Carl Rogers Darnall
Brig. Gen. Carl Rogers Darnall
|Born||December 25, 1867|
|Died||January 18, 1941 (aged 73)|
|Place of burial|
|Years of service||1896–1931|
|Commands held||Army Medical Center|
|Wars|| Boxer Rebellion |
World War I
|Awards||Distinguished Service Medal|
Brigadier General Carl Rogers Darnall (December 25, 1867 in Weston, Texas – January 18, 1941 in Washington, D.C.) was a United States Army chemist and surgeon credited with originating the technique of liquid chlorination of drinking water. Chlorination has been an exceedingly important innovation in public health, saving innumerable lives.
Weston is a city in Collin County, Texas, United States. The population was 563 at the 2010 census.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father. As the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is also one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, and is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution. As the oldest and most senior branch of the U.S. military in order of precedence, the modern U.S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, which was formed to fight the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783)—before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army. The United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, and dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775.
Darnall was born on his father’s farm in the Cottage Hill community near McKinney, in Collin County, Texas. He was the eldest of the seven children of Reverend Joseph Rogers Darnall, minister of the Christian Church, and Mary Ellen (Thomas) Darnall.
McKinney is a city in and the county seat of Collin County, Texas, United States. It is Collin County's second-largest city, after Plano. Part of the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex, McKinney is about 32 miles (51 km) north of Dallas.
Collin County is a county in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 United States Census, the county's population was 782,341, making it the seventh-most populous county in Texas and the 63rd-largest county by population in the United States. The 2017 Census Bureau estimate for Collin County's population is 969,603. Its county seat is McKinney.
"Christian Church" is an ecclesiological term generally used by Protestants to refer to the whole group of people belonging to Christianity throughout the history of Christianity. In this understanding, "Christian Church" does not refer to a particular Christian denomination but to the body of all believers. Some Christian traditions, however, believe that the term "Christian Church" or "Church" applies only to a specific historic Christian body or institution. The Four Marks of the Church first expressed in the Nicene Creed are that the Church is One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic.
He studied at Carlton College, Bonham, Texas, and Transylvania University, Lexington, Kentucky and received a MD degree from Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia (1890). In 1892 he married Annie Estella Major of Erwinna, Pennsylvania. In 1896, after a few years of private practice, he was commissioned a first lieutenant and assistant surgeon in the U.S. Army. He graduated from the Army Medical School in Washington the following year.
Bonham is a city in Fannin County, Texas, United States. The population was 10,127 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Fannin County. James Bonham sought the aid of James Fannin at the Battle of the Alamo.
Transylvania University is a private university in Lexington, Kentucky, United States. Transylvania was founded in 1780, making it the first university in Kentucky. It offers 36 major programs, as well as dual-degree engineering programs, and is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. Transylvania's name, meaning "across the woods" in Latin, stems from the university's founding in the heavily forested region of western Virginia known as the Transylvania Colony, which became most of Kentucky in 1792. Transylvania is the alma mater of two U.S. vice presidents, two U.S. Supreme Court justices, 50 U.S. senators, 101 U.S. representatives, 36 U.S. governors, the one Confederate President, and 34 U.S. ambassadors, making it a large producer of U.S. statesmen. Its medical program graduated 8,000 physicians by 1859. Its enduring footprint, both in national and Southern academia, makes it among the most prolific cultural establishments and the most storied institutions in the South.
Lexington, consolidated with Fayette County and often denoted as Lexington-Fayette, is the second-largest city in Kentucky and the 60th-largest city in the United States. By land area, Lexington is the 28th largest city in the United States. Known as the "Horse Capital of the World," it is the heart of the state's Bluegrass region. It has a nonpartisan mayor-council form of government, with 12 council districts and three members elected at large, with the highest vote-getter designated vice mayor. In the 2017 U.S. Census Estimate, the city's population was 321,959, anchoring a metropolitan area of 512,650 people and a combined statistical area of 856,849 people.
Darnall’s first assignments were to stations in Texas – Fort Clark at Brackettville, and Fort McIntosh at Laredo. During the Spanish–American War (1898), Darnall served in Cuba. Later, he served as an operating surgeon and pathologist aboard the hospital ship USS Relief in the Philippines and commanded the hospital at Iloilo. He was one of the few medical officers that accompanied the Allied Forces during the Boxer Rebellion in China.
Fort Clark was a frontier fort located just off U.S. Route 90 near Brackettville, in the county of Kinney, in the U.S. state of Texas. It later became the headquarters for the 2nd Cavalry Division. The Fort Clark Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places on December 6, 1979. The Commanding Officer's Quarters at Fort Clark was designated a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark in 1988. The Fort Clark Guardhouse became a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark in 1962. The Fort Clark Officers' Row Quarters was designated a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark in 1991.
Brackettville is a city in Kinney County, Texas, United States. The population was 1,876 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Kinney County. Brackettville claims it is the drive-in movie capital of Texas.
Fort McIntosh was a U.S. Army base in Laredo, Webb County, Texas, that existed from 1849 to 1946.
In 1902, Darnall returned to Washington, D.C., and served as secretary of the faculty and instructor for sanitary chemistry and operative surgery at the Army Medical School. It was while a major and a professor of chemistry there that he demonstrated the value of anhydrous, liquefied chlorine in purifying water. His 1910 invention, the mechanical liquid chlorine purifier (known as a "chlorinator"), was the prototype of the technology that is now applied to municipal water supplies throughout the world. Darnall also devised and patented a water filter that was used by the Army for many years. Major William Lyster further adapted the process of water chlorination to field use by inventing a method to apply sodium hypochlorite in a cloth bag, known as a Lyster bag.
In the United States Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force, major is a field grade military officer rank above the rank of captain and below the rank of lieutenant colonel. It is equivalent to the naval rank of lieutenant commander in the other uniformed services. Although lieutenant commanders are considered junior officers by their respective services, the rank of major is considered field grade in the United States Army and the United States Marine Corps.
A substance is anhydrous if it contains no water. Many processes in chemistry can be impeded by the presence of water, therefore, it is important that water-free reagents and techniques are used. In practice, however, it is very difficult to achieve perfect dryness; anhydrous compounds gradually absorb water from the atmosphere so they must be stored carefully.
Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaOCl or NaClO, comprising a sodium cation and a hypochlorite anion. It may also be viewed as the sodium salt of hypochlorous acid. The anhydrous compound is unstable and may decompose explosively. It can be crystallized as a pentahydrate NaOCl·5H
2O, a pale greenish-yellow solid which is not explosive and is stable if kept refrigerated.
Darnall was promoted to Colonel in 1917. During World War I, Darnall’s talents for business and organization were recognized and he was assigned to the Finance and Supply Division in the Office of The Surgeon General (OTSG). After the war, he served as department surgeon in Hawaii. In 1925, he returned to the OTSG as executive officer. In November (or December 5?), 1929, he was promoted to brigadier general and became the Commanding General of the Army Medical Center, a post he held until he retired on December 31, 1931.
Colonel is a senior military officer rank below the brigadier and general officer ranks. However, in some small military forces, such as those of Monaco or the Vatican, colonel is the highest rank. It is also used in some police forces and paramilitary organizations.
World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.
An executive officer (CCE) is generally a person responsible for running an organization, although the exact nature of the role varies depending on the organization. In many militaries, an executive officer, or "XO," is the second-in-command, reporting to the commanding officer. The XO is typically responsible for the management of day-to-day activities, freeing the commander to concentrate on strategy and planning the unit's next move.
Darnall died on 18 January 1941 at Walter Reed General Hospital, Washington, D.C.. Six days earlier, his wife had died at the family home in Washington. They left three sons, Joseph Rogers (1894–1976), William Major (b. 1895), and Carl Robert (b. 1904), all of whom served in some capacity in the Army. He is buried in the Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia.
Darnall was a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons, a member of the American Medical Association and Association of Military Surgeons of the United States. He was a veteran of the Military Order of the Carabao, member of the Army and Navy Club of Washington, and Founder Member of the Army and Navy Country Club. Darnall received the Distinguished Service Medal for his organizing, developing and administering medical supplies during World War I.
The Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC)—known as Walter Reed General Hospital (WRGH) until 1951—was the U.S. Army's flagship medical center from 1909 to 2011. Located on 113 acres (46 ha) in the District of Columbia, it served more than 150,000 active and retired personnel from all branches of the military. The center was named after Major Walter Reed (1851–1902), an Army physician who led the team that confirmed that yellow fever is transmitted by mosquitoes rather than direct contact.
William Crawford Gorgas KCMG was a United States Army physician and 22nd Surgeon General of the U.S. Army (1914–1918). He is best known for his work in Florida, Havana and at the Panama Canal in abating the transmission of yellow fever and malaria by controlling the mosquitoes that carry these diseases. At the time, his strategy was greeted with considerable skepticism and opposition to such hygiene measures. However, the measures he put into practice as the head of the Panama Canal Zone Sanitation Commission saved thousands of lives and contributed to the success of the Canal's construction.
Brigadier General Frederick Fuller Russell was a U.S. Army physician who perfected a typhoid vaccine in 1909. In 1911, a typhoid vaccination program was carried out to have the entire U.S. Army immunized. As a direct result of his research, the U.S. Army was the first military to make vaccination a required prophylaxis against typhoid. The 1911 measure eliminated typhoid as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among U.S. military personnel.
John Moore, MD was a leading United States Army physician during the American Civil War who rose to become Surgeon General of the Army in the late 1880s.
Founded by U.S. Army Brigadier General George Miller Sternberg, MD in 1893, the Army Medical School (AMS) was by some reckonings the world's first school of public health and preventive medicine. The AMS ultimately became the Army Medical Center (1923), then the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (1953).
The Carl R. Darnall Army Medical Center is located at Fort Hood, Texas. It originally opened in 1965 as the Darnall Army Community Hospital, replacing the World War II era hospital, a long group of one-story buildings connected with covered walkways. It is named in honor of Brig. Gen. Carl Rogers Darnall, MD.
The Borden Institute is a U.S. Army “Center of Excellence in Military Medical Research and Education”.
Darnall is an electoral ward in City of Sheffield, England.
Brigadier General Roger Brooke was an American surgeon and U.S. Army medical corps officer. Brooke Army Medical Center in San Antonio, Texas, is named after him.
Joseph K. Barnes was an American physician and the 12th Surgeon General of the United States Army (1864–1882).
Hal Bruce Jennings, Jr. was an American plastic surgeon who served as Surgeon General of the United States Army from October 10, 1969, to September 30, 1973.
The United States Army Medical Materiel Agency (USAMMA), a subordinate unit of the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC) at Fort Detrick, Maryland, serves as the U.S. Army's executive agent for strategic medical acquisition and logistics programs.
Robert Maitland O'Reilly was the 20th Surgeon General of the United States Army, serving from September 7, 1902 to January 14, 1909.
Dr. James K. Gilman, a retired United States Army Major General and physician from Hymera, Indiana, became the first chief executive officer of the NIH Clinical Center Jan. 9, 2017. The NIH Clinical Center is the nation's largest hospital devoted to clinical research.
Brigadier General Theodore C. Lyster, M.D. was a United States Army physician and aviation medicine pioneer.
Loree K. Sutton is a former brigadier general in the United States Army. She was the founding director of the Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury (DCoE) and was a special assistant to the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs.
Water chlorination is the process of adding chlorine or chlorine compounds such as sodium hypochlorite to water. This method is used to kill certain bacteria and other microbes in tap water as chlorine is highly toxic. In particular, chlorination is used to prevent the spread of waterborne diseases such as cholera, dysentery, and typhoid.
Paul Ramsey Hawley was an American physician who served as command surgeon of the European Theater of Operations, United States Army from January 1942 to May 1945. After the war, he was appointed as medical director of the U.S. Veterans Administration and chief executive officer of Blue Cross/Blue Shield.
Charles Sutherland was an American doctor and officer in the United States Army. He was most notable for his service as Surgeon General of the United States Army.
Brigadier General Charles Henry Alden was a prominent member of the United States Medical Corps. He was the first president of the Army Medical School.