République et canton du Jura
Location in Switzerland
|Subdivisions||64 municipalities, 3 districts|
|• Executive||Gouvernement (5)|
|• Legislative||Parlement (60)|
|• Total||838.51 km2 (323.75 sq mi)|
|• Density||87/km2 (230/sq mi)|
|ISO 3166 code||CH-JU|
|Highest point||1,302 m (4,272 ft): Mont Raimeux|
|Lowest point||364 m (1,194 ft): Allaine at Boncourt|
The Republic and Canton of the Jura (French : République et canton du Jura), also known as the canton of Jura or canton Jura, is the newest (founded in 1979) of the 26 Swiss cantons, located in the northwestern part of Switzerland. The capital is Delémont. It shares borders with the canton of Basel-Landschaft, the canton of Bern, the canton of Neuchatel, the canton of Solothurn, and the French régions of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté and Grand Est.
French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.
The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the member states of the Swiss Confederation. The nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the form of the first three confederate allies used to be referred to as the Waldstätte. Two further major steps in the development of the Swiss cantonal system are referred to by the terms Acht Orte and Dreizehn Orte ; they were important intermediate periods of the Ancient Swiss Confederacy.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western, central and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi). While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of approximately 8.5 million people is concentrated mostly on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva.
The King of Burgundy donated much of the land that today makes up canton Jura to the Bishop of Basel in 999. The area was a sovereign state within the Holy Roman Empire for more than 800 years. After the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 the Jura had close ties with the Swiss Confederation. At the Congress of Vienna (1815), the Jura region became part of the canton of Bern. This act caused dissention. The Jura was French-speaking and Roman Catholic, whereas the canton of Bern was mostly German-speaking and Protestant.
The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.
The Congress of Vienna, also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814. The objective of the Congress was to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. The goal was not simply to restore old boundaries but to resize the main powers so they could balance each other and remain at peace. The leaders were conservatives with little use for republicanism or revolution, both of which threatened to upset the status quo in Europe. France lost all its recent conquests while Prussia, Austria and Russia made major territorial gains. Prussia added smaller German states in the west, Swedish Pomerania and 60% of the Kingdom of Saxony; Austria gained Venice and much of northern Italy. Russia gained parts of Poland. The new Kingdom of the Netherlands had been created just months before, and included formerly Austrian territory that in 1830 became Belgium.
The canton of Bern or Berne is the second largest of the 26 Swiss cantons by both surface area and population. Located in west-central Switzerland, it borders the canton of Jura and the canton of Solothurn to the north. To the west lie the canton of Neuchâtel, the canton of Fribourg and canton of Vaud. To the south lies the canton of Valais. East of the canton of Bern lie the cantons of Uri, Nidwalden, Obwalden, Lucerne and Aargau.
After World War II, a separatist movement campaigned for a secession of Jura from the canton of Bern. After a long and partly militant struggle, which included some arson attacks by a youth organisation Les Béliers, a constitution was accepted in 1977. In 1978 the split was made official when the Swiss people voted in favour, and in 1979 the Jura joined the Swiss Confederation as a full member. The canton celebrated its independence from the canton of Bern on 23 June. However, the southern part of the region, which is also predominantly French-speaking but has a Protestant majority, opted not to join the newly formed canton, instead remaining part of the canton of Bern. Although this decision may be considered strange linguistically, the choice may have been influenced by the fact that the canton of Bern is financially richer and is at the heart of federal power in Switzerland. The area is now known as Bernese Jura. The word Jura, therefore, may refer either to canton Jura, or to the combined territory of canton Jura and the Bernese Jura. Switzerland as a whole often presents the latter from a touristic standpoint with documentation easily available in French or German.
Jurassic separatism is a regionalist independence movement in the Bernese Jura in Switzerland.
A federation is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government (federalism). In a federation, the self-governing status of the component states, as well as the division of power between them and the central government, is typically constitutionally entrenched and may not be altered by a unilateral decision of either party, the states or the federal political body. Alternatively, federation is a form of government in which sovereign power is formally divided between a central authority and a number of constituent regions so that each region retains some degree of control over its internal affairs. It is often argued that federal states where the central government has the constitutional authority to suspend a constituent state's government by invoking gross mismanagement or civil unrest, or to adopt national legislation that overrides or infringe on the constituent states' powers by invoking the central government's constitutional authority to ensure "peace and good government" or to implement obligations contracted under an international treaty, are not truly federal states.
Bernese Jura is the name for the French-speaking area of the Swiss canton of Bern, and from 2010 one of ten administrative divisions of the canton.
On creation, the canton adopted the title Republic and canton of the Jura. Other cantons in Switzerland using the title "Republic and Canton" are Ticino, the canton of Geneva, and the canton of Neuchâtel. In each case, the title refers to the autonomy of the canton and its nominal sovereignty within the Swiss Confederation.
The Republic and Canton of Geneva is the French-speaking westernmost canton or state of Switzerland, surrounded on almost all sides by France (Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes). As is the case in several other Swiss cantons, this canton is referred to as a republic within the Swiss Confederation.
The Republic and Canton of Neuchâtel is a canton of French-speaking western Switzerland. In 2007, its population was 169,782, of whom 39,654 were foreigners. The capital is Neuchâtel.
Since 1994, the question of the Jura region has again been controversial. In 2004, a federal commission proposed that the French-speaking southern Jura be reunited with the canton of Jura, as the language question now seems to be more important than the denominational one. A possible solution would be to create two half-cantons, as reunification with the creation of only a single canton would mean a complete restructuring of the Jura's current political system, with the cantonal capital being transferred from Delémont to Moutier.
Delémont is the capital of the Swiss canton of Jura. The city has approximately 12,000 inhabitants as of 2013.
Moutier is a municipality in the Jura bernois administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. It is located in the French-speaking Bernese Jura.
On 18 June, 2017, the town of Moutier voted to quit Bern and join the canton of Jura. On 17 September, 2017, the nearby municipalities of Belprahon and Sorvilier conversely voted to remain in the canton of Bern.The vote in Moutier has since been declared invalid.
Belprahon is a municipality in the Jura bernois administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. It is located in the French-speaking part of the canton in the Jura mountains.
Sorvilier is a municipality in the Jura bernois administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. It is located in the French-speaking Bernese Jura.
Canton Jura lies in the northwest of Switzerland. It consists of parts of the Jura mountains in the south and the Jura plateau in the north. The Jura plateau is hilly and almost entirely limestone. The districts of Ajoie and Franches-Montagnes lie in this region. The term "Jurassic" is derived from the Jura Alps, strata of which date to that era.
To the north and the west of the canton lies France. The canton of Solothurn and Basel-Landschaft are to east of the canton, while the canton of Bern bounds the Jura to the south. The rivers Doubs and the Birs drain the lands. The Doubs joins the Saône and then the Rhône, whereas the Birs is a tributary to the Rhine.
Jura is divided into 3 districts:
There are 64 municipalities in the canton (As of 2009 [update] ).
|Percentage of the total vote per party in the canton in the National Council Elections 1971-2015|
|FDP.The Liberals a||Classical liberalism||c||c||30.9||28.8||33.4||35.1||29.5||19.5||16.3||13.4||9.5||16.8|
|SP/PS||Social democracy||c||c||* b||17.8||25.5||28.8||32.4||34.2||34.2||36.9||30.8||23.7|
|Voter participation %||c||c||58.6||61.4||51.6||43.4||42.4||40.9||46.6||44.0||44.4||54.3|
The population is almost entirely French-speaking. Just one municipality is German-speaking: Ederswiler. The majority of the population is Roman Catholic (75% as of 2000 [update] ) with a small Protestant minority (13%). The population of the canton (as of 31 December 2017) is 73,290. As of 2007 [update] , the population included 8,195 foreigners, or about 11.8% of the total population.
The historical population is given in the following chart:
|Historic Population Data|
|Year||Total Population||French Speaking||German Speaking||Protestant||Catholic||Other||Jewish||Islamic||No religion given||Swiss||Non-Swiss|
Agriculture is important in canton Jura. Cattle breeding is significant, but there is also horse breeding (the Franches-Montagnes is the last Swiss horse race). The main industries are watches, textiles and tobacco. There is a growing number of small and medium-sized businesses. In 2001, there were 3,578 people who worked in the primary economic sector. 14,109 people were employed in the secondary sector and 16,513 people were employed in the tertiary sector.
In 2001, the canton produced 0.9% of the entire Swiss national income while it had 0.9% of the total population.In 2005, the average share of the national income per resident of the canton was 38,070 CHF, while the national average was 54,031 CHF, or about 70% of the national income per person. Between 2003 and 2005, the average income grew at a rate of 6.4%, which was larger than the national rate of 5.3%. The average taxes in the canton are higher than in most cantons, in 2006, the tax index in the canton was 126.6 (Swiss average is 100.0). In 2006, the canton had the highest final tax rate on high wage earners (15.26% on a married couple with two children earning 150,000 CHF vs 11.6% nationally), though the tax rate was in the middle for lower-income families.
The eau de vie Damassine is one typical produce of the Ajoie area. (see Terroir Jura and Jura Infos)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Canton of Jura .|
The canton of Solothurn, also canton of Soleure is a canton of Switzerland. It is located in the northwest of Switzerland. The capital is Solothurn.
Romandy is the French-speaking part of western Switzerland. In 2018, about 2.1 million people, or 25.1% of the Swiss population, lived in Romandy. The bulk of the romand population lives in the Arc Lémanique region along Lake Geneva, connecting Geneva, Vaud and the Lower Valais.
Saules is a municipality in the Jura bernois administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. It is located in the French-speaking Bernese Jura.
Mont-Tramelan is a municipality in the Jura bernois administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. It is located in the French-speaking Bernese Jura. While the majority of the population speaks German, the German form of the municipality name, Tramlingen-Berg, is no longer used. Even though it is in the French-speaking part of the canton of Bern, there is a German public school.
Court is a municipality in the Jura bernois administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. It is located in the French-speaking Bernese Jura.
Perrefitte is a municipality in the administrative district of Jura bernois in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. It is located in the French-speaking Bernese Jura. Its old German names Beffert and Pfeffert are no longer in use today.
Rebévilier is a municipality in the Jura bernois administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. It is located in the French-speaking Bernese Jura.
Saicourt is a municipality in the Jura bernois administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. It comprises the localities of Le Fuet, Bellelay, La Bottiere and Montbautier. It is located in the French-speaking Bernese Jura.
Prättigau/Davos District is a former administrative district in the canton of Graubünden, Switzerland. It had an area of 823.95 km2 (318.13 sq mi) and has a population of 26,257 in 2015. It was replaced with the Prättigau/Davos Region on 1 January 2017 as part of a reorganization of the Canton.
Hinterrhein District is a former administrative district in the canton of Graubünden, Switzerland. It had an area of 617.67 km2 (238.48 sq mi) and had a population of 13,179 in 2015. Much of the district became part of the Viamala Region on 1 January 2017 as part of a reorganization of the Canton.
Delémont District is one of the three districts of the canton of Jura, Switzerland. Its capital, and that of the canton, is the city of Delémont. The district is almost entirely French-speaking and has a population of 38,341.
Porrentruy District is one of the three districts of the canton of Jura, Switzerland. Its capital is the town of Porrentruy. The French-speaking district has a population of 24,573.
Franches-Montagnes District is one of the three districts of the canton of Jura, Switzerland. Its capital is the town of Saignelégier. The French-speaking district has a population of 10,376.
Emmental District in the Canton of Bern was created on 1 January 2010. It is part of the Emmental-Oberaargau administrative region. It contains 40 municipalities with an area of 690.45 km2 (266.58 sq mi) and a population of 97,057.
Seeland District in the Canton of Bern was created on 1 January 2010. It is part of the Seeland administrative region. It contains 42 municipalities with an area of 334.14 km2 (129.01 sq mi) and a population of 73,817.
Valbirse is a municipality in the Jura bernois administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. It is located in the French-speaking Bernese Jura.