the Constitution Act, 1867 with the following formula: [7]

  1. Divide the estimated population of a province by a determined electoral quotient (initially set at 111,166).
  2. If the number of members determined is less than what a province had in 1985, increase its seat count to that number (the "grandfather clause").
  3. If a province's population was overrepresented in the House of Commons at the completion of the last redistribution process, and would now be under-represented based on the calculations above, it will be given extra seats so that its share of House of Commons seats is proportional to its share of the population (the "representation rule").
  4. Add one seat for each of the territories.

The 1985 minimum has two components:

  1. No province can have fewer MPs than it has Senators (the "senatorial clause"). [8]
  2. Otherwise, the calculation determined in 1985 under the Constitution Act, 1985 (Representation) will govern the amount.
Allocation of Seats in the House of Commons (electoral quotient of 111,166) [9]
Province/ TerritoryPopulation estimateInitial seat allocationSenatorial clauseGrandfather clauseRepresentation ruleTotal seats
British Columbia4,573,3214242
Alberta3,779,3533434
Saskatchewan1,057,88410414
Manitoba1,250,57412214
Ontario13,372,996121121
Quebec7,979,663723378
New Brunswick755,4557310
Nova Scotia945,43791111
Prince Edward Island145,855224
Newfoundland and Labrador510,5785117
Yukon34,666n/a1
Northwest Territories43,675n/a1
Nunavut33,322n/a1
Total34,482,779338

The addition of three seats in Quebec marked the first time since the adoption of Canada's current electoral redistribution formula in 1985 that any province besides Ontario, Alberta and British Columbia has gained new seats.

Process of redistribution

The allocation of seats to the provinces and territories was based on rules in the Constitution of Canada as well as population estimates made by Statistics Canada based on the 2006 Census (in particular, the allocation is based on an estimate for the population as of July 1, 2011, "based on 2006 Census population counts adjusted for census net undercoverage and incompletely enumerated Indian reserves"). [9] [10]

A final report was tabled October 2013, with the changes proclaimed to take effect as of the first dissolution of Parliament occurring after May 1, 2014. [11] The names of some ridings were changed the Riding Name Change Act, 2014 came into force on June 19, 2014. [12]

In a report issued in 2014 Elections Canada noted: "While some administrative tasks remained to be done after that point, Elections Canada's role of supporting the federal electoral boundaries commissions, which had worked for up to 18 months in their respective provinces, was complete." The report concluded that "the process for the 2012 redistribution of federal electoral boundaries was a success." [13]

Effect of 2013 Representation Orders

Notional change of seats by party

e    d  
Party2011 ElectionRedistributed±%
Conservative 166188+22+13.25
New Democratic 103109+6+5.83
Liberal 3436+2+5.88
Bloc Québécois 44
Green 11
Total308338+30

Notional seats by party by province [14]

e    d  
PartyBCABSKMBONQCNBPENSNLTerritoriesTotal
Conservative 2833111183581422188
New Democratic 1112324611321109
Liberal 21148134336
Bloc Québécois 44
Green 11
Total42341414121781041173338

Compared to the House of Commons seat allocation in effect for the 41st Canadian Parliament (which convened in 2011), the changes were as follows: [9]

Redistribution by province and territory
ProvinceSeats±Initial reportFinal report
Flag of Alberta.svg  Alberta [15] 346
  • BanffAirdrie: Created mostly out of the southern portion of Wild Rose and a small part of Macleod south of Cochrane. Contains the Highway corridor west of Calgary to the B.C. border as well as Calgary's northern exurbs.
  • Battle River: Created out of the southern half of Vegreville—Wainwright and the northern half of Crowfoot and a small part of the eastern part of Red Deer. Contains much of rural Central Eastern Alberta. Named for the Battle River which flows through it.
  • Bow River: Created out of the eastern half of Macleod, the northwestern corner of Medicine Hat and the southwestern quadrannt of Crowfoot. Contains the Highway 1 corridor east of Calgary past Brooks. The riding also includes Vulcan and the Highway 2 corridor roughly between Nanton and Fort Macleod. Named for the Bow River which flows through it.
  • Calgary Centre: This riding shifts eastward, moving the western boundary to 37 St SW and moving the eastern boundary to the Bow River.
  • Calgary Confederation: Created mostly from Calgary Centre-North, except losing the area north of McKnight Blvd and John Laurie Blvd. It also takes in the part of Calgary West north of the Bow River and east of Nose Hill Drive and Stony Trail. Named for Confederation Park.
  • Calgary Forest Lawn: Created mostly from parts of Calgary Northeast and Calgary Southeast and newly annexed territory of the City of Calgary that is now in the riding of Crowfoot. The riding takes in the part of Calgary Northeast south of a line following McKnight Blvd to Falconbridge Blvd to 32nd Ave and takes in the part of Calgary Southeast north of a line following the Bow River to 32 Ave SE to the CNR to 17 Ave SE. Riding named for the neighbourhood of Forest Lawn.
  • Calgary Heritage: Created mostly out of Calgary Southwest, except a few small parts of Calgary Southeast caused by adjusting the eastern boundary of the riding to follow Macleod Trail. The southern boundary of the riding is also adjusted compared to Calgary Southwest, as it would follow 24 St SW to Spruce Meadows Trail to James McKevitt Rd. The riding is likely named for Heritage Park.
  • Calgary McCall: Created almost entirely out of Calgary Northeast except for newly annexed territory of the City of Calgary now in the riding of Wild Rose. The riding would contain all of Calgary Northeast not in the proposed riding of Calgary Forest Lawn. The riding is likely named after the McCall Industrial Park or the provincial riding of the same name.
  • Calgary Midnapore: Created mostly out of Calgary Southeast but also contains parts of Calgary Southwest, Calgary East and newly annexed territory by the city of Calgary in the current riding of Macleod. The riding follows the Bow River to Glenmore Trail to Macleod Trail to James McKevitt Rd. The riding is named after the Midnapore neighbourhood.
  • Calgary Nose Hill: Apart from losing the emdash in the riding name, this riding loses all of its territory north of Stoney Trail and west of Sacree Trail and John Laurie Blvd. However, the riding also gains some territory from Calgary Centre-North. This is the area north of a line following John Laurie Blvd to McKnight Blvd. The riding name most likely comes from Nose Hill Park.
  • Calgary Shepard: This riding is created out of parts of Calgary East and Calgary Southeast as well as newly annexed parts of the city of Calgary now in Crowfoot. The riding would be bounded on the west by the Bow River and on the north by a line following 26 Ave SE to the CNR to 17 Ave SE. The riding is named after the former hamlet of Shepard, which was annexed by Calgary in 2007.
  • Calgary Signal Hill: This riding is mostly created out of Calgary West, except for newly annexed parts of the City of Calgary now in Macleod and that part of Calgary Centre west of 37 Ave SW. The riding would contain all of Calgary Southwest south the Bow River. The riding is named after the neighbourhood of the same name.
  • Calgary Rocky Ridge: This riding is created mostly out of Calgary—Nose Hill except for some new areas contained in newly annexed territories of the City of Calgary now in Wild Rose and the part of Calgary West not contained in Calgary Signal Hill or Calgary Confederation. The riding would consist of all of Calgary—Nose Hill not in the new riding of Calgary Nose Hill. The riding name comes from the neighbourhood of Rocky Ridge.
  • Edmonton Callingwood
  • Edmonton Griesbach
  • Edmonton Manning
  • Edmonton McDougall
  • Edmonton Mill Woods
  • Edmonton Riverbend
  • Edmonton Strathcona
  • Edmonton—Wetaskiwin
  • Foothills
  • Fort McMurray—Athabasca
  • Grande Prairie
  • Lakeland
  • Lethbridge
  • Medicine Hat
  • Peace River—Westlock
  • Red Deer—Mountain View
  • Red Deer—Wolf Creek
  • Sherwood Park—Fort Saskatchewan
  • St. Albert—Edmonton
  • Sturgeon River
  • Yellowhead
Flag of British Columbia.svg  British Columbia [16] 426
  • Abbotsford—Sumas
  • Burnaby North—Seymour
  • Burnaby South—Deer Lake
  • Cariboo—Prince George
  • Central Okanagan—Coquihalla
  • Chilliwack—Fraser Canyon
  • Coquitlam—Port Coquitlam
  • Delta
  • Esquimalt—Colwood
  • Fort Langley—Aldergrove
  • Kamloops—Thompson—Cariboo
  • Kelowna—Lake Country
  • Kootenay—Columbia
  • Langley—Cloverdale
  • Mission—Matsqui
  • Nanaimo—Alberni
  • Nanaimo—Cowichan
  • New Westminster—Burnaby East
  • North Okanagan—Shuswap
  • North Surrey—Guildford
  • North Vancouver
  • Pitt Meadows—Maple Ridge
  • Port Moody—Coquitlam
  • Prince George—Peace River
  • Richmond East
  • Richmond West
  • Saanich—Gulf Islands
  • Skeena—Bulkley Valley
  • South Cowichan—Juan de Fuca
  • South Okanagan—West Kootenay
  • South Surrey—White Rock
  • Surrey Centre
  • Vancouver Centre
  • Vancouver East
  • Vancouver Granville
  • Vancouver Island North
  • Vancouver Kingsway
  • Vancouver Quadra
  • Vancouver South
  • Victoria
  • West Surrey—Whalley
  • West Vancouver—Sunshine Coast—Sea to Sky Country
Flag of Manitoba.svg  Manitoba [17] 14
  • Brandon—Souris
  • Charleswood—St. James—Assiniboia
  • Churchill—Keewatinook Aski
  • Dauphin—Swan River—Neepawa
  • Elmwood—Transcona
  • Kildonan—St. Paul
  • Portage—Lisgar
  • Provencher
  • Saint Boniface
  • Selkirk—Interlake
  • Winnipeg Centre
  • Winnipeg North
  • Winnipeg South
  • Winnipeg South Centre
Flag of New Brunswick.svg  New Brunswick [18] 10
  • Acadie—Bathurst
  • Beauséjour—Dieppe
  • Fredericton
  • Fundy—Quispamsis
  • Madawaska—Restigouche
  • Miramichi
  • Moncton—Riverview
  • New Brunswick Southwest
  • Saint John
  • Tobique—Saint John River Valley
Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador.svg  Newfoundland and Labrador [19]
Flag of the Northwest Territories.svg  Northwest Territories 1A commission was not required for the Northwest Territories since the territory is a single electoral district [20] and under an amendment to the Electoral Boundaries Readjustment Act it is using the name Northwest Territories again, instead of Western Arctic.
Flag of Nova Scotia.svg  Nova Scotia [21] 11
  • Cape Breton—Canso
  • Central Nova
  • Cumberland—Colchester
  • Dartmouth—Cole Harbour
  • Halifax
  • Halifax West
  • Kings—Hants
  • Sackville—Porters Lake
  • South Shore—St. Margarets
  • Sydney—Victoria
  • West Nova
Flag of Nunavut.svg  Nunavut 1A commission was not required for Nunavut since the territory is a single electoral district. [22]
Flag of Ontario.svg  Ontario [23] 12115
  • Ajax
  • Algoma—Manitoulin—Killarney
  • Ancaster
  • Aurora—Richmond Hill
  • Barrie North
  • Barrie South
  • Beaches—East York
  • Belleville—Napanee—Frontenac
  • Brampton Centre
  • Brampton—Gore
  • Brampton North
  • Brampton South
  • Brampton West
  • Brant
  • Bruce—Grey—Owen Sound
  • Burlington
  • Cambridge
  • Carleton—Kanata
  • Chatham-Kent
  • Davenport
  • Don Valley East
  • Don Valley North
  • Dufferin—Caledon
  • Eglinton—Lawrence
  • Elgin—Middlesex—London
  • Essex
  • Etobicoke Centre
  • Etobicoke—Lakeshore
  • Etobicoke North
  • Glengarry—Prescott—Russell
  • Guelph
  • Haldiman—Norfolk
  • Haliburton—Uxbridge
  • Halton
  • Hamilton Centre
  • Hamilton East—Stoney Creek
  • Hamilton Mountain
  • Huron—Bruce
  • Kawartha Lakes—Port Hope—Cobourg
  • Kenora
  • Kingston and the Islands
  • Kitchener Centre
  • Kitchener—Conestoga
  • Kitchener South—North Dumfries—Brant
  • Lambton—Kent—Middlesex
  • Lanark—Frontenac—Hastings
  • Leeds—Grenville
  • London—Fanshawe
  • London North Centre
  • London West
  • Markham
  • Markham—Stouffville
  • Markham—Unionville
  • Milton
  • Mississauga Centre
  • Mississauga East—Cooksville
  • Mississauga—Erin Mills
  • Mississauga North
  • Mississauga South
  • Mississauga West—Streetsville
  • Mount Pleasant
  • Nepean
  • Nepean—Carleton
  • Newmarket—Aurora
  • Niagara Falls
  • Niagara West
  • Nickel Belt—Timiskaming
  • Nipissing
  • Oak Ridges
  • Oakville
  • Oshawa—Bowmanville
  • Oshawa—Durham
  • Ottawa Centre
  • Ottawa—Orléans
  • Ottawa South
  • Ottawa—Vanier
  • Ottawa West—Nepean
  • Oxford
  • Parkdale—High Park
  • Parry Sound—Muskoka
  • Perth—Wellington
  • Peterborough
  • Pickering—Brooklin
  • Prince Edward—Quinte West
  • Renfrew—Pembroke
  • Richmond Hill
  • St. Catharines
  • St. Paul's
  • Sarnia—Lambton
  • Sault Ste. Marie
  • Scarborough—Agincourt
  • Scarborough Centre
  • Scarborough East
  • Scarborough—Guildwood
  • Scarborough North
  • Scarborough Southwest
  • Simcoe—Grey
  • Simcoe North
  • Stormont—Dundas—South Glengarry
  • Sudbury
  • Thunder Bay—Rainy River
  • Thunder Bay—Superior North
  • Timmins—Cochrane—James Bay
  • Toronto Centre
  • Toronto—Danforth
  • Toronto North
  • Trinity—Spadina
  • Vaughan—Thornhill
  • Vaughan—Woodbridge
  • Waterdown—Glanbrook
  • Waterloo
  • Welland—Fort Erie
  • Wellington—Halton Hills
  • Whitby
  • Willowdale
  • Windsor—Tecumseh
  • Windsor West
  • York Centre
  • York—Simcoe
  • York South—Weston
  • York West
Flag of Prince Edward Island.svg  Prince Edward Island [24] 4
  • Cardigan
  • Charlottetown
  • Egmont
  • Malpeque
Flag of Quebec.svg  Quebec

[25]

783
  • Abitibi—Nunavik
  • Abitibi—Témiscamingue
  • Alfred-Dubuc
  • Alfred-Pellan
  • Anne-Hébert
  • Aylmer
  • Beauce
  • Bourassa
  • Brome—Missisquoi
  • Cap-Rouge
  • Charlevoix—Saguenay
  • Châteauguay
  • Compton—Stanstead
  • Côte-de-Beaupré
  • Curé-Labelle
  • Denis-Benjamin-Viger
  • Drummond
  • Elzéar-Bernier
  • Étienne-Parent
  • Gaspésie—Les Îles
  • George-Étienne-Cartier
  • Gilles-Villeneuve
  • Hautes-Laurentides—Pontiac
  • Hochelaga
  • Idola-Saint-Jean
  • John-Peters-Humphrey
  • Joliette
  • La Chute
  • Lachine—LaSalle
  • Lac-Saint-Jean
  • Lac-Saint-Louis
  • Laurentides
  • Lévis
  • Lignery
  • Longueuil
  • Lotbinière—Mégantic
  • Louis-Fréchette
  • MacDonald-Langstaff
  • Manicouagan
  • Maurice-Richard
  • Mille-Îles
  • Montarville
  • Montcalm
  • Montréal-Est
  • Nicolas-Vincent
  • Outaouais
  • Outremont
  • Ozias-Leduc
  • Papineau
  • Paul-Comtois
  • Paul-Ragueneau
  • Paul-Sauvé
  • Petite-Nation
  • Pierre-Legardeur
  • Plateau—Mile End
  • Québec
  • Richmond—Arthabaska
  • Rimouski
  • Rivière-des-Prairies
  • Roger-Lemelin
  • Sainte-Rose
  • Saint-Hyacinthe—Bagot
  • Saint-Jean
  • Saint-Lambert
  • Saint-Léonard
  • Sault-au-Récollet
  • Shawinigane
  • Shefford
  • Sherbrooke
  • Soulanges
  • Terrebonne
  • Trois-Rivières
  • Urbain-Brossard
  • Vaudreuil
  • Verchères—Les Patriotes
  • Verdun
  • Ville-Marie
  • Wilder-Penfield
Flag of Saskatchewan.svg  Saskatchewan [26] 14
  • Cypress Hills—Grasslands
  • Desnethé—Missinippi—Churchill River
  • Kindersley—Rosetown—Humboldt
  • Lloydminster—Battlefords—Rosthern
  • Moose Jaw—Lake Centre—Lanigan
  • Prince Albert
  • Regina—Lewvan
  • Regina—Qu'Appelle
  • Saskatoon Centre—University
  • Saskatoon—Grasswood
  • Saskatoon West
  • Souris—Moose Mountain
  • Wascana
  • Yorkton—Melville
Flag of Yukon.svg  Yukon 1A commission was not required for Yukon since the territory is a single electoral district. [27]
Total33830

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  12. Riding Name Change Act, 2014 , S.C. 2014, c. 19
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  14. "Transposition of Votes – 2013 Representation Order". Elections Canada.
  15. Proposed Boundaries – Alberta
  16. Proposed Boundaries – British Columbia
  17. Proposed Boundaries – Manitoba
  18. Proposed Boundaries – New Brunswick
  19. Proposed Boundaries – Newfoundland and Labrador
  20. Proposed Boundaries – Northwest Territories
  21. Proposed Boundaries – Nova Scotia
  22. Proposed Boundaries – Nunavut
  23. Proposed Boundaries – Ontario
  24. Proposed Boundaries – Prince Edward Island
  25. Proposed Boundaries – Quebec
  26. Proposed Boundaries – Saskatchewan
  27. Proposed Boundaries – Yukon