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Cantonese poetry (Cantonese Jyutping: Jyut6 si1; Traditional Chinese: 粵詩) is poetry performed and composed primarily by Cantonese people. Most of this body of poetry has used classical Chinese grammars, but composed with Cantonese phonology in mind and thus needs to be chanted using the Cantonese language in order to rhyme.
Cantonese is, among extant Sinitic languages, some of the closest to Middle Chinese (Jyutping: Zung1 gu2 hon3 jyu5; Traditional Chinese: 中古漢語).Middle Chinese was the prestige language of Tang Empire (7th to 10th century) and Song Empire (10th to 13th century). The works of literature from these dynasties (such as Tang poetry) have been considered some of the best works of literature from all of Chinese dynasties. Due to its closeness to Middle Chinese, Cantonese language is very useful for studying these great works of literature. This is reflected by the fact that most Tang poems will rhyme better if chanted using Cantonese.
Zeung Gau-ling (Jyutping: Zoeng1 gau2 ling4; Traditional Chinese: 張九齢) was a poet of the Tang Empire, and he was born and raised in what is modern day's Gwongdung.Twelve of his poems were listed in Three Hundred Tang Poems, a compilation of the finest works of Tang poetry. He has been considered the earliest Cantonese poet (although strictly speaking, Cantonese languages had not yet fully formed at that time). In the centuries that followed, there have been numerous poets of varying levels of prominence from the area of Gwongdung, resulting in the formation of Lingnan school of poetry (Jyutping: Ling5 naam4 si1 paai3; Traditional Chinese: 嶺南詩派), named after "Lingnan", an archaic name for what is modern day Cantonese provinces of Gwongdung and Gwongsai. Stylistically, this school has been noted for having two streams of poetry: On one hand, there were poets like Zeung Gau-ling, who preferred to follow royal standards at that time, while poets like Siu kit (Jyutping: Siu6 kit3; Traditional Chinese: 邵謁) composed poems marked by little use of rhetoric. Both streams, however, composed poetry using classical Chinese grammars - while these poems still tend to use Cantonese phonology, they certainly do not sound like everyday Cantonese speech. Aside from this, this school is noted for maintaining Middle Chinese pronunciations for Chinese characters, involving imagery unique to the Lingnan region, and a spirit of revolution. This style has been described as "magnificent and vigorous" (Jyutping: Hung4 zik6; Traditional Chinese: 雄直).
In terms of formats, the Lingnan school of poetry is largely similar to poems composed by other Han Chinese groups.
The term "Lingnan school of poetry" was first coined by the Ming Dynasty (14th to 17th century) scholar Wu Ying-loen.At that time, the Lingnan school, alongside the schools of Wuyue, Hokkien, and Gan poetry, was listed as one of the great schools of poetry in all of China. In 17th century (late Ming period), there were the "three great experts of Lingnan" (Jyutping: Ling5 naam4 saam1 gaa1; Traditional Chinese: 嶺南三家), who advocated greater realism in Chinese-language poetry - they composed poetry that depicted the hardship faced by average peasants. This was considered quite unorthodox at that time.
Cantonese poetry saw further development in late 19th century, where the Cantonese poet Liu Yan-tou (Jyutping: Liu6 jan1 tou4; Traditional Chinese: 廖恩燾; 1863-1954) composed poetry in vernacular Cantonese language - poems that actually sound like everyday Cantonese speech. His works have seen a rise in popularity among Cantonese in recent years, compiled in the "Play and smile collection". (Jyutping: Hei1 siu3 zaap6; Traditional Chinese: 嬉笑集).
Since 21st century, Cantonese people have started studying their own style of poetry in great depth. A literature entitled "All Cantonese poems" (Jyutping: Cyun4 jyut6 si1; Traditional Chinese: 全粵詩) has been produced to compile works of past Cantonese poets. Currently, it has spanned 30 volumes and yet to be complete.
Yue or Yueh is a group of similar Sinitic languages spoken in southern China, particularly the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi, which are collectively known as Liangguang.
Chinese poetry is poetry written, spoken, or chanted in the Chinese language. While this last term comprises Classical Chinese, Standard Chinese, Mandarin Chinese, Yue Chinese, and other historical and vernacular forms of the language, its poetry generally falls into one of two primary types, Classical Chinese poetry and Modern Chinese poetry.
This is a list of Cantonese-related topics, which encompasses Guangdong and Guangxi, the Cantonese people, culture and language.
Jyutping is a romanisation system for Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong Cantonese Romanisation Scheme. The LSHK advocates for and promotes the use of this romanisation system.
The culture of Hong Kong, or Hongkongers culture, can best be described as a foundation that began with Lingnan's Cantonese culture and, to a much lesser extent, non-Cantonese branches of Han Chinese cultures. It later became influenced by British culture due to British colonialism, resulting in a culture characterised by both Cantonese-ness and British-ness. Moreover, Hong Kong also has indigenous people, whose cultures have been absorbed into modern day Hong Kong culture. As a result, after the 1997 transfer of sovereignty to the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong has continued to develop an identity of its own.
Shi and shih are romanizations of the character 詩 or 诗, the Chinese word for all poetry generally and across all languages.
Lingnan culture, or Cantonese culture, refers to the regional Chinese culture of the Southern Chinese/Lingnan twin provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi, the names of which mean "eastern expanse" and "western expanse" respectively.
Mo Xuanqing born in Zhaoqing, modern Guangdong, was the youngest Zhuangyuan in the imperial examinations during the Tang Dynasty, in Chinese history. He was known as a talented person from the age of 12. In 851, at the age of 17, he was also the first youngest Zhuangyuan in the imperial examination in Chinese history since the Sui Dynasty and the first Zhuangyuan in Lingnan.
Tang poetry refers to poetry written in or around the time of or in the characteristic style of China's Tang dynasty, and/or follows a certain style, often considered as the Golden Age of Chinese poetry. The Quantangshi includes over 48,900 poems written by over 2,200 authors. During the Tang dynasty, poetry continued to be an important part of social life at all levels of society. Scholars were required to master poetry for the civil service exams, but the art was theoretically available to everyone. This led to a large record of poetry and poets, a partial record of which survives today. Two of the most famous poets of the period were Li Bai and Du Fu. Tang poetry has had an ongoing influence on world literature in modern times.
Classical Chinese poetry forms are those poetry forms, or modes which typify the traditional Chinese poems written in Literary Chinese or Classical Chinese. Classical Chinese poetry has various characteristic forms, some attested to as early as the publication of the Classic of Poetry, dating from a traditionally, and roughly, estimated time of around 10th–7th century BC. The term "forms" refers to various formal and technical aspects applied to poems: this includes such poetic characteristics as meter, rhythm, and other considerations such as vocabulary and style. These forms and modes are generally, but not invariably, independent of the Classical Chinese poetry genres. Many or most of these were developed by the time of the Tang Dynasty, and the use and development of Classical Chinese poetry and genres actively continued up to until the May Fourth Movement, and still continues even today in the 21st century.
Lu Lun was a Chinese poet of the Middle Tang Dynasty, with six of his poems being included in the famous anthology Three Hundred Tang Poems, as well as being mentioned in one poem, by Sikong Shu, which was translated by Witter Bynner as "When Lu Lun My Cousin Comes For The Night". His courtesy name is Yun Yan.
Song Shi Jishi is a compilation of historical accounts about poets of the Song dynasty. It was edited by the prominent Qing dynasty poet Li E. According to the author's preface, the process of compilation started from 1725, and took about 20 years to finish. The book comprises 100 volumes, discuss about 3812 Song Dynasty poets. Its style and structure imitated that of the 12th century book Recorded Occasions of Tang Poetry, there is one chapter for every poet, including a biography, several representative poems and comments.
Yang Chia-hsien is a contemporary Taiwanese writer, poet, essayist, and literary critic. She is also an assistant professor of Department of Chinese Literature at the National Tsing Hua University. Yang sees Lu Xun, Zhang Ai-ling and Yang Mu as the influences of her writings. Yang is regarded as an iconic poet of the cyber-age. Her works, including The Civilization of Holding One’s Breath and Sea Breeze and Sparks, are described as incorporating classical concepts and modern perceptions. Yang was also the youngest poet to be included in the Comprehensive Anthology of Contemporary Chinese Literature in Taiwan(Vol. 2), and the youngest entrant of the Thirty Years of Elite Taiwan Literature: Thirty New Poets.
Lingnan architecture, or Cantonese architecture, refers to the characteristic architectural style(s) of the Lingnan region – the Southern Chinese provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi. Usually, it is referring to the architecture associated with the Cantonese people, with other peoples in the area having their own styles. This style began with the architecture of the ancient non-Han Nanyue people and absorbed certain architectural elements from the Tang Empire and Song Empire as the region sinicized in the later half of the first millennium AD.
The Lingnan School of painting, also called the Cantonese School, is a style of painting from the Guangdong or Lingnan region of China.
Lingnan garden, also called Cantonese garden, is a style of garden design native to Lingnan - the traditionally Cantonese provinces of Gwongdung and Gwongsai in southern China. It, alongside the likes of Sichuanese garden and Jiangnan garden, is one of the major styles of Chinese garden.
Lingnan penjing, sometimes called Cantonese penjing is the style of penjing of the Lingnan region - the mainly Cantonese-speaking Southern Chinese provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi. Despite being recognized only in early 20th century, this style can trace its roots to at least the 15th century.
Cantonese merchants refers to merchants of Cantonese origins, thought sometimes it is used to include Hakka and Teochew merchants who originated from the Southern Chinese province of Gwongdung - where Cantonese people have been the dominant demographic. Historically, the Cantonese people have spent most of the second millennium AD being one of the main ports of successive Chinese dynasties, resulting in the formation of a distinct business culture which many cultural studies and business scholars have sought to examine.
Lingnan Confucianism refers to the Confucian schools of thoughts in Lingnan - the Southern Chinese provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi. These schools are primarily formed by Cantonese people, who have traditionally been the dominant demographic in the region.
Roads of Tang Poetry refers to two cultural belts in Zhejiang Province, China. According to the provincial government, one of the two roads stretches along Qiantang River, and the other is located in eastern Zhejiang.