Cananea

Last updated
Cananea
Heroica Ciudad de Cananea
Escudo Cananea.png
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
Ciudad del Cobre (Copper City)
Cananea en Sonora.png
Municipality of Cananea in Sonora
Mexico States blank map.svg
Red pog.svg
Cananea
City of Cananea
Coordinates: 30°58′55″N110°18′02″W / 30.98194°N 110.30056°W / 30.98194; -110.30056 Coordinates: 30°58′55″N110°18′02″W / 30.98194°N 110.30056°W / 30.98194; -110.30056
CountryMexico
State Sonora
Municipality Cananea
Government
  TypeCouncil-Manager Government
   Mayor of Cananea Eduardo Quiroga Jiménez Independent-Nonpartisan Canenea Independiente Eduardo Quiroga.png
Elevation
1,620 m (5,310 ft)
Population
(2010)
  Total31,560
Time zone UTC-7 (MST)
  Summer (DST) UTC-7 (No DST observed)
Postal code
84620 - 84635
Area code(s) 645
DemonymCananense
Website www.cananea.gob.mx

Cananea is a city in the northern Mexican state of Sonora, Northwestern Mexico. It is the seat of the Municipality of Cananea, on the U.S−Mexico border.

Sonora State of Mexico

Sonora, officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora, is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo. Sonora is bordered by the states of Chihuahua to the east, Baja California to the northwest and Sinaloa to the south. To the north, it shares the U.S.–Mexico border with the states of Arizona and New Mexico, and on the west has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of California.

Contents

The population of the city was 31,560 as recorded by the 2010 census. The population of the municipality, which includes rural areas, was 32,936. The total area of the municipality is approximately 4,100 square kilometres (1,600 sq mi).

History

The first non-indigenous inhabitants of the present day Cananea, arrived in 1760 from other parts of the Spanish Viceroyalty of New Spain (colonial México). Jesuit priests discovered gold and silver, and opened mines using the indigenous peoples for labor.[ citation needed ]

New Spain viceroyalty of the Spanish Empire (1535-1821)

The Viceroyalty of New Spain was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas. It covered a huge area that included territories in North America, South America, Asia and Oceania. It originated in 1521 after the fall of Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the main event of the Spanish conquest, which did not properly end until much later, as its territory continued to grow to the north. It was officially created on 8 March 1535 as a viceroyalty, the first of four viceroyalties Spain created in the Americas. Its first viceroy was Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco, and the capital of the viceroyalty was Mexico City, established on the ancient Mexico-Tenochtitlan.

Society of Jesus male religious congregation of the Catholic Church

The Society of Jesus is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain. The members are called Jesuits. The society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations. Jesuits work in education, intellectual research, and cultural pursuits. Jesuits also give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, sponsor direct social ministries, and promote ecumenical dialogue.

Mining The extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth

Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an ore body, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit. These deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner.

In the 19th century General Ignacio Pesqueira, from nearby Arizpe, retired to Cananea. He fought against the Apache who raided the area. One time, while following them into the mountains, he discovered the abandoned Spanish mines and by 1868 he had renewed the extraction of minerals in the Cananea mines. General Pesqueira's wife, Elena Pesqueira Pesqueira, "discovered" a nearby mountain range (sierra) and the General named the highest peak La Elenita ("The Little Helen", 9,327 feet or 2,843 meters above sea level) in her honor. The other peak is named La Mariquita ("The Little Mary", 8,123 feet or 2,476 meters above sea level).

Arizpe Place

Arizpe is a small town in Arizpe Municipality in the north of the Mexican state of Sonora. It is located at 30°20'"N 110°09'"W. The area of the municipality is 2,806.78 sq.km. The population in 2005 was 2,959 of which 1,743 lived in the municipal seat as of the 2000 census.

The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains and Western Apache. Distant cousins of the Apache are the Navajo, with which they share the Southern Athabaskan languages. There are Apache communities in Oklahoma, Texas, and reservations in Arizona and New Mexico. Apache people have moved throughout the United States and elsewhere, including urban centers. The Apache Nations are politically autonomous, speak several different languages and have distinct cultures.

Mountain range A geographic area containing several geologically related mountains

A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form, structure, and alignment that have arisen from the same cause, usually an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are also found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are likely a feature of most terrestrial planets.

William C. Greene addresses striking miners in Cananea in 1906. Col. Greene, Cananea 1906.jpg
William C. Greene addresses striking miners in Cananea in 1906.

In 1889 William Cornell Greene purchased the mine from General Pesqueira and founded the Nogales, Sonora-based company, The Cananea Consolidated Copper Company, S. A. (CCCC or 4C). In June 1906, a labor dispute erupted into the violent cross-border Cananea strike, that resulted in the death of 23 people and dozens injured, in a fight between the strikers and a posse led by Arizona Rangers from the United States. A corrido titled La cárcel de Cananea ("Cananea jail") written in 1917 and commemorating the incident has since become famous. At the time of the strike the population of 23,000 included 7,000 Americans and 5,000 Chinese. [1]

William Cornell Greene American businessman

Colonel William Cornell Greene was an American businessman who was famous for discovering rich copper reserves in Cananea, Mexico, and for founding the Greene Consolidated Copper Company in 1899. By 1905, Greene was one of the wealthiest businessmen in the world.

Nogales, Sonora City in Sonora, Mexico

Heroica Nogales, more commonly known as Nogales, is a city and the county seat of the Municipality of Nogales. It is located on the northern border of the Mexican state of Sonora. The city is abutted on its north by the city of Nogales, Arizona, across the U.S.-Mexico border.

S.A. (corporation) type of corporation in countries that mostly employ civil law

S.A. or Société anonyme designates a type of corporation in countries that mostly employ civil law. Depending on language, it means anonymous company, anonymous partnership, share company, or joint-stock company, roughly equivalent to public limited company in common law jurisdictions. It is different from partnerships and private limited companies.

On October 31, 1901, the area became a municipality with Cananea town as its seat. On July 11, 1957, Cananea town became a city.

Municipality An administrative division having corporate status and usually some powers of self-government or jurisdiction

A municipality is usually a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished (usually) from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns, villages and hamlets.

Cananea Jail

The Cananea jail was built in 1903 and is located in downtown Cananea. It was the first public jail of the city and is currently a museum "Museo de la Lucha Obrera" with exhibitions of photographs and instruments used in mining.

La carcel de Cananea or The Cananea Jail song is a corrido that has become part of the culture of Cananea and the state of Sonora. It describes the experiences of a man accused of murdering Chinese immigrants while at this jail. According to historian Rodolfo Rascón, a man called Francisco, nicknamed El Cucharón de Batuc ("The Big Spoon of Batuc"), wrote the song in 1917.

Corrido Musical genre

The corrido is a popular narrative song and poetry that form a ballad. The songs are often about oppression, history, daily life for peasants, and other socially relevant topics. It is still a popular form today in Mexico and was widely popular during the Mexican Revolutions of the 20th century. The corrido derives largely from the romance, and in its most known form consists of a salutation from the singer and prologue to the story, the story itself, and a moral and farewell from the singer.

China State in East Asia

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.

Climate

The municipality of Cananea has a sub-humid Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa), with an average monthly maximum temperature of 74.3 °F (23.5 °C) in the months of June to September and an average monthly minimum of 45.3 °F (7.4 °C) in December and January; the average annual temperature is 59.5 °F (15.3 °C).

Atypically for the Mediterranean climate type, the dry season occurs in spring and early summer, whereas the rainy season is in mid/late summer and autumn. Through winter the rains are less intense, but of longer duration. Called “equipatas”, they can fall in the form of snow. In the months of February, March, and April there are frequent frosts, hailstorms, and occasional snowstorms. Precipitation averages at 511 millimetres (20 in) annually.

Climate data for Cananea, Sonora (1971-2000, extremes (1951-present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)34.0
(93.2)
28.0
(82.4)
29.0
(84.2)
39.0
(102.2)
39.0
(102.2)
45.0
(113.0)
42.0
(107.6)
39.0
(102.2)
40.0
(104.0)
33.0
(91.4)
29.4
(84.9)
27.0
(80.6)
45.0
(113.0)
Average high °C (°F)14.5
(58.1)
16.7
(62.1)
17.9
(64.2)
22.4
(72.3)
26.0
(78.8)
32.1
(89.8)
30.8
(87.4)
30.1
(86.2)
28.2
(82.8)
23.9
(75.0)
17.8
(64.0)
14.3
(57.7)
22.9
(73.2)
Daily mean °C (°F)8.5
(47.3)
10.3
(50.5)
11.5
(52.7)
15.5
(59.9)
18.7
(65.7)
24.1
(75.4)
23.7
(74.7)
23.6
(74.5)
21.4
(70.5)
17.2
(63.0)
11.8
(53.2)
8.4
(47.1)
16.2
(61.2)
Average low °C (°F)2.5
(36.5)
4.0
(39.2)
5.1
(41.2)
8.6
(47.5)
11.3
(52.3)
16.1
(61.0)
16.6
(61.9)
17.0
(62.6)
14.5
(58.1)
10.4
(50.7)
5.8
(42.4)
2.5
(36.5)
9.5
(49.1)
Record low °C (°F)−14.0
(6.8)
−8.4
(16.9)
−7.0
(19.4)
−4.4
(24.1)
1.0
(33.8)
6.0
(42.8)
8.0
(46.4)
7.0
(44.6)
5.0
(41.0)
−2.5
(27.5)
−5.0
(23.0)
−10.0
(14.0)
−14.0
(6.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches)45.5
(1.79)
28.7
(1.13)
24.1
(0.95)
6.2
(0.24)
7.6
(0.30)
17.5
(0.69)
123.9
(4.88)
89.6
(3.53)
56.2
(2.21)
46.1
(1.81)
22.5
(0.89)
42.8
(1.69)
510.7
(20.11)
Average precipitation days3.32.42.10.80.82.312.58.74.93.61.83.146.3
Source: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional [2] [3]

City Government

Mayors

Cananea in 1908 Cananea, Sonora, ca 1908.jpg
Cananea in 1908
1901-1903Manuel Larrañaga-
1903-1905Ignacio Macmanus-
1905-1907Filiberto Barroso-
1907-1910Eduardo R. Arnold-
1910-1911José Clemente Arnold-
1911-1912Ignacio L. Pesqueira-
1912-1918Manuel M. Diéguez-
1918-1920Florentino Rocha-
1920-1921Julian S. González-
1922-1923Salvador Taylor-
1923-1924José Figueroa-
1923-1924José Figueroa-
1924-1925Ramón R. González-
1925-1927Dolores Romero-
1927-1928Ramón R. González-
1928-1929Maximiliano Zuñiga-
1929-1931Dolores Romero Logo Partido Nacional Revolucionario.svg
1931-1933Juan Caro Logo Partido Nacional Revolucionario.svg
1933-1935Ignacio F. Loaiza Logo Partido Nacional Revolucionario.svg
1935-1937Ramón C. Meneses Logo Partido Nacional Revolucionario.svg
1937-1939Jesús M. Molinares Logo Partido Nacional Revolucionario.svg
1939-1941Alberto Matti Logo Partido de la Revolucion Mexicana.svg
1941-1943José F. Payán Logo Partido de la Revolucion Mexicana.svg
1943-1946Jesús González y González Logo Partido de la Revolucion Mexicana.svg
1946-1949Jesús R. Juvera PRI Party (Mexico).svg
1949-1952Ramón Guerrero PRI Party (Mexico).svg
1952-1954Antonio Fernando Ruíz PRI Party (Mexico).svg
1954-1955Rogelio Castro Cuen PRI Party (Mexico).svg
1955-1958Fidel Sánchez Márquez PRI Party (Mexico).svg
1958-1961Ramón Millanez PRI Party (Mexico).svg
1961-1964Jesús Burrola Tolano PRI Party (Mexico).svg
1964-1967Victor Manuel Tapia Berkowitz PRI Party (Mexico).svg
1967-1970Edmundo Navarro Parra PRI Party (Mexico).svg
1970-1973Roberto Elzy Torres PRI logo (Mexico).svg
1973-1976Jesús Ahumada Barreda PRI logo (Mexico).svg
1976-1979Héctor Lavander León PRI logo (Mexico).svg
1979-1982Roberto Torres Carbajal PRI logo (Mexico).svg
1982-1985Gildardo Monge Reyes PRI logo (Mexico).svg
1985-1988Rafael Carrillo Monzón PRI logo (Mexico).svg
1988-1991Francisco Javier Taddei Taddei PRI logo (Mexico).svg
1991-1994Gildardo Monge Escárcega PRI logo (Mexico).svg
1994-1997Héctor René Tagles Zavala PRI logo (Mexico).svg
1997-2000Francisco García Gamez PAN (Mexico).svg
2000-2003Mario César Cuen Aranda PAN (Mexico).svg
2003-2006Francisco García Gamez PAN (Mexico).svg
2006-2009Luis Carlos Cha Flores PAN (Mexico).svg
2009-2012Jesús Reginaldo Moreno García PRI logo (Mexico).svg
2012-2015Francisco Javier Tarazón Curlango PAN (Mexico).svg
2015-2018Fernando Herrera Moreno PRI logo (Mexico).svg
2018-2021Eduardo Quiroga Jiménez Canenea Independiente Eduardo Quiroga.png

Economy

The large Cananea copper mine produced almost 164,000 tonnes of copper in 2006. Cananea mine.jpg
The large Cananea copper mine produced almost 164,000 tonnes of copper in 2006.

Mining

Mining is the main source of revenue for Cananea and will be for the foreseeable future. Eighty percent of the population is directly or indirectly supported by mining companies in Cananea. The first and most important mining company is Buenavista del Cobre, S.A. de C.V. (formerly Mexicana de Cananea, S.A. de C.V.) owned by the Southern Copper Corporation, [4] and still shares ownership with Grupo Mexico, S.A.B. de C.V. [5] Grupo Mexico plans to invest $3.7 Billion US Dollars at the Cananea Mine. This program is expected to increase Buenavista's production capacity from 180,000 tons of copper per year to over 450,000 tons. During 2Q11, Buenavista reached its full capacity and produced 45,588 tons of copper: 15,170 tons of copper cathode at its SX/EW Plant and 30,417 tons of copper concentrate at the Concentrator Plant. Cananea is among the world's largest copper mines in terms of reserves.

A miners strike at the Buenavista del Cobre mine lasted almost three years, until broken on the night of June 6, 2010, when Mexican police dispersed striking workers. [6] On June 6, 2011, the Confederation of Mexican Workers (“CTM”) was granted the collective bargaining agreement for the Buenavista union, replacing the miner's National Union of Mining and Metallurgical Workers Sindicate, Section No.65 (Labor Union), headed by Napoleón Gómez Urrutia.

The second and smaller active copper mine is "Minera Maria", owned by Minera Frisco, S.A.B. de C.V. a Mexican company controlled by Carlos Slim Helú and family, including Inmobiliaria Carso, S.A. de C.V. and located west of Cananea. The plant has an installed monthly production capacity of 2,500 tons of copper cathode.

Industry

Light industry is the second most important activity in the local economy, generating approximately 3,100 jobs. A modest industrial park north of the town comprises an area of 53 acres (210,000 m2). There are several companies operating as maquiladoras. The most important are: "Stewart Connector Systems de México, S.A."; "Fundidora de Cananea, S.A.", a manufacturer of ball mill liners, and "Road Machinery Company de México, S.A." -- which all aforementioned companies together provide approximately 600 jobs and are involved in diverse activities, from cable assembly to steel fabrication.

The intent to open a concrete products industrial park north of Cananea was announced in January 2018 by Ing. Glenn Edward Roy E. of "Ferrocret", a conglomerate that shall produce all manner of precast concrete products such as: hydro conduit; walls, floors, and ceilings of affordable housing; drycast concrete pavers; cinder block; concrete railway sleepers. The factories will utilise proprietary fast-cure concrete formulations in combination with the abundant nearly free-of-cost copper slag "escoria" -- an aggregate alternative to expensive riverbed-mined gravel. Over one hundred years of mining activities at Cananea have generated huge manmade mountains of copper slag... thereby providing an ideal, low-cost alternative for supplying graded aggregates for in inclusion within those various precast concrete products. Precast concrete products manufacturing promises to become a major industry in the region, and one which shall lessen the dependence of the Cananea job force on a local economy that historically solely has been dependent upon the mines remaining open.

Agriculture

Cattle raising is important and there were approximately 16,000 head in the last census.

Farming consists mainly of corn, potatoes, beans, sorghum, alfalfa, barley, and apples. Most of these crops are used for local consumption and cattle fodder. The infrastructure consists of 30 wells, equipped with a system of electrical motors, and 10 kilometers (6 mi) of reinforced canals used for irrigation.

Twin towns

Notable residents

Related Research Articles

Minera Escondida mine

Minera Escondida is a mining company that operates two open pit copper mines in the Atacama Desert, 170 km southeast of Antofagasta in northern Chile. It is currently the highest producing copper mine in the world. Its 2007 production of 1.483 million tons of the metal was worth US$ 10.12 billion, mainly as metal in concentrate, but some as cathode, and was 9.5% of world output and 26% of Chilean production, according to the US Geological Survey's preliminary estimates of 2007 world mine output.

Buenavista may refer to:

Peñoles Penoles

Peñoles is a subsidiary company owned by Grupo BAL. Peñoles is the second largest Mexican mining company, the first Mexican producer of gold, zinc and lead and the world leader in silver production. Peñoles is a company with active mines within Mexico and with some prospection projects in South America. Holdings includes the Fresnillo Silver Mine / Mina Proaño, the Met-Mex Peñoles metallurgical complex and Química del Rey; a Chemical facility; three operations. Peñoles produces about 80,500,000 troy ounces (2,500,000 kg) of silver and 756,100 troy ounces (23,520 kg) of gold annually. Other metals that the company produces are zinc, lead, copper, bismuth, and cadmium.

Cananea Municipality Municipality in Sonora, Mexico

Cananea is a municipality in the northern portion of the Mexican state of Sonora, on the U.S. border. Its municipal seat is the city of Cananea, located at 30°58′55″N110°18′02″W.

Grupo México is the largest mining corporation in Mexico and the third largest copper producer in the world through ASARCO.

James Stuart Douglas Jr. (1867–1949), popularly known as Rawhide Jimmy, was a Canadian-American businessman and mining executive.

Cananea strike

The Cananea strike, also known as the Cananea riot, or the Cananea massacre, took place in the Mexican mining town of Cananea, Sonora, in June 1906. Although the workers were forced to return to their positions with no demand being met, the action was a key event in the general unrest that emerged during the final years of the regime of President Porfirio Díaz and that prefigured the Mexican Revolution of 1910. In the incident twenty-three people died, on both sides, twenty-two were injured, and more than fifty were arrested.

Louis Davidson Ricketts was an American economic geologist, metallurgist, mining engineer and banker who pioneered development of copper mines in the U.S. state of Arizona and the Mexican state of Sonora.

Nacozari de García is a small mining town surrounded by Nacozari de García Municipality in the northeast of the Mexican state of Sonora.

Silver mining in Arizona

Silver mining in Arizona was a powerful stimulus for exploration and prospecting in early Arizona. Cumulative silver production through 1981 totaled 490 million troy ounces. However, only about 10% of Arizona's silver production came from silver mining. More than 80% of the state's silver was a byproduct of copper mining; other silver came as a byproduct of lead, zinc, and gold mining.

Southern Copper Corporation

Southern Copper Corporation is a mining company that was founded in 1952. The current incarnation of Southern Copper can be traced to the 2005 acquisition of Mexican copper producer Minera México by Southern Peru Copper Corporation.

El Teniente mine

El Teniente is an underground copper mine in the Chilean commune of Machalí in Cachapoal Province, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins Region, near the town of Sewell, 2,300 m (7,500 ft) above mean sea level in the Andes.

La cárcel de Cananea is a corrido written in 1917 commemorating the Cananea Strike that took place in the Mexican mining town of Cananea, Sonora, in June 1906. It has been produced in numerous versions, including one by Linda Ronstadt on her album Canciones de mi padre, released in 1987.

La Caridad Mine is a large open-pit copper mine in Nacozari, Sonora, Mexico. It is operated by Mexicana de Cobre, S.A., which is a part of Grupo Mexico, the largest copper producer in Mexico. The mine lies approximately 8 mi (13 km) east of Nacozari de Garcia.

Naco Municipality is a municipality in Sonora in north-western Mexico.

Traditional copper work in Mexico

Traditional copper work in Mexico has its origins in the pre Hispanic period, mostly limited to the former Purépecha Empire in what are now the states of Michoacán and Jalisco. The reason for this was that this was the only area where copper could be found on the surface. After the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, the Spanish took control of copper production, introducing European techniques but still needed indigenous labor. Copper work, like other crafts, was principally organized in Michoacán under Vasco de Quiroga. It is not known when the town of Santa Clara del Cobre came to specialize in the production of copper items, but it was well established by the mid 18th century. Copper extraction remained centered on Michoacán during the colonial period but most of the production gave out by the 19th century. After the Mexican Revolution, copper smiths of Santa Clara were limited to working with scrap metal making pots, plates, casseroles and other containers. Today, it remains home to hundreds of copper smiths which work in ways little changed from the colonial period and is home to the annual Feria del Cobre in August.

The Buenavista mine is a large copper mine located in the north-west of Mexico in Cananea, Sonora. It lies 35 km south of the USA border near Nogales, Arizona. Buenavista mine represents one of the largest copper reserve in Mexico and in the world, having estimated reserves of 36 million tonnes of ore grading 0.69% copper, 3.3% zinc and 33.4 million oz of silver.

Thomas F. Cole American businessman

Thomas Frederick Cole (1862–1939) was a mining executive active in Michigan, Minnesota, and Arizona. He was President of the Oliver Iron Mining Company from 1901 to 1909. His namesake boat the SS Thomas F. Cole was built by United States Steel's Pittsburgh Steamship Company in 1907.

References

  1. "WENT AGAINST ORDERS; Governor of Arizona Warned Capt. Rynning and Other Americans", New York Times, June 3, 1906.
  2. "NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1971-2000" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
  3. "Extreme Temperatures and Precipitation for Cananea 1951-2010" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
  4. Southern Copper Corporation. (NYSE: SCCO Archived October 12, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  5. Grupo Mexico, S.A.B. de C.V. (BMV: GMEXICO Archived March 5, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  6. Elisabeth Malkin (June 7, 2010). "Police Officers End a Mine Strike in Mexico". New York Times.