Caraș-Severin County

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Caraș-Severin County

Județul Caraș-Severin
County
Actual Caras-Severin county CoA.png
Coat of arms
Caras-Severin in Romania.svg
Caraș-Severin county, territorial location
Coordinates: 45°09′N22°04′E / 45.15°N 22.07°E / 45.15; 22.07 Coordinates: 45°09′N22°04′E / 45.15°N 22.07°E / 45.15; 22.07
CountryFlag of Romania.svg  Romania
Development region1 Vest
Historic region Banat
Capital city (Reședință de județ) Reșița
Government
  TypeCounty Board
  President of the County BoardSorin Frunzăverde (Democratic-Liberal Party)
  Prefect2Ioan Anton Paulescu
Area
  Total8,514 km2 (3,287 sq mi)
Area rank 3rd in Romania
Population
 (2011)
  Total274,277
  Rank 32nd in Romania
  Density39/km2 (100/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal Code
32wxyz3
Area code(s) +40 x55 4
Car Plates CS5
GDPUS$ 1.906 billion (2015)
GDP/capita US$ 6,95 (2015)
Website County Council
County Prefecture
1The development regions of Romania have no administrative role. They were formed to correspond to NUTS-II level subdivisions of the European Union member states and are the basis for development funding under the cohesion and convergence objectives of the EU's regional policy
2 as of 2007, the Prefect is not a politician, but a public functionary. He (or she) is not allowed to be a member of a political party, and is banned from any political activity in the first six months after resignation (or exclusion) from the public functionary corps
3w, x, y, and z are digits that indicate the city, the street, part of the street, or even the building of the address
4x is a digit indicating the operator: 2 for the former national operator, Romtelecom, and 3 for the other ground telephone networks
5used on both the plates of the vehicles that operate only in the county limits (like utility vehicles, ATVs, etc.), and the ones used outside the county

Caraș-Severin (Romanian pronunciation:  [ˈkaraʃ seveˈrin] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a county (județ) of Romania on the border with Serbia. The majority of its territory lies within the historical region of Banat, with a few northeastern villages considered part of Transylvania. The county seat is Reșița. The Caraș-Severin county is part of the Danube-Kris-Mures-Tisza Euroregion.

A județ is an administrative division in Romania, and was also used from 1940 to 1947 in the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic and from 1998 to 2003 in Moldova.

Romania Sovereign state in Europe

Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, and Moldova to the east. It has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres (92,046 sq mi), Romania is the 12th largest country and also the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having almost 20 million inhabitants. Its capital and largest city is Bucharest, and other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Craiova, and Brașov.

Serbia Republic in Southeastern Europe

Serbia, officially the Republic of Serbia, is a country situated at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe in the southern Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans. It borders Hungary to the north, Romania to the northeast, Bulgaria to the southeast, North Macedonia to the south, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west, and Montenegro to the southwest. The country claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo. Serbia's population numbers approximately seven million, most of whom are Orthodox Christians. Its capital, Belgrade, ranks among the oldest and largest citiеs in southeastern Europe.

Contents

Name

In Serbian and Croatian, it is known as Karaš Severin/Караш Северин or Karaš-Severinska županija, in Hungarian as Krassó-Szörény megye, in German as Kreis Karasch-Severin, and in Bulgarian as Караш-Северин (translit. Karash-Severin).

Serbian language South Slavic language

Serbian is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs. It is the official language of Serbia, co-official in the territory of Kosovo, and one of the three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In addition, it is a recognized minority language in Montenegro, where it is spoken by the relative majority of the population, as well as in Croatia, North Macedonia, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic.

Croatian language South Slavic language

Croatian is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina, and other neighboring countries. It is the official and literary standard of Croatia and one of the official languages of the European Union. Croatian is also one of the official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina and a recognized minority language in Serbia and neighboring countries.

Hungarian language language spoken in and around Hungary

Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and parts of several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine (Subcarpathia), central and western Romania (Transylvania), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia and northern Slovenia. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America and Israel. Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family. With 13 million speakers, it is the family's largest member by number of speakers.

Demographics

The county is part of the Danube-Kris-Mureș-Tisza euroregion.

In 2011, it had a population of 274,277 and a population density of 33.63/km2.

The majority of the population (89.23%) are Romanians. There are also Roma (2.74%), Croats (1.88%), Germans - Banat Swabians (1.11%), Serbs (1.82%), Hungarians (1.19%) and Ukrainians (0.94%). [1]

Romanians ethnic group

The Romanians are a Romance ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture, ancestry, and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language which is descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians.

Croats of Romania

Croats are an ethnic minority in Romania, numbering 6,786 people according to the 2002 census. They mainly live in the southwest of the country, particularly in Caraș-Severin County. Declared Croatians form a majority in two Romanian localities: the communes of Carașova and Lupac. In these communes, Croatian is an officially recognised language, with signage, education and access to justice and public administration being provided in Croatian alongside Romanian.

Germans of Romania ethnic group

The Germans of Romania or Rumäniendeutsche are an ethnic group of Romania. During the interwar period in Romania, the total number of ethnic Germans amounted to as much as 786,000, a figure which has subsequently fallen to circa 36,000 as of 2011 in contemporary Romania.

YearCounty population [2]
1948302,254
1956Increase2.svg 327,787
1966Increase2.svg 358,726
1977Increase2.svg 385,577
1992Decrease2.svg 375,794
2002Decrease2.svg 333,219
2011Decrease2.svg 274,277

Geography

With 8,514 km2, it is the third largest county in Romania, after Timiș and Suceava counties. It is also the county through which the river Danube enters Romania.

Timiș County County in Vest, Romania

Timiș is a county (județ) of western Romania on the border with Hungary and Serbia, in the historical region Banat, with the county seat at Timișoara. It is the westernmost and the largest county in Romania in terms of land area. The county is also part of the Danube–Criș–Mureș–Tisa Euroregion.

Suceava County County in Nord-Est, Romania

Suceava County is a county of Romania. Most of its territory lies in the southern portion of the historical region of Bukovina, while the remainder forms part of Western Moldavia proper. The county seat is Suceava.

Danube River in Central Europe

The Danube is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga. It is located in Central and Eastern Europe.

The mountains make up 67% of the county's surface, including the Southern Carpathians range, with Banat Mountains, Țarcu-Godeanu Mountains and Cernei Mountains and elevations between 600 and 2100 meters. Transition hills between mountains and the Banat Plain lie in the western side of the county.

Southern Carpathians mountain range

The Southern Carpathians (also known as the Transylvanian Alps; Romanian: Carpații Meridionali are a group of mountain ranges located in southern Romania. They cover the part of the Carpathian Mountains located between the Prahova River in the east and the Timiș and Cerna Rivers in the west. To the south they are bounded by the Balkan mountain range.

Banat Mountains mountain range

The Banat Mountains are a number of mountain ranges in Romania, considered part of the Western Romanian Carpathians mountain range.

The Țarcu Mountains are a mountain range in the southwestern Romania, at the western edge of the Southern Carpathians. They are located between the Bistra Valley, Timiș River, Godeanu Mountains and Râul Mare Valley, the last one being a natural barrier between them and the Retezat Mountains. The Țarcu Mountains have been declared Natura 2000 protected area since 2007 because they shelter valuable biodiversity and spectacular nature. Together with the Retezat Mountains, the Godeanu Mountains and Cernei Mountains they form the last European Intact Forest Landscape, if we do not take boreal forests into account.

The Danube enters Romania in the vicinity of Baziaș, bordering Serbia. Timiș, Cerna, Caraș and Nera cross the county, some of them through spectacular valleys and gorges.

Neighbours

History and economy

In 1718 the county was part of the Habsburg Monarchy, part of the province of Banat. In 1771 the county seat, Reschitz (Reșița) became a modern industrial center under Austrian rule. The area received considerable attention due to its mining industry. In 1855, the entire Banat area, with its supplies of mineral deposits and timber, was transferred from the Austrian Treasury to a joint Austrian-French mining and railroad company named StEG. StEG built the Oravița-Baziaș line, Romania's oldest railroad track.

After World War I, StEG, Banat and most Austro-Hungarian property were taken over by a company named UDR. During the last years of World War II, when Romania was an ally of Nazi Germany, a partisan group, led by Ștefan Plavăț, was active in the mountainous area of the county. [3] The arrival of the communist regime in Romania after World War II and that regime's campaign of nationalization of the mining industry brought tremendous social upheaval in the area.

Tourism

Archaeological findings show the area has been populated since Paleolithic times. There is a County Museum of History in Reșița, displaying archeological artifacts, and, in the town of Ocna de Fier, the Constantin Gruiescu Mineralogical Collection. The county hosts the regional daffodil and lilac festivals in the Spring. Sites worth visiting:

Politics

The Caraș-Severin County Council, elected at the 2016 local government elections, is made up of 31 counselors, with the following party composition: [4]

   PartySeatsCurrent County Council
  Social Democratic Party 14              
  National Liberal Party 13              
  People's Movement Party 4              

Administrative divisions

Resita 19-0-DCn 1.jpg
Reșița
Caransebes Caransebes, Primaria.jpg
Caransebeș
Baile Herculane Baile Herculane, katolika pregejo, 1.jpeg
Băile Herculane
Bocsa Primaria Bocsa.jpg
Bocșa

Caraș-Severin County has 2 municipalities, 6 towns and 69 communes

Historic county

Județul Caraș-Severin
County (Județ)
Old county hall lugoj.png
The Caraș-Severin prefecture building from the interwar period.
Coats of arms of None.svg
Coat of arms
Romania 1930 county Caras-Severin.png
Country Flag of Romania.svg Romania
Historic region Banat
Capital city (Reședință de județ) Lugoj
Established1919
Ceased to exist1926
Area
  Total11,080 km2 (4,280 sq mi)
Population
 (1920)
  Total424,254
  Density38/km2 (99/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)

The territory of the county was transferred to the Romania from the Kingdom of Hungary in 1920 under the Treaty of Trianon. The county was located in the southwestern part of Greater Romania, in the south and east region of the Banat. The county seat was Lugoj. Its territory consisted entirely of the current territory of the county, but also parts of the current counties of Timiș, Arad, and Mehedinți. It bordered on the west with Timiș-Torontal County and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, to the south with Yugoslavia, to the east with the counties Mehedinți and Hunedoara, and to the north by Arad County. The county had a total area over 11,000 square kilometres (4,200 sq mi), making it the largest county geographically of interwar Romania. Its territory corresponded to the former Hungarian division of Krassó-Szörény County. The county existed for seven years, being divided in 1926 into Caraș County and Severin County.

Administration

The county was divided administratively into fourteen districts ( plăṣi ). There were five urban municipalities (cities): Lugoj (capital), Caransebeș, Reșița, Oravița and Orșova. [5] [6]

Population

According to the census data of 1920, the total population of the county was 424,254 inhabitants. The population density was 38 inhabitants/km2.

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Lugoj City in Timiș, Romania

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Timiș (river) river in Romania, tributary of Danube

The Timiș or Tamiš is a 359 km (223 mi) long river originating from the Semenic Mountains, southern Carpathian Mountains, Caraș-Severin County, Romania. It flows through the Banat region and flows into the Danube near Pančevo, in northern Serbia. Due to its position in the region, it has been labeled as the 'spine of the Banat".

Carașova Commune in Caraș-Severin County, Romania

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Coronini Commune in Caraș-Severin County, Romania

Coronini is a commune in Caraș-Severin County, western Romania, with a population of 1,674. Part of the region of Banat, it includes Coronini and Sfânta Elena villages. Situated on the Danube and the border with Serbia, part of the mountainous area known as Clisura Dunării, Coronini holds several archeological sites, which trace its history back to the Bronze Age. The locality is home to a medieval fortress built by rulers of the Hungarian Kingdom, but was re-founded during the Banat colonization of the 1790s, and officially in 1858. A center for immigration from the Czech lands in the early 19th century, Sfânta Elena is among the traditional places founded by and associated with the Czech-Romanian community.

Domașnea Commune in Caraș-Severin County, Romania

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Severin County County in Romania

Severin County was a county in the Kingdom of Romania, in the historical region of the Banat. Its capital was Lugoj. Severin County was established in 1926, disbanded with the administrative reform of 1938, re-created in 1940, and finally disbanded with the administrative reform of 1950.

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Domogled-Valea Cernei National Park

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Diocese of Caransebeș

The Diocese of Caransebeș is a Romanian Orthodox diocese based in Caransebeș, Romania, in the historic region of the Banat, and covering Caraș-Severin County. Established by the 17th century, it was moved to present-day Serbia during the 18th century, before being restored in 1865. It was dissolved in 1949 and revived in its current form in 1994.

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Caraș County County in Romania

Caraș County is one of the historic counties Romania in the historic region of the Banat. The county seat was Oravița. The county was founded in 1926, following the division of the former Caraş-Severin County.

References

  1. National Institute of Statistics, "Populația după etnie" Archived 16 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  2. National Institute of Statistics, "Populația la recensămintele din anii 1948, 1956, 1966, 1977, 1992 și 2002" Archived 22 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  3. Covaci, Maria (1969). "Ștefan Plavăț" in Anale de Istorie, Vol. XV, Nr. 4. Institutul de Studii Istorice și Social-Politice de pe lîngă C.C. al P.C.R, Bucharest. p. 145.
  4. "Mandate de CJ pe judete si competitori" (in Romanian). Biroul Electoral Central. 10 June 2016. Retrieved 16 June 2016.
  5. Portretul României Interbelice - Județul Caraș
  6. Portretul României Interbelice - Județul Severin