Cape of Good Hope General Service Medal

Last updated

Cape of Good Hope General Service Medal
Cape of Good Hope General Service Medal & Clasps.jpg
TypeMilitary Campaign medal
Awarded forCampaign service
Country Flag of the United Kingdom.svg UK Flag of the Cape Colony 1876-1910.svg Cape of Good Hope
Presented by the Monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and Empress of India
Eligibility Cape Colonial Forces
Campaign(s)Basutoland 1880–1881
Transkei 1880–1881
Bechuanaland 1896–1897
Clasps BASUTOLAND
TRANSKEI
BECHUANALAND
Established1900
Total5,252
Ribbon - Cape of Good Hope General Service Medal.png
Ribbon bar
Order of wear
Next (higher) Kabul to Kandahar Star
Next (lower) Egypt Medal

The Cape of Good Hope General Service Medal is a British campaign medal which was awarded to members of the Cape Colonial Forces who took part in three campaigns in and around the Cape of Good Hope, in Basutoland in 1880–1881, in Transkei in 1880–1881 and in Bechuanaland in 1896–1897. [1] [2] [3] [4]

Contents

Institution

The Cape of Good Hope General Service Medal was authorised by the government of the Cape of Good Hope, and approved by Queen Victoria in December 1900. [5] [6] It was a retrospective award for veterans of three campaigns which were fought in South Africa between 1880 and 1897. The medal was awarded to the officers, non-commissioned officers and men of the Colonial Forces who were engaged on active service during the campaigns in Basutoland (1880–1881), Tembuland and Griqualand East in Transkei (1880–1881), and Bechuanaland (1896–1897). Three campaign clasps were authorised at the same time. [2] [4] [7]

Award criteria

The medal was awarded, upon application, to all surviving veterans who had served in the Cape Colonial Forces in the three campaigns, for active service in the field, for serving as guards at any point where an attack was expected, or who were detailed for some specific or special military service or duty. No medal or clasp could be awarded to any member who had deserted or had been dismissed for misconduct. [2] [4]

Because the award of the medal had to be applied for, it was not awarded posthumously. The next-of-kin of members who had been killed in action or who had died while on service therefore received no medal. The published medal roll shows that 5,252 medals were awarded to 5,156 individuals, which included 96 duplicate or triplicate awards. [8]

Below are the number of medals recorded with each bar combination on the original issue register. [5] The figures in brackets are the actual number of recipients, excluding duplicate awards. [8]

In all, 1,093 Transkei, 2,179 Basutoland and 2,601 Bechuanaland clasps were awarded. [5]

No British Army units were present at any of the campaigns, although fifteen British soldiers who had been seconded to local units received the medal. [5]

Basuto Gun War

The duration of the Basutoland Campaign was from 13 September 1880 to 27 April 1881. Following the end of the Zulu wars from 1877 to 1879, Cape of Good Hope Governor Henry Bartle Frere and Prime Minister Gordon Sprigg attempted to disarm the Basotho and ordered them to hand in their firearms. Some chiefs reluctantly complied, but were almost immediately attacked by chiefs who had refused to comply, such as Lerothodi and Moletsane. In September 1880 they also attacked white administrators and, as a result, troops were mobilised and the Basuto Gun War broke out. Various encounters ensued until February 1881, when an armistice was arranged. Peace was eventually concluded in May 1881. Veterans of this campaign were awarded the Basutoland Clasp. [1] [9] [10]

Transkei Campaign

The duration of the Transkei Campaign was from 13 September 1880 to 13 May 1881. The medal and the Transkei Clasp were awarded for operations in Thembuland and Griqualand East, where the native Xhosa populations were particularly hostile to settlers in the districts of Tsolo, Maclear, Matatiele and Qumbu. [1] [9] [10]

Bechuanaland Campaign

The duration of the Bechuanaland Campaign was from 24 December 1896 to 30 July 1897. In April 1896, a severe outbreak of cattle disease occurred, which required that all cattle in the area needed to be slaughtered in an attempt to contain the disease. This was resented by the local Tswana population who, as a result, rose up in protest. A number of engagements occurred and, following a build-up of more Colonial reinforcements in July 1897, the conflict ended after a final action at Langberg on 30 July and 1 August 1897, in which most of the Tswana leaders were either killed or surrendered. Veterans of this campaign were awarded the Bechuanaland Clasp. [1] [9] [10]

Description

The medal was struck in silver and is a disk, 36 millimetres (1.4 in) in diameter and 3 millimetres (0.12 in) thick at the raised rim. It is affixed to the swivelling suspender by means of claws and a pin through the upper edge of the medal. The recipient's rank, name and unit were inscribed on the rim, but the medals were not numbered. [4] [9] [10]

Obverse

The obverse depicts the veiled bust of Queen Victoria, with the legend "VICTORIA REGINA ET IMPERATRIX" around the inside of the raised rim. [4] [9] The designer was Sir Joseph Boehm. [11]

Reverse

The reverse displays the Cape of Good Hope coat of arms, with a spray of protea leaves and a protea flower underneath and the name "CAPE OF GOOD HOPE" on a wide raised rim around the top half of the medal. [4] [9] [10]

Ribbon

The ribbon is 32 millimetres (1.3 in) wide and dark blue, with a 12 millimetres (0.47 in) wide yellow centre band. These were also the ribbon colours of the two earlier campaign medals for service in southern Africa. [10]

Clasps

The three clasps which were awarded to indicate the campaigns in which recipients had served, were inscribed "BASUTOLAND", "TRANSKEI" and "BECHUANALAND" respectively. [2] [4] [10]

Order of wear

Campaign medals and stars are not listed by name in the order of wear prescribed by the British Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood, but are all grouped together as taking precedence after the Queen's Medal for Chiefs and before the Polar Medals, in order of the date of the campaign for which awarded. [12]

In the order of wear of British campaign medals, the Cape of Good Hope General Service Medal takes precedence after the Kabul to Kandahar Star and before the Egypt Medal. [12]

South Africa

With effect from 6 April 1952, when a new South African set of decorations and medals was instituted to replace the British awards used to date, the older British decorations and medals applicable to South Africa continued to be worn in the same order of precedence but, with the exception of the Victoria Cross, took precedence after all South African orders, decorations and medals awarded to South Africans on or after that date. Of the official British campaign medals which were applicable to South Africans, the Cape of Good Hope General Service Medal takes precedence as shown. [12] [13] [14]

South Africa Medal (1880).png Ribbon - Cape of Good Hope General Service Medal.png Queen's South Africa Medal.png

Related Research Articles

An overview of South African military decorations and medals, which form part of the South African honours system.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South Africa Medal (1853)</span> Award

The South Africa Medal (1853) is a campaign medal instituted in 1854, for award to officers and men of the Royal Navy, British Army and locally recruited Cape Mounted Riflemen, who served in the Cape of Good Hope during the Xhosa Wars between 1834 and 1853.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Natal Native Rebellion Medal</span> Award

The Natal Native Rebellion Medal was a British campaign medal. It was authorised in 1907 for service in Natal during a Zulu revolt against British rule and taxation in 1906. The 1906 Clasp to the medal was awarded to those who had served for more than fifty days.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Permanent Force Good Service Medal</span> Award

The Permanent Force Good Service Medal was instituted by the Republic of South Africa in 1961, when South Africa became a republic, to replace the Union Medal. It was awarded to Permanent Force members of the South African Defence Force for eighteen years of service and good conduct.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">John Chard Decoration</span> Award

The John Chard Decoration, post-nominal letters JCD, was a military long service decoration which was instituted by the Union of South Africa on 6 April 1952. It was awarded to members of the Citizen Force of the South African Defence Force for twenty years of efficient service and good conduct. Clasps could be awarded after thirty and forty years service respectively.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Queen's South Africa Medal</span> Award

The Queen's South Africa Medal is a British campaign medal awarded to British and Colonial military personnel, and to civilians employed in an official capacity, who served in the Second Boer War in South Africa. Altogether twenty-six clasps were awarded, to indicate participation in particular actions and campaigns.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">King's South Africa Medal</span> Award

The King's South Africa Medal is a British campaign medal awarded to all British and Colonial military personnel who served in the Second Boer War in South Africa, and who were in the theatre on or after 1 January 1902 and who had completed 18 months service in the conflict prior to 1 June 1902.

The Cape Mounted Yeomanry was a military force created on a militia basis by Act 5 of 1878 in the Cape Colony, with a strength of 3,000 in three regiments, to act in conjunction with the Cape Mounted Riflemen on the eastern frontier. About 600 men were put into the field for the Basuto Rebellion in 1880.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South Africa Medal (1880)</span> Award

The South Africa Medal (1880), often referred to as the Zulu War Medal, is a campaign medal instituted in 1880 and awarded by the British Government to members of the British Army, Royal Naval Brigade and Colonial Volunteers who were involved in a series of South African tribal wars in the Cape of Good Hope, Colony of Natal and Transvaal between 1877 and 1879, most notably for the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Efficiency Decoration (South Africa)</span> Award

The Efficiency Decoration (South Africa), post-nominal letters ED, was instituted in 1930 for award to efficient and thoroughly capable part-time officers in the Citizen Force of the Union of South Africa after twenty years of service. The decoration superseded the Colonial Auxiliary Forces Officers' Decoration.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Efficiency Medal (South Africa)</span> Award

The Efficiency Medal (South Africa) was instituted in 1930 for award to part-time warrant officers, non-commissioned officers and men after twelve years of efficient service on the active list of the Citizen Force of the Union of South Africa. At the same time, a clasp was instituted for award to holders of the medal upon completion of further periods of six years of efficient service. The medal superseded the Colonial Auxiliary Forces Long Service Medal.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">John Chard Medal</span> Award

The John Chard Medal is a military long service medal which was instituted by the Union of South Africa on 6 April 1952. Until 1986, it was awarded to members of the Citizen Force of the South African Defence Force for twelve years of efficient service and good conduct. The period of qualifying service was reduced to ten years in 1986.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve Long Service and Good Conduct Medal</span> British Empire naval volunteer medal for part time ratings

The Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve Long Service and Good Conduct Medal, initially designated the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve Long Service Medal, was instituted in 1908. It could be awarded to part-time ratings in the United Kingdom's Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve after twelve years of service and good conduct. The medal was a Naval version of the Volunteer Long Service Medal and its successor, the Territorial Force Efficiency Medal.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Union Medal</span> Award

The Union Medal was instituted by the Union of South Africa in 1952. It was awarded to Permanent Force members of the South African Defence Force for eighteen years of service and good conduct.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Medal for Long Service and Good Conduct (South Africa)</span> Award

The Medal for Long Service and Good Conduct (South Africa) (Medalje vir Langdurige Diens en Goeie Gedrag) is a distinctive South African version of the British Medal for Long Service and Good Conduct (Military). It was awarded to members of the Permanent Force of the Union of South Africa who had completed eighteen years of reckonable service.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Army Long Service and Good Conduct Medal (Cape of Good Hope)</span> Award

In May 1895, Queen Victoria authorised Colonial governments to adopt various British military medals and to award them to their local military forces. The Cape of Good Hope introduced this system in September 1895 and, in 1896, instituted the Army Long Service and Good Conduct Medal (Cape of Good Hope).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Army Long Service and Good Conduct Medal (Natal)</span> British Colonial Army medal

In May 1895, Queen Victoria authorised Colonial governments to adopt various British military medals and to award them to their local military forces. The Colony of Natal introduced this system in August 1895 and, in 1897, instituted the Army Long Service and Good Conduct Medal (Natal).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Meritorious Service Medal (Cape of Good Hope)</span> Award

In May 1895, Queen Victoria authorised Colonial governments to adopt various British military medals and to award them to members of their local permanent military forces. The Cape of Good Hope introduced this system in September 1895 and, in 1896, instituted the Meritorious Service Medal (Cape of Good Hope).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Meritorious Service Medal (Natal)</span> Award

In May 1895, Queen Victoria authorised Colonial governments to adopt various British military medals and to award them to members of their local permanent military forces. The Colony of Natal introduced this system in August 1895 and, in 1897, instituted the Meritorious Service Medal (Natal).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Meritorious Service Medal (South Africa)</span> Award

In May 1895, Queen Victoria authorised Colonial governments to adopt various British military medals and to award them to their local permanent military forces. The Cape of Good Hope and Colony of Natal instituted their own territorial versions of the Meritorious Service Medal in terms of this authority. These two medals remained in use in the respective territories until after the establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Robertson, Megan C. (16 July 2008). "United Kingdom: Cape of Good Hope General Service Medal 1880–97". Medals of the World. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
  2. 1 2 3 4 "The Cape of Good Hope Service Medal". The Cape of Good Hope Government Gazette. Government Notice No. 841 – 1900. 4 December 1900. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
  3. The British Empire – Cigarette Cards, Decorations and Medals – Player's Cigarettes card no. 44 (Retrieved 2015-01-26)
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 South African Medal Website - Colonial Military Forces (Accessed 6 May 2015)
  5. 1 2 3 4 Joslin, Litherland and Simpkin (1988). British Battles and Medals. Spink, London. pp. 157–8.
  6. H. Taprell Dorling (1956). Ribbons and Medals. A. H. Baldwin & Son, London. p. 68.
  7. Alexander, E.G.M., Barron, G.K.B. and Bateman, A.J. (1986). South African Orders, Decorations and Medals. Human and Rousseau.
  8. 1 2 The Cape of Good Hope General Service Medal Roll, arranged alphabetically, compiled by Martin Wagner with the assistance of Neil Raaff (Retrieved 2015-01-26)
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 North East Medals – The Cape of Good Hope General Service Medal, 1880 – 1897 (Retrieved 2015-01-26)
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A Collection of British battles illustrated through their campaign medals – Cape of Good Hope General Service Medal 1880–97 (Retrieved 2015-01-26)
  11. John W. Mussell, ed. (2015). Medal Yearbook 2015. Token Publishing Limited, Honiton, Devon. p. 151.
  12. 1 2 3 "No. 56878". The London Gazette (Supplement). 17 March 2003. p. 3352.
  13. Government Notice no. 1982 of 1 October 1954 – Order of Precedence of Orders, Decorations and Medals, published in the Government Gazette of 1 October 1954.
  14. Republic of South Africa Government Gazette Vol. 477, no. 27376, Pretoria, 11 March 2005, OCLC   72827981