Cantonese poetry

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Cantonese poetry (Cantonese Jyutping: Jyut6 si1; Traditional Chinese: 粵詩) is poetry performed and composed primarily by Cantonese people. Most of this body of poetry has used classical Chinese grammars, but composed with Cantonese phonology in mind and thus needs to be chanted using the Cantonese language in order to rhyme. [1] [2]

Contents

Relation to Middle Chinese literature

Cantonese is, among extant Sinitic languages, some of the closest to Middle Chinese (Jyutping: Zung1 gu2 hon3 jyu5; Traditional Chinese: 中古漢語). [3] [4] [5] [6] Middle Chinese was the prestige language of Tang Empire (7th to 10th century) and Song Empire (10th to 13th century). The works of literature from these dynasties (such as Tang poetry) have been considered some of the best works of literature from all of Chinese dynasties. Due to its closeness to Middle Chinese, Cantonese language is very useful for studying these great works of literature. This is reflected by the fact that most Tang poems will rhyme better if chanted using Cantonese. [7]

Lingnan school of poetry

Zeung Gau-ling (Jyutping: Zoeng1 gau2 ling4; Traditional Chinese: 張九齢) was a poet of the Tang Empire, and he was born and raised in what is modern day's Gwongdung. [8] Twelve of his poems were listed in Three Hundred Tang Poems, a compilation of the finest works of Tang poetry. He has been considered the earliest Cantonese poet (although strictly speaking, Cantonese languages had not yet fully formed at that time). In the centuries that followed, there have been numerous poets of varying levels of prominence from the area of Gwongdung, resulting in the formation of Lingnan school of poetry (Jyutping: Ling5 naam4 si1 paai3; Traditional Chinese: 嶺南詩派), named after "Lingnan", an archaic name for what is modern day Cantonese provinces of Gwongdung and Gwongsai. Stylistically, this school has been noted for having two streams of poetry: On one hand, there were poets like Zeung Gau-ling, who preferred to follow royal standards at that time, while poets like Siu kit (Jyutping: Siu6 kit3; Traditional Chinese: 邵謁) composed poems marked by little use of rhetoric. Both streams, however, composed poetry using classical Chinese grammars - while these poems still tend to use Cantonese phonology, they certainly do not sound like everyday Cantonese speech. Aside from this, this school is noted for maintaining Middle Chinese pronunciations for Chinese characters, involving imagery unique to the Lingnan region, and a spirit of revolution. This style has been described as "magnificent and vigorous" (Jyutping: Hung4 zik6; Traditional Chinese: 雄直). [9]

In terms of formats, the Lingnan school of poetry is largely similar to poems composed by other Han Chinese groups.

Ming Dynasty development

The term "Lingnan school of poetry" was first coined by the Ming Dynasty (14th to 17th century) scholar Wu Ying-loen. [10] At that time, the Lingnan school, alongside the schools of Wuyue, Hokkien, and Gan poetry, was listed as one of the great schools of poetry in all of China. In 17th century (late Ming period), there were the "three great experts of Lingnan" (Jyutping: Ling5 naam4 saam1 gaa1; Traditional Chinese: 嶺南三家), [11] who advocated greater realism in Chinese-language poetry - they composed poetry that depicted the hardship faced by average peasants. This was considered quite unorthodox at that time.

Vernacular Cantonese poetry

Cantonese poetry saw further development in late 19th century, where the Cantonese poet Liu Yan-tou (Jyutping: Liu6 jan1 tou4; Traditional Chinese: 廖恩燾; 1863-1954) composed poetry in vernacular Cantonese language - poems that actually sound like everyday Cantonese speech. His works have seen a rise in popularity among Cantonese in recent years, compiled in the "Play and smile collection". (Jyutping: Hei1 siu3 zaap6; Traditional Chinese: 嬉笑集). [12]

Recent development

Since 21st century, Cantonese people have started studying their own style of poetry in great depth. A literature entitled "All Cantonese poems" (Jyutping: Cyun4 jyut6 si1; Traditional Chinese: 全粵詩) has been produced to compile works of past Cantonese poets. Currently, it has spanned 30 volumes and yet to be complete. [13] [14]

See also

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The Lingnan School of painting, also called the Cantonese School, is a style of painting from the Guangdong or Lingnan region of China.

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Cantonese merchants

Cantonese merchants refers to merchants of Cantonese origins, thought sometimes it is used to include Hakka and Teochew merchants who originated from the Southern Chinese province of Gwongdung - where Cantonese people have been the dominant demographic. Historically, the Cantonese people have spent most of the second millennium AD being one of the main ports of successive Chinese dynasties, resulting in the formation of a distinct business culture which many cultural studies and business scholars have sought to examine.

Lingnan Confucianism

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References

  1. 廣東話趣味多唸詩讀出古韻
  2. Lam, L. (2010). Cultural Identity and Vocal Expression: The Southern School Tradition of Poetry Chanting in Contemporary Guangzhou. Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews (CLEAR), 23-52.
  3. Newman, J.; Raman, A. V. (1999), Chinese historical phonology: a compendium of Beijing and Cantonese pronunciations of characters and their derivations from Middle Chinese, LINCOM studies in Asian linguistics, 27, Munich: LINCOM Europa, ISBN   3-89586-543-5.
  4. Chen, M., & Newman, J. (1984). From Middle Chinese to Modern Cantonese (Part I). Journal of Chinese Linguistics, 12(1), 148-97.
  5. Chen, M. Y., & Newman, J. (1984). FROM MIDDLE CHINESE TO MODERN CANTONESE (Part 2). Journal of Chinese Linguistics, 334-388.
  6. Chen, M. Y., & Newman, J. (1985). FROM MIDDLE CHINESE TO MODERN CANTONESE (Part 3). Journal of Chinese Linguistics, 122-170.
  7. 為什麼有時候普通話讀詩詞不押韻,而用粵語讀卻很有味道? [ permanent dead link ]
  8. 植木久行. (1990). 唐代詩人生卒年論拠考三題: 張九齢・李益・張説.
  9. 黄坤尧. (2012). “岭南诗派” 相对论. 学术研究, (3), 124-126.
  10. 陈永正. (1999). 岭南诗派略论. 岭南文史, 3, 002.
  11. 何天杰. (2007). 岭南三家与清初诗坛格局之新变. 学术研究, (4), 150-154.
  12. "粵典文庫-嬉笑集". Archived from the original on 2017-09-26. Retrieved 2017-09-26.
  13. 《全粤诗》充分证明广东有文化
  14. 《全粤诗》所收诗作将超过《全唐诗》