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divisions of France
The cantons of France are territorial subdivisions of the French Republic's arrondissements and departments.
An arrondissement is a level of administrative division in France generally corresponding to the territory overseen by a subprefect. As of 2018, the 101 French departments were divided into 332 arrondissements.
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, and five are overseas departments, which are also classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; the last two have no autonomy, and are used for the organisation of police, fire departments, and sometimes, elections.
Apart from their role as organizational units in certain aspects of the administration of public services and justice, the chief purpose of the cantons today is to serve as constituencies for the election of the members of the representative assembly (General Council) in each department. For this reason, such elections are known in France as "cantonal elections".
As of 2015, there are 2,054 cantons in France.Most of them group together some communes (the lowest administrative division of the French Republic), although larger communes may comprise several cantons, since the cantons are intended to be roughly equal in population – unlike the communes, which range from more than two million inhabitants (Paris) to just one person (Rochefourchat).
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany or comuni in Italy. The United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered. The communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France.
Rochefourchat is a commune in the Drôme department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in southeastern France. In the commune there is a single house, a converted barn, and the ruins of an old castle. The nearest communes to Rochefourchat are Saint-Nazaire-le-Désert, Les Tonils, Pradelle, and Brette.
The role of the canton is, essentially, to provide a framework for departmental elections. Each canton elects a woman and a man to represent it at the conseil général du département – or general council for the department, which is the principal administrative division of the French Republic.
In urban areas, a single commune generally includes several cantons. Conversely, in rural areas, a canton may comprise several smaller communes. In the latter case, administrative services, the gendarmerie headquarters for example, are often situated in the principal town ( chef-lieu ) of the canton, although there are exceptions, such as cantons Gaillon-Campagne and Sarreguemines-Campagne, which have in common a "chief-town" which does not belong to either canton.
A gendarmerie or gendarmery is a military component with jurisdiction in civil law enforcement. The term gendarme is derived from the medieval French expression gens d'armes, which translates to "armed people". In France and some Francophone nations, the gendarmerie is a branch of the armed forces responsible for internal security in parts of the territory with additional duties as a military police for the armed forces. This concept was introduced to several other Western European countries during the Napoleonic conquests. In the mid twentieth century, a number of former French mandates or colonial possessions such as Lebanon, Syria, and the Republic of the Congo adopted a gendarmerie after independence.
For statistical (INSEE) purposes, the twenty arrondissements of Paris – the administrative subdivisions of that city – are sometimes considered cantons, but they serve no greater electoral function.
The city of Paris is divided into twenty arrondissements municipaux, administrative districts, more simply referred to as arrondissements. These are not to be confused with departmental arrondissements, which subdivide the 100 French départements. The word "arrondissement", when applied to Paris, refers almost always to the municipal arrondissements listed below. The number of the arrondissement is indicated by the last two digits in most Parisian postal codes.
Cantons also form legal districts, as seats of Tribunaux d'instance or "Courts of First Instance" (also, "TI"...). Historically, the cantons are called justices de paix or "district courts".
The cantons were created in 1790 at the same time as the départements by the Revolutionary Committee for the Division of Territory (Comité de division). They were more numerous than today (between 40 and 60 to each département). Cantons were, at first, grouped into what were called districts. After the abolition of the district in 1800, they were reorganized by the Consulate into arrondissements. The number of cantons was then drastically reduced (between 30 and 50 units) by the Loi du 8 pluviôse an IX (28 January 1801), or the "Law for the Reduction of the Number of District Courts", or Loi portant réduction du nombre de justices de paix in French. The département prefects were told by the government to group the communes within newly established cantons. The département lists, once approved by the government, were published in the Bulletin des lois in 1801 and 1802; these lists were the basis of the administrative divisions of France from then until 2015, although cantons with small populations were eliminated and new cantons created in areas of strong demographic growth. On the whole, their number increased appreciably.
In May 2013 a law was adopted that reduced the number of cantons drastically.This law came into effect at the French departmental elections in March 2015. Before the cantonal reform, there were 4,032 cantons, afterwards 2054, with the cantons in Martinique and Guyana abolished. The 2013 reform law also changed the representation of the cantons in the departmental councils: each canton is now represented by a man and a woman.
The number of cantons varies from one département to another; the Territoire de Belfort, for example, has 9, while Nord has 41.
An administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a commune is located.
Senegal is subdivided into four levels of administrative divisions.
The arrondissement of Metz-Campagne is a former arrondissement of France in the Moselle department in the Lorraine region. In 2015 it was merged into the new arrondissement of Metz. It had nine cantons and 142 communes.
The arrondissement of Thionville-Ouest is a former arrondissement of France in the Moselle department in the Lorraine region. In 2015 it was merged into the new arrondissement of Thionville. It had six cantons and 30 communes.
The arrondissement of Metz-Ville is a former arrondissement of France in the Moselle department in the Lorraine region. In 2015 it was merged into the new arrondissement of Metz. It had four cantons and one commune.
The arrondissement of Wissembourg is a former arrondissement of France in the Bas-Rhin department in the Alsace region. In 2015 it was merged into the new arrondissement of Haguenau-Wissembourg. It had five cantons and 68 communes.
The Canton of Saint-Benoît-du-Sault is a French former administrative subdivision, situated in the Indre département and the Centre région. It was disbanded following the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015. It consisted of 14 communes, which joined the canton of Saint-Gaultier in 2015.
The canton of Melun-Nord is a French former administrative division, located in the arrondissement of Melun, in the Seine-et-Marne département. It was disbanded following the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015. It consisted of 7 communes, which joined the canton of Melun in 2015.
The canton of Savigny-le-Temple is a French administrative division that is in the arrondissement of Melun, in the Seine-et-Marne département.
The canton of Champs-sur-Marne is a French administrative division, located in the arrondissement of Torcy, in the Seine-et-Marne département.
The canton of Chelles is a French administrative division, located in the arrondissement of Torcy, in the Seine-et-Marne département.
The canton of Torcy is a French administrative division, located in the arrondissement of Torcy, in the Seine-et-Marne département.
The canton of Bray-sur-Seine is a French former administrative division, located in the arrondissement of Provins, in the Seine-et-Marne département. It was disbanded following the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015. It consisted of 23 communes, which joined the canton of Provins in 2015.
The canton of Donnemarie-Dontilly is a French former administrative division, located in the arrondissement of Provins, in the Seine-et-Marne département. It was disbanded following the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015. It consisted of 19 communes, which joined the canton of Provins in 2015.
The canton of La Ferté-Gaucher is a French former administrative division, located in the arrondissement of Provins, in the Seine-et-Marne département. It was disbanded following the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015. It consisted of 18 communes, which joined the canton of Coulommiers in 2015.
Niger is divided into seven regions, each named after its capital.
Niger is governed through a four layer, semi-decentralised series of Administrative divisions. Begun 1992, and finally approved with the formation of the Fifth Republic of Niger on 18 July 1999, Niger has been enacting a plan for Decentralisation of some state powers to local bodies. Prior to the 1999-2006 project, Niger's subdivisions were administered via direct appointment from the central government in Niamey. Beginning with Niger's first municipal elections of 2 February 1999, the nation started electing local officials for the first time. Citizens now elect local committee representatives in each Commune, chosen by subdivisions of the commune: "Quarters" in towns and "Villages" in rural areas, with additional groupings for traditional polities and nomadic populations. These officials choose Mayors, and from them are drawn representatives to the Department level. The same process here chooses a Departmental council and Prefect, and representatives to the Regional level. The system is repeated a Regional level, with a Regional Prefect, council, and representatives to the High Council of Territorial Collectives. The HCCT has only advisory powers, but its members have some financial, planning, educational and environmental powers. The central government oversees this process through the office of the Minister of State for the Interior, Public Safety and Decentralization.
The arrondissement of Strasbourg is an arrondissement of France in the Bas-Rhin department in the Grand Est region. It was created at the 2015 arrondissements reform by the merger of the former arrondissement of Strasbourg-Ville with part of the arrondissement of Strasbourg-Campagne. It has 33 communes.
The Canton of Arcis-sur-Aube is one of the 17 cantons of the Aube department, in northern France. INSEE code is 1002.