Captopril suppression test

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Captopril suppression test
Aldosterone (chemical structure) is measured in the CST.
Purposemeasures plasma levels of aldosterone.

The captopril suppression test (CST) is a non-invasive medical test that measures plasma levels of aldosterone. [1] Aldosterone production is suppressed by captopril through the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system. CST results are used to assist in the diagnososis of primary aldosteronism (Conn syndrome).

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">ACE inhibitor</span> Class of medications used primarily to treat high blood pressure

Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors are a class of medication used primarily for the treatment of high blood pressure and heart failure. This class of medicine works by causing relaxation of blood vessels as well as a decrease in blood volume, which leads to lower blood pressure and decreased oxygen demand from the heart.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Aldosterone</span> Mineralocorticoid steroid hormone

Aldosterone is the main mineralocorticoid steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland. It is essential for sodium conservation in the kidney, salivary glands, sweat glands, and colon. It plays a central role in the homeostatic regulation of blood pressure, plasma sodium (Na+), and potassium (K+) levels. It does so primarily by acting on the mineralocorticoid receptors in the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the nephron. It influences the reabsorption of sodium and excretion of potassium (from and into the tubular fluids, respectively) of the kidney, thereby indirectly influencing water retention or loss, blood pressure, and blood volume. When dysregulated, aldosterone is pathogenic and contributes to the development and progression of cardiovascular and kidney disease. Aldosterone has exactly the opposite function of the atrial natriuretic hormone secreted by the heart.

CST or Cst may refer to:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Primary aldosteronism</span> Medical condition

Primary aldosteronism (PA), also known as primary hyperaldosteronism, refers to the excess production of the hormone aldosterone from the adrenal glands, resulting in low renin levels and high blood pressure. This abnormality is caused by hyperplasia or tumors. About 35% of the cases are caused by a single aldosterone-secreting adenoma, a condition known as Conn's syndrome.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Captopril</span> Antihypertensive drug of the ACE inhibitor class

Captopril, sold under the brand name Capoten among others, is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used for the treatment of hypertension and some types of congestive heart failure. Captopril was the first oral ACE inhibitor found for the treatment of hypertension. It does not cause fatigue as associated with beta-blockers. Due to the adverse drug event of causing hyperkalemia, as seen with most ACE Inhibitors, the medication is usually paired with a diuretic.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lisinopril</span> Medication used to treat hypertension and heart failure

Lisinopril is a medication belonging to the drug class of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and is used to treat hypertension, heart failure, and heart attacks. For high blood pressure it is usually a first-line treatment. It is also used to prevent kidney problems in people with diabetes mellitus. Lisinopril is taken orally. Full effect may take up to four weeks to occur.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hypoaldosteronism</span> Medical condition

Hypoaldosteronism is an endocrinological disorder characterized by decreased levels of the hormone aldosterone. Similarly, isolated hypoaldosteronism is the condition of having lowered aldosterone without corresponding changes in cortisol.

Secondary hypertension is a type of hypertension which by definition is caused by an identifiable underlying primary cause. It is much less common than the other type, called essential hypertension, affecting only 5-10% of hypertensive patients. It has many different causes including endocrine diseases, kidney diseases, and tumors. The cause of secondary hypertension varies significantly with age. It also can be a side effect of many medications.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hyperaldosteronism</span> Hormonal disorder

Hyperaldosteronism is a medical condition wherein too much aldosterone is produced by the adrenal glands, which can lead to lowered levels of potassium in the blood (hypokalemia) and increased hydrogen ion excretion (alkalosis).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Liddle's syndrome</span> Medical condition

Liddle's syndrome, also called Liddle syndrome, is a genetic disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant manner that is characterized by early, and frequently severe, high blood pressure associated with low plasma renin activity, metabolic alkalosis, low blood potassium, and normal to low levels of aldosterone. Liddle syndrome involves abnormal kidney function, with excess reabsorption of sodium and loss of potassium from the renal tubule, and is treated with a combination of low sodium diet and potassium-sparing diuretics. It is extremely rare, with fewer than 30 pedigrees or isolated cases having been reported worldwide as of 2008.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Captopril challenge test</span>

The captopril challenge test (CCT) is a non-invasive medical test that measures the change in renin plasma-levels in response to administration of captopril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. It is used to assist in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis. It is not generally considered a useful test for children, and more suitable options are available for adult cases.

Pseudohyperaldosteronism is a medical condition which mimics the effects of elevated aldosterone (hyperaldosteronism) by presenting with high blood pressure (hypertension), low blood potassium levels (hypokalemia), metabolic alkalosis, and low levels of plasma renin activity (PRA). However, unlike hyperaldosteronism, this conditions exhibits low or normal levels of aldosterone in the blood. Causes include genetic disorders, acquired conditions, metabolic disorders, and dietary imbalances including excessive consumption of licorice. Confirmatory diagnosis depends on the specific root cause and may involve blood tests, urine tests, or genetic testing; however, all forms of this condition exhibit abnormally low concentrations of both plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) which differentiates this group of conditions from other forms of secondary hypertension. Treatment is tailored to the specific cause and focuses on symptom control, blood pressure management, and avoidance of triggers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Aldosterone synthase</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Aldosterone synthase, also called steroid 18-hydroxylase, corticosterone 18-monooxygenase or P450C18, is a steroid hydroxylase cytochrome P450 enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone and other steroids. The enzyme catalyzes sequential hydroxylations of the steroid angular methyl group at C18 after initial 11β-hydroxylation. It is encoded by the CYP11B2 gene in humans.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">18-Hydroxycorticosterone</span> Chemical compound

18-Hydroxycorticosterone is an endogenous steroid. It is a derivative of corticosterone.

The ACTH test is a medical test usually requested and interpreted by endocrinologists to assess the functioning of the adrenal glands' stress response by measuring the adrenal response to adrenocorticotropic hormone or another corticotropic agent such as tetracosactide or alsactide (Synchrodyn). ACTH is a hormone produced in the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal glands to release cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and aldosterone.

Plasma renin activity (PRA), also known as the renin (active) assay or random plasma renin, is a measure of the activity of the plasma enzyme renin, which plays a major role in the body's regulation of blood pressure, thirst, and urine output. Measure of direct renin concentration (DRC) is technically more demanding, and hence PRA is used instead. DRC assays are still in evolution, and generally a conversion factor of PRA (ng/mL/h) to DRC (mU/L) is 8.2. A recently developed and already commonly used automated DRC assay uses the conversion factor of 12. PRA is sometimes measured, specially in case of certain diseases which present with hypertension or hypotension. PRA is also raised in certain tumors. A PRA measurement may be compared to a plasma aldosterone concentration as an aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR).

Glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism also describable as aldosterone synthase hyperactivity, is an autosomal dominant disorder in which the increase in aldosterone secretion produced by ACTH is no longer transient.

SUSPUP (serum sodium to urinary sodium to serum potassium to urinary potassium) and SUSPPUP (serum sodium to urinary sodium to (serum potassium)2 to urinary potassium) are calculated structure parameters of the renin–angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). They have been developed to support screening for primary or secondary aldosteronism.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">18-Hydroxycortisol</span> Chemical compound

18-Hydroxycortisol is an endogenous steroid, a metabolite of cortisol.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">18-Oxocortisol</span> Chemical compound

18-Oxocortisol is an endogenous steroid, a metabolite of cortisol.


  1. Agharazii M, Douville P, Grose JH, Lebel M (June 2001). "Captopril suppression versus salt loading in confirming primary aldosteronism". Hypertension. 37 (6): 1440–3. doi: 10.1161/01.hyp.37.6.1440 . PMID   11408392.