Captal de Buch (later Buché from Latin capitalis, "first", "chief") was a medieval feudal title in Gascony held by Jean III de Grailly among others.
Gascony is a province of southwestern France that was part of the "Province of Guyenne and Gascony" prior to the French Revolution. The region is vaguely defined, and the distinction between Guyenne and Gascony is unclear; by some they are seen to overlap, while others consider Gascony a part of Guyenne. Most definitions put Gascony east and south of Bordeaux.
According to Du Cange, the designation captal (capital, captau, capitau) was applied loosely to the more illustrious nobles of Aquitaine, counts, viscounts, &c., probably as capitales domini, "principal lords", though he quotes more fanciful explanations. As an actual title, the word was used only by the seigneurs of Trene, Puychagut, Epernon and Buch.
Buch was a strategically located town and port on the Atlantic, in the bay of Arcachon.
La Teste-de-Buch is a commune in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France.
Arcachon Bay is a bay of the Atlantic Ocean on the southwest coast of France, situated in Pays de Buch between the Côte d'Argent and the Côte des Landes, in the region of Aquitaine. The bay covers an area of 150 km² at high tide and 40 km² at low tide. Some of its geological features are natural preservation areas.
When Pierre, the seigneur of Grailly (ca 1285 – 1356) married Asalide (the captaline de Buch), the heiress of Pierre-Amanieu de Bordeaux, captal de Buch, in 1307, the title passed into the Grailly family, a line of fighting seigneurs with origins in Savoy.[ citation needed ]
Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
Savoy is a cultural-historical region between Western and Central Europe. It comprises roughly the territory of the Western Alps between Lake Geneva in the north and Dauphiné in the south.
The title is best known in connexion with the famous soldier, Jean III de Grailly, captal de Buch (r. 1343–1376), the "captal de Buch" par excellence, immortalized by Jean Froissart as the confidant of the Black Prince and the champion of the English cause against France during the first phase of the Hundred Years' War. He played a decisive role as a cavalry leader in the Battle of Poitiers (1356). In 1364, he ravaged the country between Paris and Rouen, but was beaten by Bertrand du Guesclin at the Battle of Cocherel (1364) and taken prisoner. Released next year, he received the seigniory of Nemours and took the oath of fealty to the French king, Charles V, but soon resigned his new fief and returned to his allegiance to the English king. In 1367, he took part in the Battle of Navarrete (1367) in which Du Guesclin was taken prisoner, the captal being entrusted with his safe-keeping. In 1371, Jean de Grailly was appointed constable of Aquitaine, but was taken prisoner next year and interned in the Temple in Paris where, resisting all the tempting offers of the French king, he remained until his death five years later.
Jean Froissart was a French-speaking medieval author and court historian from the Low Countries, who wrote several works, including Chronicles and Meliador, a long Arthurian romance, and a large body of poetry, both short lyrical forms, as well as longer narrative poems. For centuries, Froissart's Chronicles have been recognised as the chief expression of the chivalric revival of the 14th century kingdoms of England, France and Scotland. His history is also an important source for the first half of the Hundred Years' War.
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the French House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France. Each side drew many allies into the war. It was one of the most notable conflicts of the Middle Ages, in which five generations of kings from two rival dynasties fought for the throne of the largest kingdom in Western Europe. The war marked both the height of chivalry and its subsequent decline, and the development of strong national identities in both countries.
The Battle of Poitiers was a major English victory in the Edwardian phase of the Hundred Years' War. It was fought on 19 September 1356 in Nouaillé, near the city of Poitiers in Aquitaine, western France. Edward, the Black Prince, led an army of English, Welsh, Breton and Gascon troops, many of them veterans of the Battle of Crécy. They were attacked by a larger French force led by King John II of France, which included allied Scottish forces. The French were heavily defeated; an English counter-attack captured King John II along with his youngest son and much of the French nobility.
Charles II, called Charles the Bad, was King of Navarre 1349–1387 and Count of Évreux 1343–1387.
Charles V, called the Wise, was King of France from 1364 to his death. His reign marked a high point for France during the Hundred Years' War, with his armies recovering much of the territory held by the English, and successfully reversed the military losses of his predecessors.
The Treaty of Brétigny was a treaty, drafted on 8 May 1360 and ratified on 24 October 1360, between King Edward III of England and King John II of France. In retrospect it is seen as having marked the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453)—as well as the height of English power on the Continent.
The War of the Breton Succession was a conflict between the Counts of Blois and the Montforts of Brittany for control of the Duchy of Brittany, then a fief of the Kingdom of France. It was fought between 1341 and 12 April 1365.
Bertrand du Guesclin, nicknamed "The Eagle of Brittany" or "The Black Dog of Brocéliande", was a Breton knight and an important military commander on the French side during the Hundred Years' War. From 1370 to his death, he was Constable of France for King Charles V. Well known for his Fabian strategy, he took part in six pitched battles and won the four in which he held command.
Captal, was a medieval feudal title in Gascony. According to Du Cange the designation captal was applied loosely to the more illustrious nobles of Aquitaine, counts, viscounts, etc., probably as capitales domini, principal lords, though he quotes more fanciful explanations.
Jean III de Grailly, Captal de Buch,, was a Gascon nobleman and a military leader in the Hundred Years' War, who was praised by the chronicler Jean Froissart as an ideal of chivalry.
James I of Bourbon, was the son of Louis I, Duke of Bourbon and Mary of Avesnes. He was Count of Ponthieu from 1351 to 1360, and Count of La Marche from 1341 to his death.
The Battle of Cocherel was a battle fought on 16 May 1364 between the forces of Charles V of France and the forces of Charles II of Navarre, over the succession to the dukedom of Burgundy. The result was a French victory.
The Caroline War was the second phase of the Hundred Years' War between France and England, following the Edwardian War. It was so-named after Charles V of France, who resumed the war nine years after the Treaty of Brétigny. The Kingdom of France dominated this phase of the war.
Robert I of Bar was Marquis of Pont-à-Mousson and Count and then Duke of Bar. He succeeded his elder brother Edward II of Bar as count in 1352. His parents were Henry IV of Bar and Yolande of Flanders.
Guy I of Clermont-Nesle was a Marshal of France, Seigneur (Lord) of Offemont jure uxoris, and possibly of Ailly, Maulette and Breteuil. He might have been a Seigneur of Nesle also, or used the title "Sire of Nesle" due to his family. Difficulties about the seigneurie of Breteuil are present, and the status of Ailly and Maulette in relation to Breteuil.
Jean de Foix was the Captal de Buch, first Earl of Kendal, Vicomte de Castillon, Meilles and Comte de Benauges.
Gaston I of Foix or Gaston VIII of Foix-Béarn was the 9th Count of Foix, the 22nd Viscount of Béarn and Co-Prince of Andorra.
Louis de Sancerre was a Marshal of France and Constable of France during the Hundred Years War.
Archambaud de Grailly was Viscount of Castillon and Gruson from 1356 until his death, and from 1369 Count of Bénauges and Captal de Buch. He was the younger son of Peter II of Grailly and his wife, Rosamburge of Périgord and was Count of Foix by his marriage to Isabella, Countess of Foix.
Guillaume Boitel, was a knight and the faithful companion of the French knight Bertrand Du Guesclin. He was originally sent by king Charles V of France to assist Du Guesclin during the Anglo-French war in Normandy and the Breton War of Succession between Charles de Blois and Jean de Montfort (1363-1364).
The Viscountcy Castillon was situated in south-western France. At its centre was the town of Castillon-sur-Dordogne. The purpose of the viscountcy, which has existed since the 10th century, was in the defence of the crossing over the River Dordogne.
Jean I Le Maingre, also called Boucicaut, Marshal of France, was a 14th century French noble.