Carl Steenstrup

Last updated
Carl Steenstrup
Born 1934
Vaasa, Finland
Died 11.11.2014
Berlin, Germany [1]
Occupation Japanologist

Carl Steenstrup (born 1934 in Vaasa, Finland; died November 11, 2014, in Berlin, Germany [2] ) was a Danish japanologist.

Vaasa City in Ostrobothnia, Finland

Vaasa is a city on the west coast of Finland. It received its charter in 1606, during the reign of Charles IX of Sweden and is named after the Royal House of Vasa. Vaasa has a population of 67,588, and is the regional capital of Ostrobothnia.

Finland Republic in Northern Europe

Finland, officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east. Finland is a Nordic country and is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia. The capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Vantaa, Tampere, Oulu and Turku.

Berlin Capital of Germany

Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 (2018) inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London. The city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, and contiguous with its capital, Potsdam. The two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions.

Contents

Carl Steenstrup is known for translating several works of Japanese literature, mostly those relating to the historical development of Bushido, Japanese Feudal Law, and the Kakun (House Codes) of famous Samurai Leaders Hōjō Shigetoki and Imagawa Ryoshun. Steenstrup's dissertation at Harvard University was entitled Hôjô Shigetoki (11981261) and his Role in the History of Political and Ethical Ideas in Japan.

Japanese literature literature of Japan

Early works of Japanese literature were heavily influenced by cultural contact with China and Chinese literature, often written in Classical Chinese. Indian literature also had an influence through the separation of Buddhism in Japan. Eventually, Japanese literature developed into a separate style, although the influence of Chinese literature and Classical Chinese remained until the end of the Edo period. Since Japan reopened its ports to Western trading and diplomacy in the 19th century, Western and Eastern literature have strongly affected each other and continue to do so.

<i>Bushido</i> Moral code of the samurai

Bushidō is a Japanese collective term for the many codes of honour and ideals that dictated the samurai way of life, loosely analogous to the indigenous European concept of chivalry.

Samurai Military nobility of pre-industrial Japan

Samurai (侍) were the military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan.

He was a civil servant for the Danish Government from 1952 to 1985 and Professor of Japanese History at Munich University (1985 to 2000). From 1971 to 1972 he was a lecturer in Nordic languages for Tōkai University in Tokyo, Japan. After his retirement, he lectured at Humboldt University in Berlin, and the Government Academy of Law and Economics in Irkutsk.

Irkutsk City in eastern Russia

Irkutsk is the administrative center of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, and one of the largest cities in Siberia.

Curriculum vitae

Career

Books

Publications

The International Society for the Comparative Study of Civilizations (ISCSC) is an international scholarly organization dedicated to the interdisciplinary study of civilizations. Based at Western Michigan University in the United States, the ISCSC holds an annual conference and publishes the journal Comparative Civilizations Review.

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Tokugawa Ieyasu Founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan

Tokugawa Ieyasu was the founder and first shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, which effectively ruled Japan from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Ieyasu seized power in 1600, received appointment as shōgun in 1603, and abdicated from office in 1605, but remained in power until his death in 1616. His given name is sometimes spelled Iyeyasu, according to the historical pronunciation of the kana character he. Ieyasu was posthumously enshrined at Nikkō Tōshō-gū with the name Tōshō Daigongen (東照大権現). He was one of the three unifiers of Japan, along with his former lord Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

Kamakura City in Kantō, Japan

Kamakura is a city in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Although Kamakura proper is today rather small, it is often described in history books as a former de facto capital of Japan, the nation's most populous settlement from 1200 to 1300 AD, as the seat of the shogunate and of the Regency during the Kamakura period. Kamakura was designated as a city on November 3, 1939.

Kamakura shogunate feudal military government of Japan

The Kamakura shogunate was a Japanese feudal military government of imperial-aristocratic rule that ruled from 1185 to 1333. The heads of the government were the shōguns. The first three were members of the Minamoto clan. The next two were members of the Fujiwara clan. The last six were minor Imperial princes.

Sengoku period Period in Imperial Japan

The Sengoku period is a period in Japanese history marked by social upheaval, political intrigue and near-constant military conflict. Japanese historians named it after the otherwise unrelated Warring States period in China. It was initiated by the Ōnin War, which collapsed the Japanese feudal system under the Ashikaga shogunate, and came to an end when the system was re-established under the Tokugawa shogunate by Tokugawa Ieyasu.

Minamoto no Yoritomo 1st shogun of the Kamakura shogunate

Minamoto no Yoritomo was the founder and the first shōgun of the Kamakura shogunate of Japan. He ruled from 1192 until 1199. His Buddhist name was Bukōshōgendaizenmon (武皇嘯原大禅門).

Kamakura period period of Japanese history

The Kamakura period is a period of Japanese history that marks the governance by the Kamakura shogunate, officially established in 1192 in Kamakura by the first shōgun, Minamoto no Yoritomo. The period is known for the emergence of the samurai, the warrior caste, and for the establishment of feudalism in Japan.

Hōjō clan clan who controlled the Kamakura Shogunate as shikken (regent) in Japan

The Hōjō clan in the history of Japan was a family who controlled the hereditary title of shikken (regent) of the Kamakura shogunate between 1203 and 1333. Despite the title, in practice the family wielded actual governmental power during this period compared to both the Kamakura shōguns, or the Imperial Court in Kyoto, whose authority was largely symbolic. The Hōjō are known for fostering Zen Buddhism and for leading the successful opposition to the Mongol invasions of Japan. Resentment at Hōjō rule eventually culminated in the overthrow of the clan and the establishment of the Ashikaga shogunate.

Hōjō Yasutoki was the third shikken (regent) of the Kamakura shogunate in Japan. He strengthened the political system of the Hōjō regency.

Hōjō Tokiyori Japanese shikken of the Kamakura shogunate

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Sō clan

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Imagawa Sadayo Japanese poet and military commander of the early Muromachi period

Imagawa Sadayo, also known as Imagawa Ryōshun, was a renowned Japanese poet and military commander who served as tandai ("constable") of Kyūshū under the Ashikaga bakufu from 1371 to 1395. His father, Imagawa Norikuni, had been a supporter of the first Ashikaga shōgun, Ashikaga Takauji, and for his services had been granted the position of constable of Suruga Province. This promotion increased the prestige of the Imagawa family considerably, and they remained an important family through to the Edo period.

Later Hōjō clan Japanese clan, one of the most powerful daimyo of the Sengoku period

The Later Hōjō clan was one of the most powerful warrior clans in Japan in the Sengoku period and held domains primarily in the Kantō region.

Hōjō Ujitsuna Japanese daimyo of the Sengoku period

Hōjō Ujitsuna was the son of Hōjō Sōun, founder of the Go-Hōjō clan. He continued his father's quest to gain control of the Kantō. His childhood name was Chiyomaru (千代丸).

Japanese literature about samurai has a long and rich history, and includes written works such as medieval war chronicles, waka poetry, and more.

Hōjō Shigetoki (北条重時) was a Japanese samurai of the Kamakura period. He was the third Kitakata Rokuhara tandai, serving from 1230 to 1247. He was also known as Lord Gokuraku-ji. His writings influenced later samurai philosophy.

Mishima Taisha Shinto shrine in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan

The Mishima Taisha (三嶋大社) is a Shinto shrine in the city of Mishima in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. It is the ichinomiya of former Izu Province. The main festival of the shrine is held annually on August 16, and features yabusame performances.

Emperor Kōgon pretender to the title of emperor of Japan

Emperor Kōgon was the first of the Emperors of Northern Court during the Period of the Northern and Southern Courts in Japan. His reign spanned the years from 1331 through 1333.

Izusan Jinja Shinto shrine in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan

Izusan Jinja (伊豆山神社) is a Shinto shrine in the city of Atami in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. The shrine has been known by many names in its long history, including Soto Jinja (走湯神社). The shrine’s main festival is held annually on April 15.

References

  1. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-04-11. Retrieved 2015-04-04.
  2. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-04-11. Retrieved 2015-04-04.
  3. Mass, Jeffrey P. (Autumn 1980). "Pushing the Papers of Kamakura: The Nitty-gritticists versus the Grand Sweepers. Steenstrup reviews 'The Development of Kamakura Rule, 1180-1250: A History with Documents'". Monumenta Nipponica . 35 (3).
  4. Kozo, Yamamura (Summer 1991). "The Middle Ages Survey'd. Steenstrup review of 'The Cambridge History of Japan Volume 3: Medieval Japan'". Monumenta Nipponica . 46 (2).