Cape Evans

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Scott's Hut at Cape Evans Scott's hut at Cape Evans.jpg
Scott's Hut at Cape Evans

Cape Evans is a rocky cape on the west side of Ross Island, Antarctica, forming the north side of the entrance to Erebus Bay.

Ross Island island formed by four volcanoes in the Ross Sea near the continent of Antarctica

Ross Island is an island formed by four volcanoes in the Ross Sea near the continent of Antarctica, off the coast of Victoria Land in McMurdo Sound. Ross Island lies within the boundaries of Ross Dependency, an area of Antarctica claimed by New Zealand.

Antarctica Polar continent in the Earths southern hemisphere

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,000,000 square kilometres, it is the fifth-largest continent. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula.

Erebus Bay Antarctica

Erebus Bay is a bay about 24 kilometres (13 nmi) wide between Cape Evans and Hut Point Peninsula, on the west side of Ross Island. The bay was explored by the British National Antarctic Expedition, 1901–04, under Robert Falcon Scott. It was named by Scott's second expedition, the British Antarctic Expedition, 1910–13, which built its headquarters on Cape Evans; the feature is surmounted by Mount Erebus.

Contents

History

The cape was discovered by the British National Antarctic Expedition, 1901–04, under Robert Falcon Scott, who named it the "Skuary" after the birds. Scott's second expedition, the British Antarctic Expedition, 1910–13, built its headquarters here, renaming the cape for Lieutenant Edward Evans, Royal Navy, second in command of the expedition. [1] [2] Scott's headquarters building still exists and is known as Scott's Hut. [2]

Robert Falcon Scott Royal Navy officer and explorer

Captain Robert Falcon Scott, was a British Royal Navy officer and explorer who led two expeditions to the Antarctic regions: the Discovery Expedition of 1901–1904 and the ill-fated Terra Nova Expedition of 1910–1913. On the first expedition, he set a new southern record by marching to latitude 82°S and discovered the Antarctic Plateau, on which the South Pole is located. On the second venture, Scott led a party of five which reached the South Pole on 17 January 1912, less than five weeks after Roald Amundsen's Norwegian expedition. A planned meeting with supporting dog teams from the base camp failed, despite Scott's written instructions, and at a distance of 150 miles from their base camp and 11 miles from the next depot, Scott and his companions died. When Scott and his party's bodies were discovered, they had in their possession the first Antarctic fossils ever discovered. The fossils were determined to be from the Glossopteris tree and proved that Antarctica was once forested and joined to other continents.

Skua family of birds

The skuas are a group of predatory seabirds with about seven species forming the family Stercorariidae and the genus Stercorarius. The three smaller skuas are called jaegers in American English.

Edward Evans, 1st Baron Mountevans Royal Navy admiral

Admiral Edward Ratcliffe Garth Russell Evans, 1st Baron Mountevans, known as "Teddy" Evans, was a British naval officer and Antarctic explorer.

Historic sites and monuments

Memorial cross at Cape Evans Memorial Cross at Cape Evans.jpg
Memorial cross at Cape Evans

Scott's Hut has been designated a Historic Site or Monument (HSM 16), following a proposal by New Zealand and the United Kingdom to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting. [3]

A Historic Site or Monument (HSM) is a protected location of historic interest on the continent of Antarctica, or on its adjacent islands. The list of historic sites was first drawn up in 1972, and has since expanded to cover 92 sites, with the most recent listed in 2015. Five sites have been removed from the list for various reasons.

Antarctic Treaty System international treaties concerning the Antarctica

The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively known as the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only continent without a native human population. For the purposes of the treaty system, Antarctica is defined as all of the land and ice shelves south of 60°S latitude. The treaty entered into force in 1961 and currently has 53 parties. The treaty sets aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve, establishes freedom of scientific investigation, and bans military activity on the continent. The treaty was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War. Since September 2004, the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat headquarters has been located in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

A cross on Wind Vane Hill, Cape Evans, was erected by the Ross Sea Party, led by Captain Aeneas Mackintosh, of Sir Ernest Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1914–1917, in memory of three members of the party who died in the vicinity in 1916. The cross has been designated a Historic Site or Monument (HSM 17), following a proposal by New Zealand and the United Kingdom to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting. [3]

Aeneas Mackintosh British Merchant Navy officer and Antarctic explorer

Aeneas Lionel Acton Mackintosh was a British Merchant Navy officer and Antarctic explorer, who commanded the Ross Sea party as part of Sir Ernest Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, 1914–1917. The Ross Sea party's mission was to support Shackleton's proposed transcontinental march by laying supply depots along the latter stages of the march's intended route. In the face of persistent setbacks and practical difficulties, Mackintosh's party fulfilled its task, although he and two others died in the course of their duties.

Ernest Shackleton Anglo-Irish polar explorer

Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton was a British polar explorer who led three British expeditions to the Antarctic. He was one of the principal figures of the period known as the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration.

Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition Research expedition to Antarctica, led by Ernest Shackleton

The Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1914–1917 is considered to be the last major expedition of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. Conceived by Sir Ernest Shackleton, the expedition was an attempt to make the first land crossing of the Antarctic continent. After Amundsen's South Pole expedition in 1911, this crossing remained, in Shackleton's words, the “one great main object of Antarctic journeyings”. The expedition failed to accomplish this objective, but became recognized instead as an epic feat of endurance.

The whole site is protected as Antarctic Specially Protected Area (ASPA) No.155 largely because of its historic significance as one of the principal sites of early human activity in Antarctica. [4]

An Antarctic Specially Protected Area (ASPA) is an area on the continent of Antarctica, or on nearby islands, which is protected by scientists and several different international bodies. The protected areas were established in 1961 under the Antarctic Treaty System, which governs all the land and water south of 60 latitude and protects against human development. A permit is required for entry into any ASPA site. The ASPA sites are protected by the governments of Australia, New Zealand, United States, United Kingdom, Chile, France, Argentina, Poland, Russia, Norway, Japan, India, Italy, and Republic of Korea. There are currently 72 sites.

See also

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Scotts Hut Antarctic base in New Zealand

Scott's Hut is a building located on the north shore of Cape Evans on Ross Island in Antarctica. It was erected in 1911 by the British Antarctic Expedition of 1910–1913 led by Robert Falcon Scott. In selecting a base of operations for the 1910–1913 Expedition, Scott rejected the notion of reoccupying the hut he had built by McMurdo Sound during the Discovery Expedition of 1901–1904.

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Cape Adare north-easternmost peninsula in Victoria Land, East Antarctica

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Inexpressible Island island

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Hut Point Peninsula peninsula

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Scotia Bay

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Cape Royds is a dark rock cape forming the western extremity of Ross Island, facing on McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. It was discovered by the Discovery Expedition (1901–1904) and named for Lieutenant Charles Royds, Royal Navy, who acted as meteorologist on the expedition. Royds subsequently rose to become an Admiral and was later Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police, London. There is a hut at Cape Royds built and used by Ernest Shackleton and his team during their 1907–1909 expedition.

Cape Crozier

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Arrival Heights

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Buromskiy Island

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Mount Dockery is a mountain, 1,095 m (3,590 ft) high, standing 6 km (4 mi) west of Mount Matthias in the western part of the Everett Range in the Concord Mountains of northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. It stands on the Pennell Coast, between Cape Williams and Cape Adare.

Port Martin Abandoned research outpost in Cape Margerie, France

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Cape Geology is a low, gravel-covered point marking the western limit of Botany Bay, in the southern part of Granite Harbour, Victoria Land, Antarctica. It was charted and named by the Western Geological Party of the Terra Nova Expedition (1910–13) who established their base there.

Hells Gate Moraine is a glacial moraine at the head of Evans Cove on the coast of Victoria Land, Antarctica. It extends southward to Hells Gate from nearby Vegetation Island and Cape Confusion.

Lewis Bay is a bay indenting the north coast of Ross Island, Antarctica, between Mount Bird and Cape Tennyson.

References

  1. "Evans, Cape". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2012-03-09.
  2. 1 2 Langner, Rainer-K. (trans. Beech, Timothy) (2007). Scott and Amundsen: Duel in the Ice, p. 120. London: Haus Publishing. ISBN   1-905791-08-9.
  3. 1 2 "List of Historic Sites and Monuments approved by the ATCM (2012)" (PDF). Antarctic Treaty Secretariat. 2012. Retrieved 2013-10-27.
  4. "Cape Evans, Ross Island" (PDF). Management Plan for Antarctic Specially Protected Area No. 155: Measure 12, Annex. Antarctic Treaty Secretariat. 2008. Retrieved 2013-06-12.

PD-icon.svg This article incorporates  public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Evans, Cape" (content from the Geographic Names Information System ).

United States Geological Survey scientific agency of the United States government

The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, and the natural hazards that threaten it. The organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography, geology, and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility.

Geographic Names Information System geographical database

The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is a database that contains name and locative information about more than two million physical and cultural features located throughout the United States of America and its territories. It is a type of gazetteer. GNIS was developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) to promote the standardization of feature names.

Coordinates: 77°38′S166°24′E / 77.633°S 166.400°E / -77.633; 166.400