Candidatus magisterii (male), or candidata magisterii (female), abbreviated as cand.mag., is an academic degree currently awarded in Denmark. The degree is officially translated into English as Master of Arts and currently requires 5 years of studies. The degree was historically also awarded in Norway and Iceland, based on the Danish degree.
An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, usually at a college or university. These institutions commonly offer degrees at various levels, usually including bachelor's, master’s and doctorates, often alongside other academic certificates and professional degrees. The most common undergraduate degree is the bachelor's degree, although in some countries lower qualifications are titled degrees while in others a higher-level first degree is more usual.
A Master of Arts is a person who was admitted to a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries, and the degree is also named Master of Arts in colloquial speech. The degree is usually contrasted with the Master of Science. Those admitted to the degree typically study linguistics, history, communication studies, diplomacy, public administration, political science, or other subjects within the scope of the humanities and social sciences; however, different universities have different conventions and may also offer the degree for fields typically considered within the natural sciences and mathematics. The degree can be conferred in respect of completing courses and passing examinations, research, or a combination of the two.
The degree was originally introduced in Denmark in 1883. Today, the degree is awarded only in humanities and requires five years of studies. The degree is officially translated into English as Master of Arts.
The degree was also awarded in Norway from 1920 to 2003, based on the Danish degree. For most of its history, the degree usually required between 4 and 5 years of studies.In its later years, the formal minimum requirement was 3.5 years for the faculties of mathematics and natural sciences, and 4–4.5 for the faculties of humanities and social sciences.
Mathematics includes the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with divinity and referred to what is now called classics, the main area of secular study in universities at the time. Today, the humanities are more frequently contrasted with natural, and sometimes social, sciences as well as professional training.
It is not to be confused with the magister's degree (magister artium or magister scientiarum), a degree requiring 7–8 years of studies with strong emphasis on the scientific thesis, and which is the approximate equivalent of a PhD degree.
A Master of Science is a master's degree in the field of science awarded by universities in many countries or a person holding such a degree. In contrast to the Master of Arts degree, the Master of Science degree is typically granted for studies in sciences, engineering and medicine and is usually for programs that are more focused on scientific and mathematical subjects; however, different universities have different conventions and may also offer the degree for fields typically considered within the humanities and social sciences. While it ultimately depends upon the specific program, earning a Master of Science degree typically includes writing a thesis.
A law degree is an academic degree conferred for studies in law. Such degrees are generally preparation for legal careers; but while their curricula may be reviewed by legal authority, they do not themselves confer a license. A legal license is granted and exercised locally; while the law degree can have local, international, and world-wide aspects- e.g., in Britain the Legal Practice Course is required to become a British solicitor or the Bar Professional Training Course (BPTC) to become a barrister.
Candidate of Law is the degree awarded to jurists who have passed the law exam in Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland after studying law for about 5–6 years. In Iceland, graduates are now awarded a master's degree in the field of law.
The Master of Philosophy is a postgraduate degree. In most cases, it is an advanced research degree with the prerequisites required for a Master of Philosophy degree making it the most advanced research degree before the Doctor of Philosophy. An MPhil typically includes a taught portion and a significant research portion, during which a major thesis project is conducted under supervision. The MPhil is regarded as an advanced master's degree, standing between a PhD and a shorter master's degree. An MPhil may be awarded to graduate students after completing taught coursework and one to two years of original research, which may also serve as a provisional enrollment for a PhD programme.
The Master of Letters degree is a postgraduate degree.
Maud Edith Cunnington was a Welsh-born archaeologist, most famous for her pioneering work on the prehistoric sites of Salisbury Plain.
A magister degree is an academic degree used in various systems of higher education.
The Bologna process for standardisation of European higher education specified an undergraduate degree of at least three years called the "licence" or bachelor's degree, followed by a two-year diploma called the master's degree, then a doctorate, meant to be obtained in at least three years. Because of these indicated schedules, the reform is sometimes (erroneously) referred to as "3-5-8". The system applies to the European Higher Education Area.
A Doctor of Philosophy is the highest university degree that is conferred after a course of study by universities in most English-speaking countries. PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. As an earned research degree, those studying for a PhD are usually required to produce original research that expands the boundaries of knowledge, normally in the form of a thesis or dissertation, and defend their work against experts in the field. The completion of a PhD is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields. Individuals who have earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree may, in many jurisdictions, use the title Doctor or, in non-English-speaking countries, variants such as "Dr. phil." with their name, although the proper etiquette associated with this usage may also be subject to the professional ethics of their own scholarly field, culture, or society. Those who teach at universities or work in academic, educational, or research fields are usually addressed by this title "professionally and socially in a salutation or conversation." Alternatively, holders may use post-nominal letters such as "Ph.D.", "PhD", or "DPhil". It is, however, considered incorrect to use both the title and post-nominals at the same time.
Doctor Medicinae, also spelled Doctor Medicinæ and abbreviated Dr. Med., is a doctoral degree in medicine awarded by universities in Denmark and formerly in Norway. It is regarded as a higher doctorate and is the equivalent of the British Doctor of Medical Science (Med.Sc.D.).
Elinor Wight Gardner a geology lecturer at Bedford College, London and research fellow at Lady Margaret Hall is best known for her field surveys with Gertrude Caton–Thompson of the Kharga Oasis which are now recognized as pioneering interdisciplinary research in Africa.
Semni Papaspyridi-Karouzou (1897–1994) was a Classical archaeologist who specialized in the study of pottery from ancient Greece. She was curator of the ceramic collections at the National Archaeological Museum in Athens for over thirty years, a post of tremendous but often overlooked importance. She and her husband, Christos Karouzos, the Director of the National Museum, secured the safety of the collections during the Second World War, and reestablished the exhibits post-war.
Marie-Henriette Alimen was a French paleontologist and geologist. Alimen studied at École Normale Supérieure, later going on to teach at Musée de l'Homme, and serve as president of Société géologique de France. Alimen's career was mainly focused on Quaternary geology in France and Africa while working for Centre national de la recherche scientifique. She later became a Knight of both the Legion of Honour and the Ordre des Palmes Académiques.
Arlette Leroi-Gourhan was a French archaeologist in that she initiated the use of palynology as part of archaeological studies. She also contributed to arcaeological excavations.
Candidatus scientiarum (male), or candidata scientiarum (female), abbreviated as cand.scient., is an academic degree currently awarded in Denmark and formerly awarded in Norway.
Elisabeth (Lis) Jacobsen, née Rubin, (1882–1961) was a Danish philologist, archaeologist and writer. She is remembered first and foremost for her research and publications on the history of the Danish language but she was also an expert runologist who published a comprehensive analysis of all known runic inscriptions in Denmark. From 1911, Jacobsen played a major role in all fields of research related to the Danish language.
Women in archaeology is an aspect of the history of archaeology and the topic of women in science more generally.
Anna Apostolaki was a Greek archaeologist and museum curator. She was the first woman to work in the field of archaeology in Greece and served as curator and later the director of the National Museum of Decorative Arts. One of the first women to graduate with a doctoral degree, she was also the first woman member of the Archaeological Society of Athens and an early member of the Christian Archaeological Society. She was an expert in ancient textiles and saw preservation of ancient patterns and Greek weaving traditions as a means to not only validate women's works, but bolster Greek nationalism in the interwar period of Greek history.
Marie Louise Stig Sørensen is Professor of European Prehistory and Heritage Studies at the University of Cambridge and a Professor of Bronze Age Archaeology at the University of Leiden. Her research focuses on Bronze Age Europe, heritage, and archaeological theory.
In recent years, the Anglo-Saxon style degree of PhD has been introduced, and is now replacing the degree of mag. art. At present, both mag. art. and PhD degrees are around. They are not identical, but their position in the educational system as the degree you take at the end of postgraduate studies is the same.
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