Cantonese cuisine

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Cantonese cuisine
Flaming wok by KellyB in Bountiful, Utah.jpg
Chefs cook with a wok
Traditional Chinese 廣東菜
Simplified Chinese 广东菜
Cantonese Yale Gwóng dūng choi
Yue cuisine
Traditional Chinese 粵菜
Simplified Chinese 粤菜
Cantonese Yale Yuht choi
Map showing major regional cuisines of China Cuisines of China.png
Map showing major regional cuisines of China

Cantonese or Yue cuisine is the cuisine of the Guangdong province of China, particularly the provincial capital Guangzhou, and the surrounding regions in the Pearl River Delta including Hong Kong and Macau. [1] Strictly speaking, Cantonese cuisine is the cuisine of Guangzhou or of Cantonese speakers, but it often includes the cooking styles of all the speakers of Yue Chinese languages in Guangdong. On the other hand, the Teochew cuisine and Hakka cuisine of Guangdong are considered their own styles, as is neighbouring Guangxi's cuisine despite eastern Guangxi being considered culturally Cantonese due to the presence of ethnic Zhuang influences in the rest of the province. Cantonese cuisine is one of the Eight Culinary Traditions of Chinese cuisine. Its prominence outside China is due to the large number of Cantonese emigrants. Chefs trained in Cantonese cuisine are highly sought after throughout China. [2] Until the late 20th century, most Chinese restaurants in the West served largely Cantonese dishes.

Contents

Background

Guangzhou (Canton) City, the provincial capital of Guangdong and the centre of Cantonese culture, has long been a trading hub and many imported foods and ingredients are used in Cantonese cuisine. Besides pork, beef and chicken, Cantonese cuisine incorporates almost all edible meats, including offal, chicken feet, duck's tongue, frog legs, snakes and snails.[ citation needed ] However, lamb and goat are less commonly used than in the cuisines of northern or western China. Many cooking methods are used, with steaming and stir frying being the most favoured due to their convenience and rapidity. Other techniques include shallow frying, double steaming, braising and deep frying.

Comparing to other Chinese regional cuisine, the flavours of most traditional Cantonese dish should be well balanced and not greasy. Apart from that, spices should be used in modest amounts to avoid overwhelming the flavours of the primary ingredients, and these ingredients in turn should be at the peak of their freshness and quality. [3] There is no widespread use of fresh herbs in Cantonese cooking, in contrast with their liberal use in other cuisines such as Sichuanese, Vietnamese, Lao, Thai and European. Garlic chives and coriander leaves are notable exceptions, although the former are often used as a vegetable and the latter are usually used as mere garnish in most dishes.

Foods

Sauces and condiments

In Cantonese cuisine, a number of ingredients such as sugar, salt, soy sauce, rice wine, cornstarch, vinegar, scallion and sesame oil, suffice to enhance flavour, although garlic is heavily used in some dishes, especially those in which internal organs, such as entrails, may emit unpleasant odours. Ginger, chili peppers, five-spice powder, powdered black pepper, star anise and a few other spices are also used, but often sparingly.

EnglishTraditional ChineseSimplified ChineseJyutpingPinyin
Black bean sauce 蒜蓉豆豉醬蒜蓉豆豉酱syun3 jung4 dau6 si6 zoeng3suànróng dòuchǐjiàng
Char siu sauce 叉燒醬叉烧酱caa1 siu1 zoeng3chāshāojiàng
Chu hau paste 柱侯醬柱侯酱cyu5 hau4 zoeng3zhùhóujiàng
Hoisin sauce 海鮮醬海鲜酱hoi2 sin1 zoeng3hǎixiānjiàng
Master stock 滷水卤水lou5 seoi2lǔshuǐ
Oyster sauce 蠔油蚝油hou4 jau4háoyóu
Plum sauce 蘇梅醬苏梅酱syun1 mui4 zoeng3sūméijiàng
Red vinegar 浙醋zit3 cou3zhècù
Shrimp paste 鹹蝦醬咸虾酱haam4 haa1 zoeng3xiánxiājiàng
Sweet and sour sauce 糖醋醬糖醋酱tong4 cou3 zoeng3tángcùjiàng

Dried and preserved ingredients

Although Cantonese cooks pay much attention to the freshness of their primary ingredients, Cantonese cuisine also uses a long list of preserved food items to add flavour to a dish. This may be influenced by Hakka cuisine, since the Hakkas were once a dominant group occupying imperial Hong Kong and other southern territories. [4]

Some items gain very intense flavours during the drying/preservation/oxidation process and some foods are preserved to increase their shelf life. Some chefs combine both dried and fresh varieties of the same items in a dish. Dried items are usually soaked in water to rehydrate before cooking. These ingredients are generally not served a la carte, but rather with vegetables or other Cantonese dishes.

EnglishTraditional ChineseSimplified ChineseJyutpingPinyinNotes
Century egg 皮蛋pei4 daan2pídàncan be found served with roasted dishes, in congee with lean pork, and in a sweet pastry with lotus paste
Chinese sausage 臘腸腊肠laap6 coeng2làchángUsually added to rice together with preserved-salted duck and pork.
Dried cabbage 菜乾菜干coi3 gon1càigān
Dried scallops 江珧柱gong1 jiu4 cyu5jiāngyáozhùUsually added to clear soup.
江瑤柱江瑶柱
Dried shrimp蝦乾虾干haa1 gon1xiāgānUsually de-shelled, sliced into half and added to vegetable dishes.
Dried small shrimp 蝦米虾米haa1 mai5xiāmǐUsually mixed with stir-fried vegetables.
Fermented tofu 腐乳fu6 jyu5fǔrǔ
Fermented black beans 豆豉dau6 si6dòuchǐUsually added to pork and tofu dishes.
Pickled Chinese cabbage梅菜mui4 coi3méicàiUsually cooked with pork or stir-fried with rice.
Pickled diced radish 菜脯coi3 pou2càifǔ
Preserved-salted duck臘鴨腊鸭laap6 aap2làyāUsually eaten with rice in a family meal.
Preserved-salted pork臘肉腊肉laap6 juk6làròuUsually eaten with rice in a family meal.
Salted duck egg 鹹蛋咸蛋haam4 daan2xiándànMay be eaten as it is or mixed with stir-fried vegetables and steam dishes or cooked with diced pork in congee.
Salted fish鹹魚咸鱼haam4 jyu2xiányúUsually paired with steamed pork or added to fried rice together with diced chicken.
Suan cai 鹹酸菜咸酸菜haam4 syun1 coi3xiánsuāncài
Tofu skin 腐皮fu6 pei4fǔpíUsually used as wrapping for ground pork dishes. It is fried in a similar manner as spring rolls.

Traditional dishes

A number of dishes have been part of Cantonese cuisine since the earliest territorial establishments of Guangdong. While many of these are on the menus of typical Cantonese restaurants, some simpler ones are more commonly found in Cantonese homes. Home-made Cantonese dishes are usually served with plain white rice.

EnglishImageTraditional ChineseSimplified ChineseJyutpingPinyin
Cantonese style fried rice Cuisine of China 0055.JPG 廣式炒飯广式炒饭gwong2 sik1 cau2 faan6Guǎng shì chǎofàn
Choy sum in oyster sauce Taste of Beijing, Soho, London (4363228093).jpg 蠔油菜心蚝油菜心hou4 jau4 coi3 sam1háoyóu càixīn
Congee with lean pork and century egg Pork preserved duck egg congee.jpg 皮蛋瘦肉粥pei4 daan2 sau3 juk6 zuk1pídàn shòuròuzhōu
Steamed egg Chinese steamed eggs (cropped).jpg 蒸水蛋zing1 seoi2 daan2zhēngshuǐdàn
Steamed frog legs on lotus leaf荷葉蒸田雞荷叶蒸田鸡ho4 jip6 zing1 tin4 gai1héyè zhēng tiánjī
Steamed ground pork with salted duck egg HK Food Dong Ji Fan Dian Tung Kee Xian Dan Zheng Rou Bing Meat Cake.JPG 鹹蛋蒸肉餅咸蛋蒸肉饼haam4 daan2 zing1 juk6 beng2xiándàn zhēng ròubǐng
Steamed spare ribs with fermented black beans and chilli pepper Dimsumpaigui.jpg 豉椒排骨si6 ziu1 paai4 gwat1chǐjiāo páigǔ
Stewed beef brisket HK Food Brisket Noodle 1.JPG 柱侯牛腩cyu5 hau4 ngau4 naam5zhùhóu niú nǎn
Stir-fried hairy gourd with dried shrimp and cellophane noodles 大姨媽嫁女大姨妈嫁女daai6 ji4 maa1 gaa3 neoi5dàyímā jiànǚ
Stir-fried water spinach with shredded chilli and fermented tofu Rau muong xao toi.jpg 椒絲腐乳通菜椒丝腐乳通菜ziu1 si1 fu6 jyu5 tung1 coi3jiāosī fǔrǔ tōngcài
Sweet and sour pork Cuisine of China 0068.JPG 咕嚕肉咕噜肉gu1 lou1 juk6gūlūròu

Deep fried dishes

There are a small number of deep-fried dishes in Cantonese cuisine, which can often be found as street food. They have been extensively documented in colonial Hong Kong records of the 19th and 20th centuries. A few are synonymous with Cantonese breakfast and lunch, [5] even though these are also part of other cuisines.

EnglishImageTraditional ChineseSimplified ChineseJyutpingPinyin
Dace fish balls HK food Su Zha Ling Yu Qiu Dacefish meat balls Nov-2013 Jiu Ji Kau Kee Restaurant.JPG 鯪魚球鲮鱼球leng4 jyu4 kau4língyúqiú
Chinese Donut Chinese fried bread.jpg 油炸鬼jau4 zaa3 gwai2yóuzháguǐ
Zaa Leung Zhaliang.jpg 炸兩炸两zaa3 loeng5zháliǎng

Soups

Old fire soup, or lou fo tong (老火汤; 老火湯; lǎohuǒ tāng; lou5 fo2 tong; 'old fire-cooked soup'), is a clear broth prepared by simmering meat and other ingredients over a low heat for several hours. Chinese herbs are often used as ingredients. There are basically two ways to make old fire soup – put ingredients and water in the pot and heat it directly on fire, which is called bou tong (煲汤; 煲湯; bāo tāng; bou1 tong1); or put the ingredients in a small stew pot, and put it in a bigger pot filled with water, then heat the bigger pot on fire directly, which is called dun tong (燉汤; 燉湯; dùn tāng; dun6 tong1). The latter way can keep the most original taste of the soup.

Soup chain stores or delivery outlets in cities with significant Cantonese populations, such as Hong Kong, serve this dish due to the long preparation time required of slow-simmered soup.

EnglishTraditional ChineseSimplified ChineseJyutpingPinyin
Cantonese seafood soup 海皇羹hoi2 wong4 gang1hǎihuáng gēng
Night-blooming cereus soup霸王花煲湯霸王花煲汤baa3 wong4 faa1 bou1 tong1bàwánghuā bāotāng
Snow fungus soup銀耳湯银耳汤ngan4 ji5 tong1yín'ěr tāng
Spare ribs soup with watercress and apricot kernels 南北杏西洋菜豬骨湯南北杏西洋菜猪骨汤naam4 bak1 hang6 sai1 joeng4 coi3 zyu1 gwat1 tong1nánběixìng xīyángcài zhūgǔ tāng
Winter melon soup冬瓜湯冬瓜汤dung1 gwaa1 tong1dōngguā tāng

Seafood

Seafood tanks in a Cantonese restaurant CantoneseRestaurantSeafood.jpg
Seafood tanks in a Cantonese restaurant

Due to Guangdong's location along the South China Sea coast, fresh seafood is prominent in Cantonese cuisine, and many Cantonese restaurants keep aquariums or seafood tanks on the premises. In Cantonese cuisine, as in cuisines from other parts of Asia, if seafood has a repugnant odour, strong spices and marinating juices are added; the freshest seafood is odourless and, in Cantonese culinary arts, is best cooked by steaming. For instance, in some recipes, only a small amount of soy sauce, ginger and spring onion is added to steamed fish. In Cantonese cuisine, the light seasoning is used only to bring out the natural sweetness of the seafood. As a rule of thumb, the spiciness of a dish is usually inversely proportionate to the freshness of the ingredients.

EnglishTraditional ChineseSimplified ChineseJyutpingPinyin
Lobster with ginger and scallions薑蔥龍蝦薑葱龙虾goeng1 cung1 lung4 haa1jiāngcōng lóngxiā
Mantis shrimp 攋尿蝦濑尿虾laai6 niu6 haa1làniàoxiā
Steamed fish蒸魚蒸鱼zing1 yu4zhēngyú
Steamed scallops with ginger and garlic蒜茸蒸扇貝蒜茸蒸扇贝syun3 jung4 zing1 sin3 bui3suànróng zhēng shànbèi
White boiled shrimp 白灼蝦白灼虾baak6 zoek3 haa1báizhuóxiā

Noodle dishes

Noodles are served either in soup broth or fried. These are available as home-cooked meals, on dim sum side menus, or as street food at dai pai dongs, where they can be served with a variety of toppings such as fish balls, beef balls, or fish slices.

EnglishImageTraditional ChineseSimplified ChineseJyutpingPinyinNotes
Beef brisket noodles HK TKL Diao Jing Ling Tiu Keng Leng Xin Le Yuan Yu Dan Fen Sun Lok Yuen Noodle Restaurant Jiang Jun Ao Tseung Kwan O Chang Zhu Lu Sheung Ning Road food Niu Nan Tang Mian April 2019 SSG 03.jpg 牛腩麵牛腩面ngau4 laam5 min6niú nǎn miànMay be served dry or in soup.
Beef chow fun Beefchowfoon.jpg 乾炒牛河干炒牛河gon1 caau2 ngau4 ho2gān chǎo niú hé
Chow mein Chow mein 1 by yuen.jpg 炒麵炒面caau2 min6chǎo miànA generic term for various stir-fried noodle dishes. Hong Kong-style chow mein is made from pan-fried thin crispy noodles.
Jook-sing noodles 竹昇麵竹升面zuk1 sing1 min6zhúshēngmiànBamboo log pressed noodles.
Lo mein Real lo mein.jpg 撈麵捞面lou1 min6lāo miàn
Rice noodle roll Cha siu choeng.jpg 腸粉肠粉coeng2 fan2chángfěnAlso known as chee cheong fun.
Rice noodles Rice noodles (4681330292).jpg 河粉ho4 fun2héfěnAlso known as hor-fun.
Silver needle noodles Fried-Lao-Shu-Fen Fried-Lou-Syu-Fan Fried-Short-Rice-Noodles.jpg 銀針粉银针粉ngan4 zam1 fun2yín zhēn fěnAlso known as rat noodles (老鼠粉; lǎoshǔ fěn; lou5 syu2 fan2).
Yi mein Lobster with E-Fu Noodle.jpg 伊麵伊面ji1 min6yī miànAlso known as e-fu noodles.
Wonton noodles HK Sai Ying Pun Centre Street Yun Tun Wonton noodle July-2012.JPG 雲吞麵云吞面wan4 tan1 min6yúntūn miànSometimes spelled as wanton noodles.

Siu mei

A roasted pig and char siu HKloumei.jpg
A roasted pig and char siu

Siu mei (烧味; 燒味; shāo wèi; siu1 mei6) is essentially the Chinese rotisserie style of cooking. Unlike most other Cantonese dishes, siu mei solely consists of meat, with no vegetables.

EnglishImageTraditional ChineseSimplified ChineseJyutpingPinyin
Char siu HK Mongkok Maxims BBQ Meat Rice Lunch with Green vegetable.JPG 叉燒叉烧caa1 siu1chāshāo
Roast duck Dry for 5 hours cropped.jpg 燒鴨烧鸭siu1 aap3shāoyā
Roast goose Roastedgoose.jpg 燒鵝烧鹅siu1 ngo4shāo'é
Roast pig Hong Kong style roast pig (3946366822).jpg 燒肉烧肉siu1 yuk1shāoròu
Roast pigeon Fried pigeon.jpeg 燒乳鴿烧乳鸽siu1 jyu5 gap3shāorǔgē

Lou mei

Lou mei (卤味; 滷味; lǔ wèi; lou5 mei6) is the name given to dishes made from internal organs, entrails and other left-over parts of animals. It is widely available in southern Chinese regions.

ImageEnglishTraditional ChineseSimplified ChineseJyutpingPinyin
Niubaiye.jpg Beef entrails 牛雜牛杂ngau4 zaap6niú zá
Niu Nan Bao Zi Fan Beef Brisket Hotpot Rice - Soup, Box Hill (2171826488).jpg Beef brisket 牛腩ngau4 laam5niú nǎn
HK Wan Zi Wan Chai Lockhart Road Municipal Services Building Luo Ke Dao Shi Zheng Da Sha Lockhart Road Market Luo Ke Dao Jie Shi Hung Kee Chiu Chow food Sept 2017 IX1 04.jpg Chicken scraps雞雜鸡杂gai1 zaap6jī zá
Duck gizzard 鴨腎鸭肾aap3 san6yā shèn
Pig's tongue豬脷猪脷zyu1 lei6zhū lì

Siu laap

Cantonese siu mei food stall in Hong Kong CantoneseSiuLaapStore.jpg
Cantonese siu mei food stall in Hong Kong

All Cantonese-style cooked meats, including siu mei, lou mei and preserved meat can be classified as siu laap (烧腊; 燒臘; shāo là; siu1 laap6). Siu laap also includes dishes such as:

EnglishImageTraditional ChineseSimplified ChineseJyutpingPinyinNotes
Chicken in soy sauce Soy Sauce Chicken.jpg 豉油雞豉油鸡si6 jau4 gai1chǐ yóu jī
Orange cuttlefish Orangesquid.jpg 鹵水墨魚卤水墨鱼lou5 seoi2 mak6 jyu4lǔshuǐ mòyú
Poached duck in master stock 滷水鴨卤水鸭lou5 seoi2 aap3lǔ shuǐ yā
White cut chicken BeiQieJi-WhiteCutChicken.jpg 白切雞白切鸡baak6 cit3 gai1bái qiè jīAlso known as white chopped chicken (白斩鸡; 白斬雞; báizhǎnjī; baak6 zaam2 gai1) in some places.

A typical dish may consist of offal and half an order of multiple varieties of roasted meat. The majority of siu laap is white meat.

EnglishImageTraditional ChineseSimplified ChineseJyutpingPinyin
Rice with Chinese sausage and char siu Roast-Duck-Crispy-Pork-Rice-2009.jpg 臘腸叉燒飯腊肠叉烧饭laap6 ceung4 caa1 siu1 faan6làcháng chāshāo fàn
Rice with roast goose and goose intestines燒鵝鵝腸飯烧鹅鹅肠饭siu1 ngo4 ngo4 coeng4 faan6shāo é é cháng fàn
Siu mei platter HK food Kennedy Town New Chinese Rest BBQ Mix.jpg 燒味拼盤烧味拼盘siu1 mei6 ping6 poon4shāowèi pīnpán
Siu lap platter Siu lap platter.jpg 燒臘拼盤烧腊拼盘siu1 laap6 ping6 pun4shāolà pīnpán

Little pot rice

Little pot chicken rice with vegetable and Chinese sausage Claypot Chicken Rice, Singapore.JPG
Little pot chicken rice with vegetable and Chinese sausage

Little pot rice (煲仔饭; 煲仔飯; bāozǎifàn; bou1 zai2 faan6) are dishes cooked and served in a flat-bottomed pot (as opposed to a round-bottomed wok). Usually this is a saucepan or braising pan (see clay pot cooking). Such dishes are cooked by covering and steaming, making the rice and ingredients very hot and soft. Usually the ingredients are layered on top of the rice with little or no mixing in between. Many standard combinations exist.

EnglishTraditional ChineseSimplified ChineseJyutpingPinyin
Rice with Chinese sausage and preserved meat臘味煲仔飯腊味煲仔饭laap6 coeng2 bou1 zai2 faan6làwèi bāozǎifàn
Rice with layered egg and beef窩蛋牛肉飯窝蛋牛肉饭wo1 daan2 ngaw4 juk6 faan6wōdàn niúròu fàn
Rice with minced beef patty肉餅煲仔飯肉饼煲仔饭juk6 beng2 bou1 zai2 faan6ròubǐng bāozǎifàn
Rice with spare ribs 排骨煲仔飯排骨煲仔饭paai4 gwat1 bou1 zai2 faan6páigǔ bāozǎifàn
Rice with steamed chicken蒸雞肉煲仔飯蒸鸡肉煲仔饭zing1 gai1 juk6 bou1 zai2 faan6zhēng jīròu bāozǎifàn

Banquet/dinner dishes

A number of dishes are traditionally served in Cantonese restaurants only at dinner time. Dim sum restaurants stop serving bamboo-basket dishes after the yum cha period (equivalent to afternoon tea) and begin offering an entirely different menu in the evening. Some dishes are standard while others are regional. Some are customised for special purposes such as Chinese marriages or banquets. Salt and pepper dishes are one of the few spicy dishes.

EnglishImageTraditional ChineseSimplified ChineseJyutpingPinyin
Crispy fried chicken Crispyfriedchicken.jpg 炸子雞炸子鸡zaa3 zi2 gai1zhá zǐ jī
Duck with taro 陳皮芋頭鴨陈皮芋头鸭can4 pei4 wu6 tau4 aap3chén pí yùtóu yā
Fried tofu with shrimp CantoneseTofuwithShrimp.jpg 蝦仁炒豆腐虾仁炒豆腐haa1 joeng4 caau2 dau4 fu6xiārén chǎo dòufǔ
Roast pigeon Chinese squab.jpg 乳鴿乳鸽jyu5 gap3rǔ gē
Roast suckling pig Shaoruzhu.jpg 燒乳豬烧乳豬siu1 jyu5 zyu1shāo rǔ zhū
Seafood with bird's nest Seafoodbirdsnest.jpg 海鮮雀巢海鮮雀巢hoi2 sin1 zoek3 caau4hǎixiān quècháo
Shrimp with salt and pepper Pepper salt prawns.jpeg 椒鹽蝦椒盐虾ziu1 jim4 haa1jiāo yán xiā
Sour spare ribs Spare ribs with Chinese barbecue sauce cropped.jpg 生炒排骨生炒排骨saang1 cau2 paai4 gwat1shēng chǎo páigǔ
Spare ribs with salt and pepper Svinye riobryshka.jpg 椒鹽骨椒盐骨ziu1 jim4 paai4 gwat1jiāo yán gǔ
Squid with salt and pepper Fried baby squid.jpg 椒鹽魷魚椒盐鱿鱼ziu1 jim4 jau4 jyu2jiāo yán yóuyú
Yangzhou fried rice Yeung Chow Fried Rice.jpg 揚州炒飯扬州炒饭Joeng4 zau1 cau2 faan6Yángzhōu chǎofàn

Dessert

After the evening meal, most Cantonese restaurants offer tong sui (糖水; táng shuǐ; tong4 seoi2; 'sugar water'), a sweet soup. Many varieties of tong sui are also found in other Chinese cuisines. Some desserts are traditional, while others are recent innovations. The more expensive restaurants usually offer their specialty desserts. Sugar water is the general name of dessert in Guangdong province. It is cooked by adding water and sugar to some other cooking ingredients. It is said that Huazhou sugar water is the famous and popular one in Guangdong. There is a saying that Chinese sugar water is in Guangdong, and Cantonese sugar water in Huazhou. And the booming of Huazhou sugar water stores prove it.[ citation needed ]

EnglishImageTraditional ChineseSimplified ChineseJyutpingPinyin
Black sesame soup BlacksesameSoup.jpg 芝麻糊zi1 maa4 wu2zhīmahú
Coconut pudding Coconutbar.jpg 椰汁糕je4 zap1 gou1yēzhīgāo
Double skin milk Shuangpi Nai.jpeg 雙皮奶双皮奶soeng1 pei4 naai5shuāngpínǎi
Mung bean soup MungBeanJelly.jpg 綠豆沙绿豆沙luk6 dau6 saa1lǜdòushā
Red bean soup CantoneseHybridRedbeansoup.jpg 紅豆沙红豆沙hong4 dau6 saa1hóngdòushā
Sago soup Tapioca pudding-2.jpg 西米露sai1 mei5 lou6xīmǐlù
Shaved ice Bing guan cau mei.jpg 刨冰paau4 bing1bǎobīng
Steamed egg custard 燉蛋炖蛋dan6 daan2dùndàn
Steamed milk custard燉奶炖奶dan6 naai5dùnnǎi
Sweet Chinese pastry HK Sheung Wan Shang Huan Shun Tak Centre Xin De Zhong Xin shop Sheng An Nuo Bing Dian Saint Honore Cake Shop evening April-2012 Ip4.jpg 糕點糕点gou1 dim2gāodiǎn
Sweet potato soup SweetpotatoTongsui.jpg 番薯糖水faan1 syu4 tong4 seoi2fānshǔ tángshuǐ
Tofu flower pudding David enjoying Douhua.jpg 豆腐花dau6 fu6 faa1dòufǔhuā
Turtle shell with smilax pudding Guilinggao.jpg 龜苓膏龟苓膏gwai1 ling4 gou1guīlínggāo

Delicacies

Certain Cantonese delicacies consist of parts taken from rare or endangered animals, which raises controversy over animal rights and environmental issues. This is often[ according to whom? ] due to alleged health benefits of certain animal products. For example, the continued spreading of the idea that shark cartilage can cure cancer has led to decreased shark populations even though scientific research has found no evidence to support the credibility of shark cartilage as a cancer cure. [6]

EnglishImageTraditional ChineseSimplified ChineseJyutpingPinyin
Bird's nest soup Bird's-nest-soup-Miri-Malaysia.jpg 燕窝jin1 wo1yànwō
Braised abalone Chineseabalonecuisine.jpg 燜鮑魚焖鲍鱼mun6 baau1 jyu4mèn bàoyú
Jellyfish CantoneseJellyfish.jpg 海蜇hoi2 zit3hǎizhé
Sea cucumber Seacucumbercuisine.jpg 海参hoi2 saam1hǎishēn
Shark fin soup Chinese cuisine-Shark fin soup-04.jpg 魚翅湯鱼翅汤jyu4 ci3 tong1yúchì tāng

See also

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Teochew cuisine Cuisine of China

Teochew cuisine, also known as Chiuchow cuisine, Chaozhou cuisine or Chaoshan cuisine, originated from the Chaoshan region in the eastern part of China's Guangdong Province, which includes the cities of Chaozhou, Shantou and Jieyang. Teochew cuisine bears more similarities to that of Fujian cuisine, particularly Southern Min cuisine, due to the similarity of Chaoshan's and Fujian's culture, language, and their geographic proximity to each other. However, Teochew cuisine is also influenced by Cantonese cuisine in its style and technique.

Shanghai cuisine

Shanghai cuisine, also known as Hu cuisine, is a popular style of Chinese food. In a narrow sense, Shanghai cuisine refers only to what is traditionally called Benbang cuisine which originated in Shanghai; in a broad sense, it refers to complex and developed styles of cooking under profound influence of those of the surrounding provinces, Jiangsu and Zhejiang. It takes "colour, aroma and taste" as its elements, like other Chinese regional cuisines, and emphasises in particular the use of seasonings, the quality of raw ingredients and original flavours. Shanghai was formerly a part of Jiangsu province; as such Shanghai cuisine is most similar to Jiangsu cuisine and may still be classified as a part of Jiangsu cuisine. Although it has come into more contact with Zhejiang cuisine and foreign influences as an international city. The adoption of Western influence in Shanghai cuisine developed a unique cooking style known as Haipai cuisine(海派菜).

Vietnamese cuisine Culinary styles of Vietnam

Vietnamese cuisine encompasses the foods and beverages of Vietnam, and features a combination of five fundamental tastes in overall meals. Each Vietnamese dish has a distinctive flavor which reflects one or more of these elements. Common ingredients include shrimp paste, fish sauce, bean sauce, rice, fresh herbs, fruit and vegetables. French cuisine has also had a major influence due to the French colonization of Vietnam. Vietnamese recipes use lemongrass, ginger, mint, Vietnamese mint, long coriander, Saigon cinnamon, bird's eye chili, lime, and Thai basil leaves. Traditional Vietnamese cooking is greatly admired for its fresh ingredients, minimal use of dairy and oil, complementary textures, and reliance on herbs and vegetables. A leading soy sauce manufacturer's research confirms that fish sauce is the predominant table sauce in Vietnamese homes where it captures over 70% of the market while the market share for soy sauce is under 20%. It is also low in sugar and is almost always naturally gluten-free, as many of the dishes are made with rice noodles, rice papers and rice flour instead of wheat.

Cambodian cuisine Culinary traditions of Cambodia

Cambodian cuisine is an umbrella term for the cuisines of all ethnic groups in Cambodia, whereas Khmer cuisine refers specifically to the cuisine of the Khmer people.

Sweet and sour

Sweet and sour is a generic term that encompasses many styles of sauce, cuisine and cooking methods. It is commonly used in East Asia and Southeast Asia, and has been used in England since the Middle Ages. Sweet and sour remains popular in Europe and the Americas.

Hong Kong cuisine

Hong Kong cuisine is mainly influenced by Cantonese cuisine, European cuisines and non-Cantonese Chinese cuisines, as well as Japanese, Korean and Southeast Asian cuisines, due to Hong Kong's past as a British colony and a long history of being an international port of commerce. Complex combinations and international gourmet expertise have given Hong Kong the labels of "Gourmet Paradise" and "World's Fair of Food".

Fujian cuisine

Fujian cuisine or Fujianese cuisine, also known as Min cuisine or Hokkien cuisine, is one of the native Chinese cuisines derived from the native cooking style of China's Fujian Province, most notably from the provincial capital, Fuzhou. Fujian cuisine is known to be light but flavourful, soft, and tender, with particular emphasis on umami taste, known in Chinese cooking as xianwei, as well as retaining the original flavour of the main ingredients instead of masking them.

Singaporean cuisine Culinary traditions of Singapore

Singaporean cuisine derived from several ethnic groups which have developed through centuries of political, economic, and social changes of this cosmopolitan city-state.

Malaysian Chinese cuisine

Malaysian Chinese cuisine is derived from the culinary traditions of Chinese Malaysian immigrants and their descendants, who have adapted or modified their culinary traditions under the influence of Malaysian culture as well as immigration patterns of Chinese to Malaysia. Because the vast majority of Chinese Malaysians are descendants of immigrants from southern China, Malaysian Chinese cuisine is predominantly based on an eclectic repertoire of dishes with roots from Fujian, Cantonese, Hakka and Teochew cuisines.

<i>Char siu</i>

Char siu is a popular way to flavor and prepare barbecued pork in Cantonese cuisine. It is classified as a type of siu mei (燒味), Cantonese roasted meat.

Chinese Indonesian cuisine Cuisine of the people of Chinese Indonesians

Chinese Indonesian cuisine is characterized by the mixture of Chinese with local Indonesian style. Chinese Indonesians, mostly descendant from Hokkien, brought their legacy of Chinese cuisine, and modified some of the dishes with the addition of Indonesian ingredients, such as kecap manis, palm sugar, peanut sauce, chili, santan and local spices to form a hybrid Chinese-Indonesian cuisine. Some of the dishes and cakes share the same style as in Malaysia and Singapore which are known as the Nonya cuisine by the Peranakan.

Rice vermicelli Thin dried noodles made of rice

Rice vermicelli is a thin form of rice noodles. It is sometimes referred to as 'rice noodles' or 'rice sticks', but should not be confused with cellophane noodles, a different Asian type of vermicelli made from mung bean starch or rice starch rather than rice grains themselves.

Siu mei

Siu mei is the generic Cantonese name of meats roasted on spits over an open fire or a large wood-burning rotisserie oven. It creates a unique, deep barbecue flavor and the roast is usually coated with a flavorful sauce before roasting. Siu mei is very popular in Hong Kong and Macau, and overseas Chinatowns especially with Cantonese emigrants. In Hong Kong, the average person eats siu mei once every four days, with char siu being the most popular, followed by siu yuk in second, and roast goose being third. Siu mei is also known colloquially as siu laap, as the latter term encompasses siu mei, lou mei, and other Cantonese-style cooked and preserved meats.

White cut chicken

White cut chicken or white sliced chicken is a type of siu mei. Unlike most other meats in the siu mei category, this particular dish is not roasted. The dish is common to the cultures of Southern China, including Guangdong, Fujian and Hong Kong.

Steam minced pork

Steam minced pork refers to a savory dish popular in Hong Kong and the Guangdong area of China. It mainly composes with minced pork and usually mixes with other ingredients such as dried squid (土魷) and preserved cabbage (梅菜). It is cooked by steaming over a pot of boiling water until it is well cooked. The seasonings usually include soy sauce, salt, sugar and corn flour and occasionally white pepper and sesame oil. It is usually served with rice during lunch or dinner.

Chinese regional cuisine Regional cuisines of China

Chinese regional cuisines are the different cuisines found in different provinces and prefectures of China as well as from larger Chinese communities overseas.

Oyster sauce

Oyster sauce describes a number of sauces made by cooking oysters. The most common in modern use is a viscous dark brown condiment made from oyster extracts, sugar, salt and water thickened with corn starch. Some versions may be darkened with caramel, though high-quality oyster sauce is naturally dark. It is commonly used in Chinese, Thai, Malay, Vietnamese, and Khmer cuisine.

Sarawakian cuisine

Sarawakian cuisine is a regional cuisine of Malaysia. Like the rest of Malaysian cuisine, Sarawak food is based on staples such as rice but there is a great variety of other ingredients and food preparations due to the influence of the state's varied geography and indigenous cultures quite distinct from the regional cuisines of the Peninsular Malaysia. Sarawak is famous for its multi-ethnic population. As the homeland of many unique communities, Sarawak has a variety of cuisines rarely found elsewhere in Malaysia. The uniqueness of Sarawak well depends on its ethnic groups. Every native group in Sarawak has their own lifestyle, traditions, cultures and also foods. Sarawak cuisine is less spicy and has a subtle in taste. It uses fresh seafood and natural herbs like turmeric, lemongrass, ginger, lime and tapioca leaves. These ingredients are not only easily available, but also add a hint of aroma, texture and freshness to the delicacies. Food is one of the most cultural identities for natives group in Sarawak with each ethnic has their own delicacies. The Iban popular with “tubu” (stems), “tuak” and “pansuh”, the Malay with “bubur pedas” (porridge) and “kek lapis Sarawak”, the Bidayuh with “asam siok” and “sup ponas Bidayuh”, the Melanau with “tebaloi”, “sagu” and “umai” and Orang Ulu well known with “garam barrio”, “kikid” (broth), “tengayen”, and “urum giruq” (pudding).

Australian Chinese cuisine

Australian Chinese cuisine is a style of cooking developed by Australians of Chinese descent, who adapted dishes to satisfy local Anglo-Celtic tastes. Its roots can be traced to indentured Chinese who were brought to work as cooks in country pubs and sheep stations.

References

  1. Hsiung, Deh-Ta. Simonds, Nina. Lowe, Jason. [2005] (2005). The food of China: a journey for food lovers. Bay Books. ISBN   978-0-681-02584-4. p17.
  2. Civitello, Linda (2011-03-23). Cuisine and Culture: A History of Food and People. p. 281. ISBN   9781118098752.
  3. Editorial Team of Hong Kong Economic Journal (May 2021). "舌尖上的中國:八大菜系由來 [The Taste of China: The Origin of Eight Great Traditions]". Hong Kong Economic Journal.
  4. Barber, Nicola. [2004] (2004) Hong Kong. Gareth Stevens Publishing. ISBN   0-8368-5198-6
  5. Wordie, Jason (2002). Streets: Exploring Hong Kong Island. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. ISBN   962-209-563-1.
  6. Wolfe, Marilyn J.; Wolf, Jeffrey C.; Cheng, Keith C.; Ostrander, Gary K. (1 December 2004). "Shark Cartilage, Cancer and the Growing Threat of Pseudoscience". Cancer Research. 64 (23): 8485–8491. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-2260 . PMID   15574750 via cancerres.aacrjournals.org.

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