Cape Gelidonya (Turkish : Gelidonya Burnu or Taşlık Burnu, from Greek : Χελιδωνία, Chelidonia; Latin : Chelidonium promontorium ), formerly Kilidonia or Killidonia is a cape or headland on the Teke Peninsula in the chain of Taurus Mountains, located on the southern coast of Anatolia between the Gulf of Antalya and the Bay of Finike.
During the classical Greek and Hellenistic eras, it was called Chelidonia (meaning swallows), and a group of five small islands, as Chelidonia nessoi (Swallow Islands, now Beşadalar Adasi). In Roman times, it was known as Promontorium Sacrum (Latin for "Holy Promontory"), and the group of islands as Chelidoniae Insulae.
The cape is the site of a late Bronze Age shipwreck (c. 1200 BC). In view of the cargo's nature and composition the findings are of a Greek Mycenean provenance. 27 metres (89 ft), on irregular rocky bottom. It was located in 1954, and the excavation began in 1960 by Peter Throckmorton, George F. Bass, Joan du Plat Taylor and Frédéric Dumas. Among the finds were Mycenaean pottery, scrape copper, copper and tin ingots, and merchant weights.The remains of the ship sat at a depth of about
The eccentric photojournalist Peter Throckmorton, out of New York, arrived there in the mid-1950s after a controversial campaign where he was profiling the Algerian War from the point of view of the Algerian rebels fighting against French troops, which would later lead to an alleged altercation between himself and another team member, Claude Duthuit, who was fighting with the French. Throckmorton arrived in the small city of Bodrum in the southwest of Turkey, built on the ancient city of Halicarnassus, where the remnants of one of the ancient wonders of the world, the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, can still be seen today. He had received word that a bronze statue of the Greek goddess Demeter was pulled up by fishing nets and left on the beach, but by the time he had arrived the statue was taken and would eventually find a home in the Museum of Izmir, north of Bodrum.
Throckmorton came to know Captain Kemal of the Mandlinci, a sponge fishing boat. The captain told Throckmorton that he knew of many ancient sites that were lying on the seabed, one of which he planned to dynamite the following year. Throckmorton urged him to preserve the site and convinced the Captain to draw a map, allegedly on the back of a napkin. He would return in 1958 under the flag of the Explorers' Club, with filmmaker Stan Waterman among others, including Honor Frost. They set out to visit a number of underwater archaeological sites and finally arrived at Cape Gelidonya, where they spent most of their time trying to identify the site. Finally, on the last day, they located the site on one of the small islands off the Cape.
Throckmorton convinced the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology to sponsor an excavation of the site, while Frost convinced Joan du Plat Taylor to be a co-director with whoever Throckmorton found. At this time, the young archaeologist George Bass was working on his PhD at the University and was sent to co-direct the archaeological excavation of the site. Neither co-director had completed a diving qualification before they arrived but Bass had some practice in a YMCA pool and knew how to swim. He was also much younger than Taylor, who was well-known and respected within the archaeological community.The group of divers arrived in 1960 and began to complete the first archaeological excavation of an underwater shipwreck in its entirety, though divers still find missed artefacts on occasion. The British side of the expedition is generally written out of history because most of the funding came from America.
This was the oldest known shipwreck at the time, only being surpassed by the discovery of the Uluburun shipwreck in the early 1980s. This was one of the first projects that led to the development of the field of nautical archaeology, along with the excavation of the Viking Skuldelev ships at Roskilde in 1962, and the discovery and raising of the Swedish warship the Vasa in 1961.
Aegean civilization is a general term for the Bronze Age civilizations of Greece around the Aegean Sea. There are three distinct but communicating and interacting geographic regions covered by this term: Crete, the Cyclades and the Greek mainland. Crete is associated with the Minoan civilization from the Early Bronze Age. The Cyclades converge with the mainland during the Early Helladic ("Minyan") period and with Crete in the Middle Minoan period. From ca. 1450 BC, the Greek Mycenaean civilization spreads to Crete.
Maritime archaeology is a discipline within archaeology as a whole that specifically studies human interaction with the sea, lakes and rivers through the study of associated physical remains, be they vessels, shore-side facilities, port-related structures, cargoes, human remains and submerged landscapes. A specialty within maritime archaeology is nautical archaeology, which studies ship construction and use.
Halicarnassus was an ancient Greek city at what is now Bodrum in Turkey. It was located in southwest Caria on a picturesque, advantageous site on the Ceramic Gulf. The city was famous for the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, also known simply as the Tomb of Mausolus, whose name provided the origin of the word "mausoleum". The mausoleum, built from 353 to 350 BC, ranked as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.
Bodrum is a district and a port city in Muğla Province, in the southwestern Aegean Region of Turkey. It is located on the southern coast of Bodrum Peninsula, at a point that checks the entry into the Gulf of Gökova, and is also the center of the eponymous district. The city was called Halicarnassus of Caria in ancient times and was famous for housing the Mausoleum of Mausolus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Built by the Knights Hospitaller in the 15th century, Bodrum Castle overlooks the harbour and the marina. The castle includes a museum of underwater archaeology and hosts several cultural festivals throughout the year. The city had a population of 36,317 in 2012. It takes 50 minutes via boat to reach Kos from Bodrum, with services running multiple times a day by at least three operators.
The Uluburun Shipwreck is a Late Bronze Age shipwreck dated to the late 14th century BC, discovered close to the east shore of Uluburun, and about 6 miles (9.7 km) miles southeast of Kaş, in south-western Turkey. The shipwreck was discovered in the summer of 1982 by Mehmed Çakir, a local sponge diver from Yalıkavak, a village near Bodrum.
Bodrum Castle is a historical fortification located in southwest Turkey in the port city of Bodrum, built from 1402 onwards, by the Knights of St John as the Castle of St. Peter or Petronium. A transnational effort, it has four towers known as the English, French, German, and Italian towers, bearing the names of the nations responsible for their construction. The castle was completed in the late 15th century, only to be taken over by the Islamic Ottoman Empire in 1523. The chapel was converted to a mosque, and a minaret was added. The castle remained under the empire for almost 400 years. After remaining empty following World War I, in the early 1960s, the castle became the home for the award-winning Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology. In 2016 it was inscribed in the Tentative list of World Heritage Sites in Turkey.
The year 1984 in archaeology involved some significant events.
Kumluca is a town and district of Antalya Province on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey, part of the Turkish Riviera. Kumluca is located 90 km (56 mi) west of the city of Antalya, on the Teke Peninsula,. Its neighbour towns are Korkuteli, Elmalı, Finike, Kemer and Antalya
The Turkish Riviera, also known popularly as the Turquoise Coast, is an area of southwest Turkey encompassing the provinces of Antalya and Muğla, and to a lesser extent Aydın, southern İzmir and western Mersin. The combination of a favorable climate, warm sea, mountainous scenery, fine beaches along more than a thousand kilometers of shoreline along the Aegean and Mediterranean waters, and abundant natural and archaeological points of interest makes this stretch of Turkey's coastline a popular national and international tourist destination.
The Antikythera wreck is a Roman-era shipwreck dating from the second quarter of the first century BC.
Mensun Bound is a British maritime archaeologist born in Port Stanley, Falkland Islands. He is best known for directing the excavation of the Etruscan 6th-century BC shipwreck off Giglio Island, Italy, the oldest known shipwreck of the Archaic era, and the Hoi An Cargo which revolutionized our understanding of Ming-Vietnamese porcelain from Vietnam's art-historical Golden Age.
Edgerton Alvord Throckmorton, known as Peter Throckmorton, was an American photojournalist and a pioneer underwater archaeologist, frequently described as the Father of Underwater Archaeology. Throckmorton was a founding member of the Sea Research Society and served on its Board of Advisors until his death in 1990. He was also a trustee for NUMA and was an instructor at Nova Southeastern University.
George Fletcher Bass is recognized as one of the early practitioners of underwater archaeology, along with Peter Throckmorton, Honor Frost, and others.
Joan Mabel Frederica Du Plat Taylor was born in Glasgow, Scotland on 26 June 1906 and, despite no formal training, became one of the first maritime archaeologists.
Oxhide ingots are metal slabs, usually of copper but sometimes of tin, produced and widely distributed during the Mediterranean Late Bronze Age (LBA). Their shape resembles the hide of an ox with a protruding handle in each of the ingot’s four corners. Early thought was that each ingot was equivalent to the value of one ox. However, the similarity in shape is simply a coincidence. The ingots’ producers probably designed these protrusions to make the ingots easily transportable overland on the backs of pack animals. Complete or partial oxhide ingots have been discovered in Sardinia, Crete, Peloponnese, Cyprus, Cannatello in Sicily, Boğazköy in Turkey, Qantir in Egypt, and Sozopol in Bulgaria. Archaeologists have recovered many oxhide ingots from two shipwrecks off the coast of Turkey.
The Dokos shipwreck is the oldest underwater shipwreck discovery known to archeologists. The wreck has been dated to the second Proto-Helladic period, 2700-2200 BC.
Site Recorder is a geographical information system (GIS) and information management system (IMS) designed for use in maritime, freshwater and intertidal archaeology. Site Recorder can be used on maritime and intertidal archaeology projects for real-time data collection, decision support, publication, archiving and data migration. The program is designed for use by archaeologists rather than GIS experts.
Honor Frost was a pioneer in the field of underwater archaeology, who led many Mediterranean archaeological investigations, especially in Lebanon, and was noted for her typology of stone anchors and skills in archaeological illustration.
Beşadalar or Beş Adalar is a group of islands off Cape Gelidonya on the south coast of Anatolia, Turkey. The largest island is named Devecitaşı Ada.