Cantons of France

Last updated

Canton
Frankreich Kantone 2019.png
Category Fourth-level administrative division
Location Regions of France
Number2,054 (as of 2015)
Government

The cantons of France are territorial subdivisions of the French Republic's departments and arrondissements.

Contents

Apart from their role as organizational units in relation to certain aspects of the administration of public services and justice, the chief purpose of the cantons today is to serve as constituencies for the election of members of the representative assemblies established in each of France's territorial departments (departmental councils, formerly general councils). For this reason, such elections were known in France as "cantonal elections", until 2015 when their name was changed to "departmental elections" to match the departmental councils' name.

As of 2015, there were 2,054 cantons in France. [1]

Most of them group together a number of communes (the lowest administrative division of the French Republic), although larger communes may be included in more than one canton, since the cantons – in marked contrast to the communes, which have between more than two million inhabitants (Paris) and just one person (Rochefourchat) – are intended to be roughly equal in size of population.

Role and administration

The role of the canton is, essentially, to provide a framework for departmental elections. Each canton elects a woman and a man to represent it at the conseil départemental du département – or departmental council for the department, which is the principal administrative division of the French Republic.

In urban areas, a single commune generally includes several cantons. Conversely, in rural areas, a canton may comprise several smaller communes. In the latter case, administrative services, the gendarmerie headquarters for example, are often situated in the principal town ( chef-lieu ) of the canton, although there are exceptions, such as cantons Gaillon-Campagne and Sarreguemines-Campagne, which have in common a "chief-town" which does not belong to either canton.

For statistical (INSEE) purposes, the twenty arrondissements of Paris – the administrative subdivisions of that city – are sometimes considered cantons, but they serve no greater electoral function. [2]

Cantons also form legal districts, as seats of Tribunaux d'instance or "Courts of First Instance" (also, "TI"...). Historically, the cantons are called justices de paix or "district courts".

History

The cantons were created in 1790 at the same time as the départements by the Revolutionary Committee for the Division of Territory (Comité de division). They were more numerous than today (between 40 and 60 to each département). Cantons were, at first, grouped into what were called districts. After the abolition of the district in 1800, they were reorganized by the Consulate into arrondissements. The number of cantons was then drastically reduced (between 30 and 50 units) by the Loi du 8 pluviôse an IX (28 January 1801), or the "Law for the Reduction of the Number of District Courts", or Loi portant réduction du nombre de justices de paix in French. The département prefects were told by the government to group the communes within newly established cantons. The département lists, once approved by the government, were published in the Bulletin des lois in 1801 and 1802; these lists were the basis of the administrative divisions of France from then until 2015, although cantons with small populations were eliminated and new cantons created in areas of strong demographic growth. On the whole, their number increased appreciably.

In May 2013 a law was adopted that reduced the number of cantons drastically. [3] This law came into effect at the French departmental elections in March 2015. Before the cantonal reform, there were 4,032 cantons; afterwards there were 2,054, with the cantons in Martinique and Guyana abolished. [4] [5] The 2013 reform law also changed the representation of the cantons in the departmental councils: each canton is now represented by a man and a woman. [3]

Statistics

The number of cantons varies from one département to another; the Territoire de Belfort, for example, has 9, while Nord has 41.

See also

Related Research Articles

Departments of France Administrative subdivision in France

In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government under the national level, between the administrative regions and the communes. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, and five are overseas departments, which are also classified as overseas regions. Departments are further subdivided into 332 arrondissements, and these are divided into cantons. The last two levels of government have no autonomy; they are the basis of local organisation of police, fire departments and, sometimes, administration of elections.

An arrondissement is any of various administrative divisions of France, Belgium, Haiti, certain other Francophone countries, as well as the Netherlands.

Tarn (department) Department in Occitanie, France

Tarn is a department in the Occitanie region of Southern France. Named after the river Tarn, it had a population of 387,890 as of 2017. Its prefecture and largest city is Albi; it has a single subprefecture, Castres. In French, the inhabitants of Tarn are known as Tarnais (masculine) and Tarnaises (feminine). Its INSEE and postcode number is 81.

An arrondissement is a level of administrative division in France generally corresponding to the territory overseen by a subprefect. As of 2019, the 101 French departments were divided into 332 arrondissements.

Communes of France France territorial subdivision for municipalities

The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or municipios in Spain. The United Kingdom's equivalent are civil parishes, although some areas, particularly urban areas, are unparished. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered. The communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France.

Administrative centre Seat of regional administration or local government

An administrative center is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a commune is located.

Senegal is subdivided into four levels of administrative divisions.

Arrondissements of the Moselle department

The five arrondissements of the Moselle department are:

  1. Arrondissement of Forbach-Boulay-Moselle, with 169 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 243,054 in 2016.
  2. Arrondissement of Metz, with 139 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 344,203 in 2016.
  3. Arrondissement of Sarrebourg-Château-Salins, with 230 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 92,282 in 2016.
  4. Arrondissement of Sarreguemines, with 83 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 99,226 in 2016.
  5. Arrondissement of Thionville, with 104 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 266,506 in 2016.
Arrondissement of Metz-Campagne Former arrondissement in Grand Est, France

The arrondissement of Metz-Campagne is a former arrondissement of France in the Moselle department in the Lorraine region. In 2015 it was merged into the new arrondissement of Metz. It had 142 communes, and its population was 222,352 (2012).

Arrondissement of Haguenau Former arrondissement in Grand Est, France

The arrondissement of Haguenau is a former arrondissement of France in the Bas-Rhin department in the Alsace region. In 2015 it was merged into the new arrondissement of Haguenau-Wissembourg. It had 56 communes, and its population was 130,835 (2012).

Arrondissement of Molsheim Arrondissement in Grand Est, France

The Arrondissement of Molsheim is an arrondissement of France in the Bas-Rhin department in the Grand Est region. It has 77 communes. Its population is 103,633 (2016), and its area is 771.2 km2 (297.8 sq mi).

Arrondissement of Saverne Arrondissement in Grand Est, France

The arrondissement of Saverne is an arrondissement of France in the Bas-Rhin department in the Grand Est region. It has 162 communes. Its population is 128,960 (2016), and its area is 1,241.0 km2 (479.2 sq mi).

Arrondissement of Wissembourg Former arrondissement in Grand Est, France

The arrondissement of Wissembourg is a former arrondissement of France in the Bas-Rhin department in the Alsace region. In 2015 it was merged into the new arrondissement of Haguenau-Wissembourg. It had 68 communes, and its population was 68,299 (2012).

Arrondissement of Strasbourg-Ville Former arrondissement in Grand Est, France

The arrondissement of Strasbourg-Ville is a former arrondissement of France in the Bas-Rhin department in the Alsace region. In 2015 it was merged into the new arrondissement of Strasbourg. It had 1 commune, and its population was 274,394 (2012).

The Canton of Saint-Benoît-du-Sault is a French former administrative subdivision, situated in the Indre département and the Centre région. It had 5,139 inhabitants (2012). It was disbanded following the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015. It consisted of 14 communes, which joined the canton of Saint-Gaultier in 2015.

Regions of Niger

Niger is divided into eight regions, each named after its capital.

The canton of Parthenay is a canton located in the arrondissement of Parthenay, in the département of Deux-Sèvres, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine région of France. The canton is made up of 11 undivided communes.

Administrative divisions of Niger

Niger is governed through a four layer, semi-decentralised series of Administrative divisions. Begun 1992, and finally approved with the formation of the Fifth Republic of Niger on 18 July 1999, Niger has been enacting a plan for Decentralisation of some state powers to local bodies. Prior to the 1999-2006 project, Niger's subdivisions were administered via direct appointment from the central government in Niamey. Beginning with Niger's first municipal elections of 2 February 1999, the nation started electing local officials for the first time. Citizens now elect local committee representatives in each Commune, chosen by subdivisions of the commune: "Quarters" in towns and "Villages" in rural areas, with additional groupings for traditional polities and nomadic populations. These officials choose Mayors, and from them are drawn representatives to the Department level. The same process here chooses a Departmental council and Prefect, and representatives to the Regional level. The system is repeated a Regional level, with a Regional Prefect, council, and representatives to the High Council of Territorial Collectives. The HCCT has only advisory powers, but its members have some financial, planning, educational and environmental powers. The central government oversees this process through the office of the Minister of State for the Interior, Public Safety and Decentralization.

Arrondissement of Strasbourg Arrondissement in Grand Est, France

The arrondissement of Strasbourg is an arrondissement of France in the Bas-Rhin department in the Grand Est region. It has 33 communes. Its population is 494,089 (2017), and its area is 337.6 km2 (130.3 sq mi).

Canton of Arcis-sur-Aube Canton in Grand Est, France

The Canton of Arcis-sur-Aube is one of the 17 cantons of the Aube department, in northern France. Its INSEE code is 1002. Its population was 14,661 in 2017.

References

  1. Roger Brunet (2015). "New cantons in France: Name games". L'Espace Géographique. 44. doi:10.3917/eg.441.0073.
  2. INSEE, Populations légales 2012 des cantons – découpage 2015
  3. 1 2 LOI n° 2013-403 du 17 mai 2013 relative à l'élection des conseillers départementaux, des conseillers municipaux et des conseillers communautaires, et modifiant le calendrier électoral
  4. Code officiel géographique au 1er janvier 2013, INSEE
  5. Code officiel géographique au 1er janvier 2016, INSEE