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|Died||November 11, 2014 (aged 79–80)|
Carl Steenstrup (1934 – November 11, 2014)) was a Danish japanologist.
Carl Steenstrup is known for translating several works of Japanese literature, mostly those relating to the historical development of Bushido, Japanese Feudal Law, and the Kakun (House Codes) of famous Samurai Leaders Hōjō Shigetoki and Imagawa Ryoshun. Steenstrup's dissertation at Harvard University was entitled Hôjô Shigetoki (1198–1261) and his Role in the History of Political and Ethical Ideas in Japan.
He was a civil servant for the Danish Government from 1952 to 1985 and Professor of Japanese History at Munich University (1985 to 2000). From 1971 to 1972 he was a lecturer in Nordic languages for Tōkai University in Tokyo, Japan. After his retirement, he lectured at Humboldt University in Berlin, and the Government Academy of Law and Economics in Irkutsk.
Bushidō was the set of codes of honour and ideals that dictated the samurai way of life, loosely analogous to the European concept of chivalry.
The Kamakura shogunate was the feudal military government of Japan during the Kamakura Period from 1185 to 1333.
The Kamakura period is a period of Japanese history that marks the governance by the Kamakura shogunate, officially established in 1192 in Kamakura by the first shōgun, Minamoto no Yoritomo. The period is known for the emergence of the samurai, the warrior caste, and for the establishment of feudalism in Japan.
Hōjō Masako was a political leader, and the eldest daughter of Hōjō Tokimasa by his wife Hōjō no Maki. She was the sister of Hōjō Yoshitoki, and was married to Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shōgun of the Kamakura period. She was also the mother of O-Hime, Minamoto no Yoriie and Minamoto no Sanetomo, the second and third shōguns. She is thought by scholars to have exercised significant power in the early years of the Kamakura period, which was reflected by her contemporary sobriquet of the "nun shogun".
The Hōjō clan in the history of Japan was a family who controlled the hereditary title of shikken (regent) of the Kamakura shogunate between 1203 and 1333. Despite the title, in practice the family wielded actual governmental power during this period compared to both the Kamakura shōguns, or the Imperial Court in Kyoto, whose authority was largely symbolic. The Hōjō are known for fostering Zen Buddhism and for leading the successful opposition to the Mongol invasions of Japan. Resentment at Hōjō rule eventually culminated in the overthrow of the clan and the establishment of the Ashikaga shogunate.
Hōjō Tokimune of the Hōjō clan was the eighth shikken of the Kamakura shogunate, known for leading the Japanese forces against the invasion of the Mongols and for spreading Zen Buddhism. He was the eldest son of Tokiyori, fifth shikken (regent) of the Kamakura shogunate and de facto ruler of Japan. Hojo was from birth acknowledged to be the tokuso (head) of the clan Hojo and rigorously groomed to be his father’s successor. At the not-so-tender age of 18, in 1268 AD he became shikken himself.
Hōjō Yasutoki was the third shikken (regent) of the Kamakura shogunate in Japan. He strengthened the political system of the Hōjō regency.
Hōjō Tokiyori was the fifth shikken (regent) of the Kamakura shogunate in Japan.
Suruga Province was an old province in the area that is today the central part of Shizuoka Prefecture. Suruga bordered on Izu, Kai, Sagami, Shinano, and Tōtōmi provinces; and was bordered by the Pacific Ocean through Suruga Bay to the south. Its abbreviated form name was Sunshū (駿州).
The Miura family was one of the branch families descended from the Taira clan. They held large fiefs, and retained great political influence. They were one of the primary opponents of the Hōjō family of regents in the mid-13th century, and again at the beginning of the 16th. Miura remains a common family name in Japan today.
Imagawa Sadayo, also known as Imagawa Ryōshun, was a renowned Japanese poet and military commander who served as tandai ("constable") of Kyūshū under the Ashikaga bakufu from 1371 to 1395. His father, Imagawa Norikuni, had been a supporter of the first Ashikaga shōgun, Ashikaga Takauji, and for his services had been granted the position of constable of Suruga Province. This promotion increased the prestige of the Imagawa family considerably, and they remained an important family through to the Edo period.
The Later Hōjō clan was one of the most powerful warrior clans in Japan in the Sengoku period and held domains primarily in the Kantō region.
Hōjō Sōun was the first head of the Later Hōjō clan, one of the major powers in Japan's Sengoku period. Born Ise Moritoki, he was originally known as Ise Shinkurō (新九郎), a samurai of Taira lineage from a reputable family of shogunate officials. Although he only belonged to a side branch of the main, more prestigious Ise family, he fought his way up, gaining territory and changing his name in imitation of the illustrious Hōjō.
This is the glossary of Japanese history including the major terms, titles and events the casual reader might find useful in understanding articles on the subject.
Hōjō Ujitsuna was the son of Hōjō Sōun, founder of the Go-Hōjō clan. He continued his father's quest to gain control of the Kantō. His childhood name was Chiyomaru (千代丸).
Japanese literature about samurai has a long and rich history, and includes written works such as medieval war chronicles, waka poetry, and more.
Hōjō Shigetoki (北条重時) was a Japanese samurai of the Kamakura period. He was the third Kitakata Rokuhara tandai, serving from 1230 to 1247. He was also known as Lord Gokuraku-ji. His writings influenced later samurai philosophy.
The Mishima Taisha (三嶋大社) is a Shinto shrine in the city of Mishima in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. It is the ichinomiya of former Izu Province. The main festival of the shrine is held annually on August 16, and features yabusame performances.
Emperor Kōgon was the first of the Emperors of Northern Court during the Period of the Northern and Southern Courts in Japan. His reign spanned the years from 1331 through 1333.
Izusan Jinja (伊豆山神社) is a Shinto shrine in the city of Atami in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. The shrine has been known by many names in its long history, including Soto Jinja (走湯神社). The shrine’s main festival is held annually on April 15.