Canton of Jura

Last updated
Jura
Republic and Canton of the Jura
République et canton du Jura  (French)
Wappen Jura matt.svg
Coat of arms
Coordinates: 47°22′N7°9′E / 47.367°N 7.150°E / 47.367; 7.150 Coordinates: 47°22′N7°9′E / 47.367°N 7.150°E / 47.367; 7.150
Capital Delémont
Subdivisions 64 municipalities, 3 districts
Government
   Executive Gouvernement (5)
   Legislative Parlement (60)
Area
[1]
  Total838.51 km2 (323.75 sq mi)
Population
 (December 2018) [2]
  Total73,419
  Density88/km2 (230/sq mi)
ISO 3166 code CH-JU
Highest point 1,302 m (4,272 ft): Mont Raimeux
Lowest point 364 m (1,194 ft): Allaine at Boncourt
Joined 1979
Languages French
Website www.ju.ch

The Republic and Canton of the Jura (French : République et canton du Jura), also known as the canton of Jura or canton Jura ( /ˈ(d)ʒʊərə/ JOOR-ə, ZHOOR, French:  [ʒyʁa] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )),[ needs Arpitan IPA ] is the newest (founded in 1979) of the 26 Swiss cantons, located in the northwestern part of Switzerland. The capital is Delémont. It shares borders with the canton of Basel-Landschaft, the canton of Bern, the canton of Neuchatel, the canton of Solothurn, and the French régions of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté and Grand Est.

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

Contents

History

Old city of Porrentruy Porrentruy Altstadt.jpg
Old city of Porrentruy

The King of Burgundy donated much of the land that today makes up canton Jura to the Bishop of Basel in 999. The area was a sovereign state within the Holy Roman Empire for more than 800 years. After the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 the Jura had close ties with the Swiss Confederation. At the Congress of Vienna (1815), the Jura region became part of the canton of Bern. This act caused dissention. The Jura was French-speaking and Roman Catholic, whereas the canton of Bern was mostly German-speaking and Protestant.

Holy Roman Empire Complex of territories in Europe from 962 to 1806

The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also included the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia and Kingdom of Italy, plus numerous other territories, and soon after the Kingdom of Burgundy was added. Its size gradually diminished over time, particularly from 1648 onward, and by the time of its dissolution, it largely contained only German-speaking territories, plus the Kingdom of Bohemia which was bordered by the German lands on three sides.

Congress of Vienna Early 19th century conference of ambassadors of European states to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe

The Congress of Vienna, also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814. The objective of the Congress was to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. The goal was not simply to restore old boundaries but to resize the main powers so they could balance each other and remain at peace. The leaders were conservatives with little use for republicanism or revolution, both of which threatened to upset the status quo in Europe. France lost all its recent conquests while Prussia, Austria and Russia made major territorial gains. Prussia added smaller German states in the west, Swedish Pomerania and 60% of the Kingdom of Saxony; Austria gained Venice and much of northern Italy. Russia gained parts of Poland. The new Kingdom of the Netherlands had been created just months before, and included formerly Austrian territory that in 1830 became Belgium.

Canton of Bern Canton of Switzerland

The canton of Bern or Berne is the second-largest of the 26 Swiss cantons by both surface area and population. Located in west-central Switzerland, it borders the canton of Jura and the canton of Solothurn to the north. To the west lie the canton of Neuchâtel, the canton of Fribourg and canton of Vaud. To the south lies the canton of Valais. East of the canton of Bern lie the cantons of Uri, Nidwalden, Obwalden, Lucerne and Aargau.

After World War II, a separatist movement campaigned for a secession of Jura from the canton of Bern. After a long and partly militant struggle, which included some arson attacks by a youth organisation Les Béliers, a constitution was accepted in 1977. In 1978 the split was made official when the Swiss people voted in favour, and in 1979 the Jura joined the Swiss Confederation as a full member. The canton celebrated its independence from the canton of Bern on 23 June. However, the southern part of the region, which is also predominantly French-speaking but has a Protestant majority, opted not to join the newly formed canton, instead remaining part of the canton of Bern. Although this decision may be considered strange linguistically, the choice may have been influenced by the fact that the canton of Bern is financially richer and is at the heart of federal power in Switzerland. The area is now known as Bernese Jura. The word Jura, therefore, may refer either to canton Jura, or to the combined territory of canton Jura and the Bernese Jura. Switzerland as a whole often presents the latter from a touristic standpoint with documentation easily available in French or German.

Jurassic separatism

Jurassic separatism is a regionalist independence movement in the Bernese Jura in Switzerland.

Federation A union of partially self-governing states or territories united by a central government that exercises power over them

A federation is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government (federalism). In a federation, the self-governing status of the component states, as well as the division of power between them and the central government, is typically constitutionally entrenched and may not be altered by a unilateral decision of either party, the states or the federal political body. Alternatively, the federation is a form of government in which sovereign power is formally divided between a central authority and a number of constituent regions so that each region retains some degree of control over its internal affairs. It is often argued that federal states where the central government has the constitutional authority to suspend a constituent state's government by invoking gross mismanagement or civil unrest, or to adopt national legislation that overrides or infringe on the constituent states' powers by invoking the central government's constitutional authority to ensure "peace and good government" or to implement obligations contracted under an international treaty, are not truly federal states.

Bernese Jura District in Switzerland

Bernese Jura is the name for the French-speaking area of the Swiss canton of Bern, and from 2010 one of ten administrative divisions of the canton.

The coat of arms of the canton has been added to the side of the dome in the Federal Palace in Bern, which features the arms of the other cantons, after its foundation in 1978 Bundeshaus COA Jura.jpg
The coat of arms of the canton has been added to the side of the dome in the Federal Palace in Bern, which features the arms of the other cantons, after its foundation in 1978

On creation, the canton adopted the title Republic and canton of the Jura. Other cantons in Switzerland using the title "Republic and Canton" are Ticino, the canton of Geneva, and the canton of Neuchâtel. In each case, the title refers to the autonomy of the canton and its nominal sovereignty within the Swiss Confederation.

Switzerland Federal republic in Central Europe

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state situated in the confluence of western, central, and southern Europe. It is a federal republic composed of 26 cantons, with federal authorities seated in Bern. Switzerland is a landlocked country bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. It is geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi), and land area of 39,997 km2 (15,443 sq mi). While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of approximately 8.5 million is concentrated mostly on the plateau, where the largest cities are located, among them the two global cities and economic centres of Zürich and Geneva.

Canton of Geneva Canton of Switzerland

The Republic and Canton of Geneva is the French-speaking westernmost canton or state of Switzerland, surrounded on almost all sides by France (Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes). As is the case in several other Swiss cantons, this canton is referred to as a republic within the Swiss Confederation.

Canton of Neuchâtel Canton of Switzerland

The Republic and Canton of Neuchâtel is a French-speaking canton in western Switzerland. In 2007, its population was 169,782, of whom 39,654 were foreigners. The capital is Neuchâtel.

Since 1994, the question of the Jura region has again been controversial. In 2004, a federal commission proposed that the French-speaking southern Jura be reunited with the canton of Jura, as the language question now seems to be more important than the denominational one. A possible solution would be to create two half-cantons, as reunification with the creation of only a single canton would mean a complete restructuring of the Jura's current political system, with the cantonal capital being transferred from Delémont to Moutier.

Delémont Place in Jura, Switzerland

Delémont is the capital of the Swiss canton of Jura. The city has approximately 12,000 inhabitants as of 2013.

Moutier Place in Bern, Switzerland

Moutier is a municipality in the Jura bernois administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. It is located in the French-speaking Bernese Jura.

On 18 June, 2017, the town of Moutier voted to quit Bern and join the canton of Jura. On 17 September, 2017, the nearby municipalities of Belprahon and Sorvilier conversely voted to remain in the canton of Bern. [3] The vote in Moutier has since been declared invalid. [4]

Belprahon Place in Bern, Switzerland

Belprahon is a municipality in the Jura bernois administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. It is located in the French-speaking part of the canton in the Jura mountains.

Sorvilier Place in Bern, Switzerland

Sorvilier is a municipality in the Jura bernois administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. It is located in the French-speaking Bernese Jura.

Geography

Canton Jura lies in the northwest of Switzerland. It consists of parts of the Jura mountains in the south and the Jura plateau in the north. The Jura plateau is hilly and almost entirely limestone. The districts of Ajoie and Franches-Montagnes lie in this region. The term "Jurassic" is derived from the Jura Alps, strata of which date to that era.

To the north and the west of the canton lies France. The canton of Solothurn and Basel-Landschaft are to east of the canton, while the canton of Bern bounds the Jura to the south. The rivers Doubs and the Birs drain the lands. The Doubs joins the Saône and then the Rhône, whereas the Birs is a tributary to the Rhine.

Political subdivisions

Districts

Districts in the canton of Jura Map Canton Jura Bezirke.png
Districts in the canton of Jura

Jura is divided into 3 districts:

Municipalities

There are 64 municipalities in the canton (As of 2009). [5]

Politics

Federal election results

Percentage of the total vote per party in the canton in the National Council Elections 1971-2015 [6]
PartyIdeology197119751979198319871991199519992003200720112015
FDP.The Liberals a Classical liberalism c c 30.928.833.435.129.519.516.313.49.516.8
CVP/PDC/PPD/PCD Christian democracy c c 37.725.133.036.038.239.239.525.033.227.6
SP/PS Social democracy c c * b 17.825.528.832.434.234.236.930.823.7
SVP/UDC Swiss nationalism c c *2.0***7.28.313.715.512.8
CSP/PCS Christian socialism c c *11.88.1****11.0*6.6
PdA/PST-POP/PC/PSL Socialism c c *********3.8
GPS/PES Green politics c c ********11.07.3
EDU/UDF Christian right c c ******1.8***
Other c c 31.414.5*******1.4
Voter participation % c c 58.661.451.643.442.440.946.644.044.454.3
^a FDP before 2009, FDP.The Liberals after 2009
^b "*" indicates that the party was not on the ballot in this canton.
^c Part of the canton of Bern

Demographics

The population is almost entirely French-speaking. Just one municipality is German-speaking: Ederswiler. The majority of the population is Roman Catholic (75% as of 2000) with a small Protestant minority (13%). [7] The population of the canton (as of 31 December 2018) is 73,419. [2] As of 2007, the population included 8,195 foreigners, or about 11.8% of the total population. [8]

Historic population

The historical population is given in the following chart: [9]

Canton of Jura

Economy

Agriculture is important in canton Jura. Cattle breeding is significant, but there is also horse breeding (the Franches-Montagnes is the last Swiss horse race). The main industries are watches, textiles and tobacco. There is a growing number of small and medium-sized businesses. In 2001, there were 3,578 people who worked in the primary economic sector. 14,109 people were employed in the secondary sector and 16,513 people were employed in the tertiary sector. [9]

In 2001, the canton produced 0.9% of the entire Swiss national income while it had 0.9% of the total population. [9] In 2005, the average share of the national income per resident of the canton was 38,070 CHF, while the national average was 54,031 CHF, or about 70% of the national income per person. [10] Between 2003 and 2005, the average income grew at a rate of 6.4%, which was larger than the national rate of 5.3%. The average taxes in the canton are higher than in most cantons, in 2006, the tax index in the canton was 126.6 (Swiss average is 100.0). In 2006, the canton had the highest final tax rate on high wage earners (15.26% on a married couple with two children earning 150,000 CHF vs 11.6% nationally), though the tax rate was in the middle for lower-income families. [10]

Culture

The eau de vie Damassine is one typical produce of the Ajoie area. (see Terroir Jura and Jura Infos)

See also

Notes and references

  1. Arealstatistik Land Cover - Kantone und Grossregionen nach 6 Hauptbereichen accessed 27 October 2017
  2. 1 2 Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit(in German) accessed 23 September 2019
  3. The Local
  4. Swiss Info 5 November 2018
  5. "Liste officielle des communes de la Suisse - 01.01.2008". Office fédéral de la statistique. Archived from the original on 12 June 2009. Retrieved 15 December 2008.
  6. Nationalratswahlen: Stärke der Parteien nach Kantonen (Schweiz = 100%) (Report). Swiss Federal Statistical Office. 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-08-02. Retrieved 2016-08-05.
  7. Federal Department of Statistics (2004). "Wohnbevölkerung nach Religion". Archived from the original (Interactive Map) on 2016-09-24. Retrieved 2009-01-15.
  8. Federal Department of Statistics (2008). "Ständige Wohnbevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit, Geschlecht und Kantonen". Archived from the original (Microsoft Excel) on December 15, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
  9. 1 2 3 4 Canton of Jura in German , French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland .
  10. 1 2 Regionale Disparitäten in der Schweiz - Schlüsselindikatoren Archived 2013-06-14 at the Wayback Machine (in German)(in French) accessed 20 December 2011

Bibliography

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