Cankilian Thoppu or arch of Cankili
|Alternative names||Poothathamby Arch|
|Location||Jaffna, Sri Lanka|
|Owner||Sri Lankan Government|
|Designations||Archaeological protected monument (23 February 2007)|
Cankilian Thoppu facade or Poothathamby arch, [Cənəgɪlɪənə ʈəɦoːbəbʉ] ), is an ancient facade, and one of the remnants of the Jaffna kingdom. The arch is located on the Jaffna-Point Pedro Road, near Nallur, Jaffna. The Cankilian Thoppu is a archaeological protected monument in the Jaffna District and was listed as such by the Sri Lankan government in 2007.simply known as Cankilian Thoppu (pronounced
Ruins of Jaffna kingdom refer to the remains of the Remaining building structures of Jaffna kingdom, the royal abode and structure of the ruling dynasty of the Kingdom of Jaffna, Nallur, Jaffna in Northern Sri Lanka.
Jaffna is the capital city of the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. It is the administrative headquarters of the Jaffna District located on a peninsula of the same name. With a population of 88,138 in 2012, Jaffna is Sri Lanka's 12th most populous city. Jaffna is approximately six miles from Kandarodai which served as an emporium in the Jaffna peninsula from classical antiquity. Jaffna's suburb Nallur served as the capital of the four-century-long medieval Jaffna Kingdom.
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The Jaffna Kingdom, also known as Kingdom of Aryachakravarti, of modern northern Sri Lanka was a historic monarchy that came into existence around the town of Jaffna on the Jaffna peninsula traditionally thought to be established after the invasion of Magha, who is credited with the founding of the Jaffna kingdom and is said to have been from Kalinga, in India. Established as a powerful force in the north, north east and west of the island, it eventually became a tribute paying feudatory of the Pandyan Empire in modern South India in 1258, gaining independence in 1323, when the last Pandyan ruler of Madurai was defeated and expelled in 1323 by Malik Kafur, the army general of the Muslim Delhi Sultanate. For a brief period, in the early to mid-14th century, it was an ascendant power in the island of Sri Lanka when all regional kingdoms accepted subordination. However, the kingdom was eventually overpowered by the rival Kotte Kingdom, around 1450 when it was invaded by Prince Sapumal under the Kotte Kingdom's directive.
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The Portuguese conquest of the Jaffna kingdom occurred after Portuguese traders arrived at the rival Kotte Kingdom in the southwest of modern Sri Lanka in 1505. Many kings of Jaffna, such as Cankili I, initially confronted the Portuguese in their attempts at converting the locals to Roman Catholicism, but eventually made peace with them.
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Nallur Electoral District was an electoral district of Sri Lanka between March 1960 and February 1989. The district was named after the town of Nallur in Jaffna District, Northern Province. The district was carved out of the eastern part of Jaffna Electoral District in March 1960. The 1978 Constitution of Sri Lanka introduced the proportional representation electoral system for electing members of Parliament. The existing 160 mainly single-member electoral districts were replaced with 22 multi-member electoral districts. Nallur electoral district was replaced by the Jaffna multi-member electoral district at the 1989 general elections, the first under the PR system, though Nallur continues to be a polling division of the multi-member electoral district.
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Portuguese invasion of Jaffna kingdom in 1591 AD was the second expedition against the Jaffna kingdom by the Portuguese. The campaign, led by Captain André Furtado de Mendonça, started from Mannar and continued to Nallur, the capital of the Jaffna kingdom. The Portuguese captured the kingdom, killed the king, and installed Ethirimana Cinkam as the new ruler.
The Portuguese invasion of Jaffna kingdom in 1560 AD was the first expedition against the Jaffna kingdom by the Portuguese Empire. It was led by Viceroy Dom Constantino de Bragança and resulted in the capture of the capital, Nallur. The king of Jaffna, Cankili I, managed to escape and regained the capital through a pact that he made with the Portuguese. He subsequently incited a peoples' rebellion against the Portuguese, resulting in their withdrawing their forces from Nallur. The Jaffna kingdom, however, lost its sovereignty over Mannar Island and its main town, Mannar.
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