Carlos the Jackal

Last updated

Ilich Ramírez Sánchez
Born (1949-10-12) 12 October 1949 (age 71)
Michelena, Venezuela
Other namesCarlos
Carlos the Jackal
Criminal statusImprisoned since 1994
Spouse(s) Magdalena Kopp
Lana Jarrar
Isabelle Coutant-Peyre
Conviction(s) 16 murders
Criminal penalty Life imprisonment

Ilich Ramírez Sánchez (Spanish:  [ilitʃ raˈmiɾes ˈsantʃes] ; born 12 October 1949), also known as Carlos the Jackal (Spanish : Carlos el Chacal), is a native Venezuelan convicted of terrorist crimes, and currently serving a life sentence in France for the 1975 murder of an informant for the French government and two French counterintelligence agents. [1] [2] [3] While in prison he was further convicted of attacks in France that killed 11 and injured 150 people and sentenced to an additional life term in 2011, [4] [5] and then to a third life term in 2017. [6]

Contents

A committed Marxist–Leninist, Ramírez Sánchez was one of the most notorious political terrorists of his era, [7] [8] [9] protected and supported by Stasi and KGB. [10] When he joined the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) in 1970, recruiting officer Bassam Abu Sharif gave him the code name "Carlos" because of his South American roots. [11] After several bungled bombings, Ramírez Sánchez led the 1975 raid on the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) headquarters in Vienna, which killed three people. This was followed by a string of attacks against Western targets. For many years he was among the most-wanted international fugitives. Carlos was dubbed "The Jackal" by The Guardian after one of its correspondents reportedly spotted Frederick Forsyth's 1971 novel The Day of the Jackal near some of the fugitive's belongings. [12]

Biography

Early life

Ramírez Sánchez, son of Marxist lawyer José Altagracia Ramírez Navas and Elba María Sánchez, was born in Michelena, in the Venezuelan state of Táchira. [13] Despite his mother's pleas to give their firstborn child a Christian first name, José called him Ilyich, after Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, while two younger siblings were named "Lenin" (born 1951) and "Vladimir" (born 1958). [14] Ilyich attended a high school in Liceo Fermin Toro of Caracas and joined the youth movement of the Venezuelan Communist Party in 1959. After attending the Third Tricontinental Conference in January 1966 with his father, Ilyich reportedly spent the summer at Camp Matanzas, a guerrilla warfare school run by the Cuban DGI near Havana. [15] Later that year, his parents divorced.

His mother took the children to London, where she studied at Stafford House College in Kensington and the London School of Economics. In 1968, José tried to enroll Ilyich and his brother at the Sorbonne in Paris, but eventually opted for the Patrice Lumumba University in Moscow. According to the BBC, it was "a notorious hotbed for recruiting foreign communists to the Soviet Union" (see active measures). [16] [17] [18] He was expelled from the university in 1970.

From Moscow, Ramírez Sánchez travelled to Beirut, Lebanon, where he volunteered for the PFLP in July 1970. [19] He was sent to a training camp for foreign volunteers of the PFLP on the outskirts of Amman, Jordan. On graduating, he studied at a finishing school, code-named H4 and staffed by Iraqi military, near the Syria-Iraq border. [19]

On completing guerrilla training, Carlos (as he was now calling himself) played an active role for the PFLP in the north of Jordan during the Black September conflict of 1970, gaining a reputation as a fighter. After the organisation was pushed out of Jordan, he returned to Beirut. He was sent to be trained by Wadie Haddad. [20] He eventually left the Middle East to attend courses at the Polytechnic of Central London (now known as the University of Westminster), and apparently continued to work for the PFLP.

In 1973, Carlos conducted a failed PFLP assassination attempt on Joseph Sieff, a Jewish businessman and vice president of the British Zionist Federation. On 30 December, Carlos called on Sieff's home on Queen's Grove in St John's Wood and ordered the maid to take him to Sieff. [21] Finding Sieff in the bathroom, in his bath, Carlos fired one bullet at Sieff from his Tokarev 7.62mm pistol, which bounced off Sieff just between his nose and upper lip and knocked him unconscious; the gun then jammed and Carlos fled. [21] [22] [23] The attack was announced as retaliation for Mossad's assassination in Paris of Mohamed Boudia, a PFLP leader.

Carlos admits responsibility for a failed bomb attack on the Bank Hapoalim in London and car bomb attacks on three French newspapers accused of pro-Israeli leanings. He claimed to be the grenade thrower at a Parisian restaurant in an attack that killed two and injured 30 as part of the 1974 French Embassy attack in The Hague. He later participated in two failed rocket propelled grenade attacks on El Al airplanes at Orly Airport near Paris on 13 and 17 January 1975. The second attack resulted in gunfighting with police at the airport and a seventeen-hour hostage situation involving hundreds of riot police and the French Interior Minister Michel Poniatowski. Carlos fled during the gunfight while the three other PFLP terrorists were allowed flight to Baghdad, Iraq. [24] [25]

According to FBI agent Robert Scherrer, one MIR and one ERP member were arrested in Paraguay in June 1975. These two would have possessed Carlos's phone number in Paris. Paraguayan authorities would then have handed over the information to France. [26]

On 26 June 1975, Carlos's PFLP contact, Lebanon-born Michel Moukharbal, was captured and interrogated by the French domestic intelligence agency, the DST. [27] When two unarmed agents of the DST interrogated Carlos at a Parisian house party, Moukharbal revealed Carlos's identity. Carlos then shot and killed the two agents and Moukharbal, [28] fled the scene, and managed to escape via Brussels to Beirut.

In November 1976 the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs claimed Carlos and his wife were shot to death in centeal Bogota on November 24th. [29]

OPEC raid in Vienna and expulsion from PFLP

From Beirut, Carlos participated in the planning for the attack on the headquarters of OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) in Vienna. On 21 December 1975, he led the six-person team (which included Gabriele Kröcher-Tiedemann) that attacked the meeting of OPEC leaders. The team took more than 60 hostages and killed three: an Austrian policeman, an Iraqi OPEC employee and a member of the Libyan delegation. Carlos demanded that the Austrian authorities read a communiqué about the Palestinian cause on Austrian radio and television networks every two hours. To avoid the threatened execution of a hostage every 15 minutes, the Austrian government agreed and the communiqué was broadcast as demanded.

On 22 December, the government provided the PFLP and 42 hostages an airplane and flew them to Algiers, as demanded for the hostages' release. Ex-Royal Navy pilot Neville Atkinson, at that time the personal pilot for Libya's leader Muammar al-Gaddafi, flew Carlos and a number of others, including Hans-Joachim Klein, a supporter of the imprisoned Red Army Faction and a member of the Revolutionary Cells, and Gabriele Kröcher-Tiedemann, from Algiers. [30] [ page needed ] Atkinson flew the DC-9 to Tripoli, where more hostages were freed, before he returned to Algiers. The last hostages were freed there and some of the terrorists were granted asylum.

In the years following the OPEC raid, Bassam Abu Sharif, another PFLP agent, and Klein claimed that Carlos had received a large sum of money for the safe release of the Arab hostages and had kept it for his personal use. Claims are that the amount was between US$20 million and US$50 million. The source of the money is also uncertain but, according to Klein, it was from "an Arab president". Carlos later told his lawyers that the money was paid by the Saudis on behalf of the Iranians and was "diverted en route and lost by the Revolution."[ This quote needs a citation ]

Carlos left Algeria for Libya and then Aden, where he attended a meeting of senior PFLP officials to justify his failure to execute two senior OPEC hostages – the finance minister of Iran, Jamshid Amuzgar, and the oil minister of Saudi Arabia, Ahmed Zaki Yamani. His trainer and PFLP-EO leader Wadie Haddad expelled Carlos for not shooting hostages when PFLP demands were not met, thus failing his mission. [31]

After 1975

Manuel Contreras, Gerhard Mertins, Sergio Arredondo and an unidentified Brazilian general traveled to Tehran in 1976 to offer a collaboration to the Shah regime to kill Carlos in exchange for a large sum of money. It is not known what actually happened in the meetings. [26]

In September 1976, Carlos was arrested, detained in Yugoslavia, and flown to Baghdad. He chose to settle in Aden, where he tried to found his own Organization of Armed Struggle, composed of Syrian, Lebanese and German rebels. He also connected with the Stasi , East Germany's secret police. [10] They provided him with an office and safe houses in East Berlin, a support staff of 75, and a service car, and allowed him to carry a pistol while in public. [10]

From here, Carlos is believed to have planned his attacks on several European targets, including the bombing of the Radio Free Europe offices in Munich in February 1981, which was part of an eventually unsuccessful hunt for a Romanian defector, former General Ion Mihai Pacepa, ordered and financed by that country's government. [32] [33]

On 16 February 1982, two of the group – Swiss terrorist Bruno Breguet and Carlos's wife Magdalena Kopp – were arrested in Paris, in a car containing explosives. Following the arrest, a letter was sent to the French embassy in The Hague demanding their immediate release. Meanwhile, Carlos unsuccessfully lobbied the French government for their release.

In retaliation, France was struck by a wave of terrorist attacks, including: the bombing of the Paris-Toulouse TGV 'Le Capitole' train on 29 March 1982 (5 dead, 77 injured); the car-bombing of the newspaper Al-Watan al-Arabi in Paris on 22 April 1982 (1 dead, 63 injured); the bombing of the Gare Saint-Charles in Marseille on 31 December 1983 (2 dead, 33 injured), and the bombing of the Marseille-Paris TGV train (3 dead, 12 injured) on the same day. [34] In August 1983, he also attacked the Maison de France in West Berlin, killing one man and injuring twenty-two other people. [10] Within days of the bombings, Carlos sent letters to three separate news agencies claiming responsibility for the bombings as revenge for a French air strike against a PFLP training camp in Lebanon the previous month.

Historians' examination of Stasi files, accessible after German reunification, demonstrates a link between Carlos and the KGB, via the East German secret police. When Leonid Brezhnev visited West Germany in 1981, Carlos did not undertake any attacks, at the request of the KGB. Western intelligence had expected activity during this period. [10] Carlos also had relations with the leadership of Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA). The Stasi asked Carlos to use his influence on ASALA to tone down the Armenian group's anti-Soviet activity. [35] [ page needed ]

With conditional support from the Iraqi regime and after the death of Haddad, Carlos offered the services of his group to the PFLP and other groups. His group's first attack may have been a failed rocket attack on the Superphénix French nuclear power station on 18 January 1982.

These attacks led to international pressure on Eastern European states that harboured Carlos. For over two years, he lived in Hungary, in Budapest's second district known as the quarter of nobles. His main cut-out for some of his financial resources, such as Gaddafi or George Habash, was the friend of his sister, Dietmar Clodo, a known German terrorist and the leader of the Panther Brigade of the PFLP. Hungary expelled Carlos in late 1985, and he was refused sanctuary in Iraq, Libya and Cuba before he found limited support in Syria. He settled in Damascus with Kopp and their daughter, Elba Rosa.

The Syrian government forced Carlos to remain inactive, and he was subsequently seen as a neutralized threat.[ citation needed ] In 1990, the Iraqi government approached him for work and, in September 1991, he was expelled from Syria, which had supported the American intervention against the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.[ citation needed ] After a short stay in Jordan, he was accorded protection in Sudan where he lived in Khartoum.[ citation needed ]

Arrest and imprisonment

Carlos the Jackal was incarcerated in La Sante Prison in Paris (center). La-Sante-Prison-MCB.jpg
Carlos the Jackal was incarcerated in La Santé Prison in Paris (center).
Carlos the Jackal has been incarcerated in Clairvaux Prison since 2006. Kloster von Clairvaux, heute Strafanstalt.jpg
Carlos the Jackal has been incarcerated in Clairvaux Prison since 2006.

French and US intelligence agencies offered a number of deals to the Sudanese authorities, and Sudan cooperated. In 1994, Carlos was scheduled to undergo a minor testicular operation in a hospital in Sudan. [37] Two days after the operation, Sudanese officials told him that he needed to be moved to a villa for protection from an assassination attempt and would be given personal bodyguards. One night later, the bodyguards went into his room while he slept, tranquilized and tied him, and took him from the villa. [38] On 14 August 1994, Sudan transferred him to French agents of the DST, who flew him to Paris for trial.[ citation needed ]

He was charged with the 1975 murders of the two Paris policemen and of Moukharbal and was sent to La Santé Prison to await trial.[ citation needed ] In 1996, a majority of the European Commission of Human Rights rejected his application related to the process of his capture. [39]

The trial began on 12 December 1997 and ended on 23 December, when he was found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment without the possibility of parole. [40] [ failed verification ]

Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez had a sporadic correspondence with Carlos from the latter's prison cell in France. Chávez sent a letter in which he addresses Carlos as a "distinguished compatriot". [41] [42] [43]

In 2001, after converting to Islam, [44] Ramírez Sánchez married his lawyer, Isabelle Coutant-Peyre, in a Muslim ceremony, although he was still married to his second wife. [45]

In June 2003, Carlos published a collection of writings from his jail cell. The book, whose title translates as Revolutionary Islam , seeks to explain and defend violence in terms of class conflict. In the book, he voices support for Osama bin Laden and his attacks on the United States.

In 2005, the European Court of Human Rights heard a complaint from Ramírez Sánchez that his long years of solitary confinement constituted "inhuman and degrading treatment". In 2006 the court decided that Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (prohibition of inhuman and degrading treatment) had not been violated; however, Article 13 (right to an effective remedy) had been. Ramírez Sánchez was awarded €10,000 for costs and expenses, having made no claim for compensation for damage. [36]

In 2006, he was later moved from La Santé to Clairvaux Prison. [36] [46]

On 1 June 2006, Chávez referred to him as his "good friend" during a meeting of OPEC countries held in Caracas, Venezuela. [47]

On 20 November 2009, Chávez publicly defended Carlos, saying that he is wrongly considered to be "a bad guy" and that he believed Carlos had been unfairly convicted. Chávez also called him "one of the great fighters of the Palestine Liberation Organisation". [48] France summoned the Venezuelan ambassador and demanded an explanation. Chávez, however, declined to retract his comments. [49]

Ramírez Sánchez denied the 1975 French killings, saying they were orchestrated by Mossad, the Israeli secret service, and condemned Israel as a terrorist state. During his trial in France in 1997, he said, "When one wages war for 30 years, there is a lot of blood spilledmine and others. But we never killed anyone for money, but for a causethe liberation of Palestine." [50] In 2017 he claimed responsibility for a total of 80 deaths, and boasted that "no one in the Palestinian resistance has executed more people than I have." [51]

New trials

In May 2007, anti-terrorism judge Jean-Louis Bruguière ordered a new trial for Ramírez Sánchez on charges relating to "killings and destruction of property using explosive substances" in France in 1982 and 1983. The bombings killed eleven and injured more than 100 people. [52] Ramírez Sánchez denied any connection to the events in his 2011 trial, staging a nine-day hunger strike to protest his imprisonment conditions. [53] The trial began on 7 November 2011, in Paris. Three other members of Ramírez Sánchez's organization were tried in absentia at the same time: Johannes Weinrich, Christa Margot Fröhlich, and Ali Kamal Al-Issawi. Germany has refused to extradite Weinrich and Fröhlich, and Al-Issawi, a Palestinian, "is reportedly on the run." Ramírez Sánchez continues to deny any involvement in the attacks. [44] On 15 December 2011, Ramírez Sánchez, Weinrich and Issawi were convicted and sentenced to life in prison; Fröhlich was acquitted. [54] Ramírez Sánchez appealed against the verdict and a new trial began in May 2013. [55] He lost his appeal on 26 June 2013 and judges in a special anti-terrorism court upheld his life sentence. [56]

In October 2014, he was also charged for a Paris drugstore café attack in September 1974 that killed two and wounded 34. [57] After a lengthy appeal of the charges, in May 2016 his trial was ordered to proceed [58] and opened in March 2017. [59] On 28 March 2017, he was sentenced to a further life term for this attack. [60]

Political views

In his 2003 book, Revolutionary Islam, Ramírez Sánchez professed his admiration for the Iranian Revolution, writing that "Today, confronted by the threat to Civilization, there is a response: revolutionary Islam! Only men and women armed with a total faith in the founding values of truth, justice, and fraternity will be prepared to lead the combat and deliver humanity from the empire of mendacity." [61]

Depictions and references

Books

Films

Music

Video games

Related Research Articles

Bassam Abu Sharif Palestinian politician and militant

Bassam Abu Sharif is a former senior adviser to Yasser Arafat and leading cadre of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). He was previously a member of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP).

Wadie Haddad Palestinian leader in the PFLP (1927-1978)

Wadie Haddad, also known as Abu Hani, was a Palestinian leader of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine's armed wing. He was responsible for organizing several civilian airplane hijackings in support of the Palestinian cause in the 1960s and 1970s.

The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – External Operations (PFLP-EO) or Special Operations (PFLP-SO) or Special Operations Group (PFLP-SOG) were organizational names used by Palestinian radical Wadie Haddad when engaging in international attacks, which were not sanctioned by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP).

Revolutionary Cells (German group) German militant organization of the extreme left, active between 1973 and 1995

The Revolutionary Cells were a self-described "urban guerrilla" organisation, that was active between 1973 and 1995, and was described in the early 1980s as one of West Germany's most dangerous leftist terrorist groups by the West German Interior Ministry. According to the office of the German Federal Prosecutor, the Revolutionary Cells claimed responsibility for 186 attacks, of which 40 were committed in West Berlin.

<i>The Assignment</i> (1997 film) 1997 Canadian film

The Assignment is a 1997 spy action thriller film directed by Christian Duguay and starring Aidan Quinn, with Donald Sutherland and Ben Kingsley. The film, written by Dan Gordon and Sabi H. Shabtai, is set mostly in the late 1980s and deals with a CIA plan to use Quinn's character to masquerade as the Venezuelan terrorist Carlos the Jackal.

François Genoud was a noted Swiss financier and a principal benefactor of the Nazi diaspora through the ODESSA network and supporter of Middle Eastern militant groups during the post-World War II 20th century.

Bruno Bréguet was the first European arrested and condemned for pro-Palestinian militant activities. He was an associate of Ilich Ramírez Sánchez, better known as "Carlos the Jackal". He disappeared in 1995.

France–Venezuela relations Bilateral relations

France–Venezuela relations are foreign relations between France and Venezuela. France has an embassy in Caracas and Venezuela has an embassy in Paris.

Hans-Joachim Klein is a former member of the German left-wing militant group Revolutionary Cells (RZ). His nom de guerre was "Angie". In 1975, Klein participated in an attack on OPEC headquarters in Vienna organized by the international terrorist "Carlos the Jackal", in which he was seriously injured. He publicly renounced political violence two years later. After decades in hiding, he was arrested in 1998, prosecuted for his role in the OPEC attack, and sentenced to nine years' imprisonment. He was paroled in 2003.

Joseph Edward Sieff, was an English businessman and Zionist. He was chairman of retailer Marks & Spencer and honorary vice-president of the British Zionist Federation.

Johannes Weinrich is a German left-wing terrorist and a founder of the Revolutionary Cells (RZ). He later became a close aide to Carlos the Jackal. He is currently serving a life sentence for murder.

<i>Carlos</i> (miniseries) 2010 Film directed by Olivier Assayas

Carlos, also known as Carlos the Jackal, is a 2010 French-German biographical film and television miniseries about the life of Venezuelan terrorist Ilich Ramírez Sánchez, nicknamed Carlos the Jackal, covering his first series of attacks in 1973 until his arrest in 1994. It premiered as a three-part TV mini-series on French pay channel Canal+, with the three parts airing on May 19, May 26, and June 2, 2010. On the same day it premiered on Canal+, the full 5½-hour version was also shown out of competition at the 2010 Cannes Film Festival.

Magdalena Cäcilia Kopp was a photographer and member of the Frankfurt Revolutionary Cells (RZ). She was known for being the wife and accomplice of political militant Ilich Ramírez Sánchez also known as "Carlos the Jackal".

Mohamed Boudia

Mohamed Boudia was an Algerian poet and a senior member of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). He was assassinated in Paris by a car bomb placed under his seat by Mossad agents as part of Operation Wrath of God. At the time of his assassination, Boudia was the Chief of PFLP operations in Europe. Boudia was replaced by Michel Moukharbal.

1974 French Embassy attack in The Hague

The 1974 French Embassy attack in The Hague was an attack and siege on the French Embassy in The Hague in the Netherlands starting on Friday 13 September 1974. Three members of the Japanese Red Army (JRA) stormed the embassy, allegedly on the orders of their leader Fusako Shigenobu, demanding the release of their member Yatsuka Furuya. The ambassador and ten other people were taken hostage. The siege and negotiations lasted five days, resulting in the release of Furuya, the embassy hostages and a safe flight out of the Netherlands for the terrorists. During the incident, a café in Paris was bombed which was linked to the embassy crisis.

On December 21, 1975, six militants attacked the semi-annual meeting of OPEC leaders in Vienna, Austria; the attackers took more than 60 hostages after killing an Austrian policeman, an Iraqi OPEC security officer, and a Libyan economist. Several other individuals were wounded. The self-named "Arm of the Arab Revolution" group was led by Carlos the Jackal. The siege resulted in complex diplomatic negotiations. It ended two days later, after flights to Algiers and Tripoli, with all the hostages and terrorists walking away from the situation. The fact that this was one of the first times that Arab states were targeted by terrorists also led to them being more cooperative in developing antiterrorism efforts at the United Nations.

Bombing of French consulate in West Berlin

The bombing of the French consulate in West Berlin was a terrorist bomb attack targeting the Maison de France consulate on the Kurfürstendamm in West Berlin, West Germany on 25 August 1983. It killed one person and injured 23 others. The Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) claimed responsibility in a telephone call and also took credit for a bomb at a French base in Beirut the same day, coming a month after the group's Orly Airport attack. The group commented "We will continue our struggle until the liberation of innocent Armenians from French jails." However the attack was actually orchestrated by Ilich Ramírez Sánchez, better known as Carlos the Jackal, who had relations with the ASALA's leadership. Carlos claimed responsibility in a letter written to the German Embassy in Saudi Arabia.

On 22 April 1982, a powerful car bomb detonated on Rue Marbeuf in the 8th arrondissement of Paris in France during the morning rush hour. It killed a young woman and injured 60 other people. The apparent target was the offices of the Lebanese newspaper Al-Watan al-Arabi.

On 23 February 1985, a bomb detonated inside a British-owned Marks & Spencer department store on the Boulevard Haussmann in Paris, France, killing one person and wounding 15. The fatal victim was an employee at the store, Léonard Rochas, who died on his way to hospital. It occurred just as the store was opening its doors for business amid many customers waiting to enter. The blast caused heavy material damage. Two Britons were also among the injured.

On 13 and 19 January 1975, El Al aircraft at Paris-Orly Airport, France were subject to attempted RPG attacks by Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) terrorists led by Carlos the Jackal. While the intended attacks failed, collateral damage was suffered and the second attack resulted in gunfighting and a seventeen-hour hostage situation.

References

  1. Morenne, Benoît (28 March 2017). "Carlos the Jackal Receives a Third Life Sentence in France". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
  2. "Venezuela's Hugo Chavez defends 'Carlos the Jackal'". BBC News. UK. 21 November 2009. Archived from the original on 26 July 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
  3. http://www.washingtontimes.com, The Washington Times. "Communists want 'Carlos the Jackal' repatriated". washingtontimes.com. Archived from the original on 19 February 2011.
  4. "Carlos the Jackal convicted for 1980s French terrorist attacks". The Daily Telegraph. London. 16 December 2011. Archived from the original on 20 October 2017.
  5. "Carlos the Jackal given another life sentence for 1980s terror attack". The Guardian. London. 15 December 2011. Archived from the original on 16 January 2017.
  6. "'Carlos the Jackal' sentenced to third life term for 1974 attack". abc.net.au. 29 March 2017. Archived from the original on 29 March 2017.
  7. Clark, Nicola. "Ilich Ramírez (Carlos the Jackal) Sánchez". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 November 2011.
  8. "Ilich Ramirez Sanchez (Carlos the Jackal) 1949". Historyofwar.org. Archived from the original on 23 July 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
  9. "Feared Terrorist Mastermind Goes On Trial". Huffington Post. 6 November 2011. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 "Rescued from the shredder, Carlos the Jackal's missing years" Archived 24 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine , The Independent , 30 October 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2010
  11. Bassam Abu-Sharif and Uzi Mahnaimi. The Best of Enemies: The Memoirs of Bassam Abu-Sharif and Uzi Mahnaimi, 1995. ISBN   978-0-316-00401-5
  12. Steve Rose (23 October 2010). "Carlos director Olivier Assayas on the terrorist who became a pop culture icon". The Guardian . London. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
  13. Follain, John (1998). Jackal: The Complete Story of the Legendary Terrorist, Carlos the Jackal. Arcade Publishing. p.  1. ISBN   1-55970-466-7.
  14. Follain (1998), p. 4.
  15. Follain (1998), p. 9.
  16. New York Magazine – 7 November 1977
  17. Encyclopedia of Terrorism, Harvey W. Kushner, p. 321
  18. "Carlos the Jackal" Archived 27 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine , BBC profile, 24 December 1997
  19. 1 2 Bassam Abu-Sharif and Uzi Mahnaimi. The Best of Enemies: The Memoirs of Bassam Abu-Sharif and Uzi Mahnaimi, 1995. ISBN   978-0-316-00401-5 pp 78–79
  20. Bassam Abu-Sharif and Uzi Mahnaimi. The Best of Enemies, p 89
  21. 1 2 Valentine Low (12 February 2008). "House where Carlos the Jackal first struck faces the bulldozer". Evening Standard . Archived from the original on 12 January 2010.
  22. Christopher Andrew (2009). The Defence of the Realm. Penguin. p. 616. ISBN   978-0-14-102330-4.
  23. William Cash (8 January 2010). "Elizabeth Sieff's mission to put a low price on the high life". Evening Standard . Archived from the original on 3 January 2012.
  24. "Terrorist Incidents against Jewish Communities and Israeli Citizens Abroad, 1968-2003". International Institute for Counter-Terrorism. 20 December 2003.
  25. Ensalaco, Mark (2008). Middle Eastern terrorism: from Black September to September 11. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 80–82. ISBN   978-0-8122-4046-7.
  26. 1 2 González, Mónica (6 August 2009). "El día en que Manuel Contreras le ofreció al Sha de Irán matar a "Carlos, El Chacal"". ciperchile.cl (in Spanish). CIPER. Archived from the original on 9 September 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
  27. ""Carlos" Allegedly Pflp Member". 10 July 1975 via Wikileaks.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  28. "27 juin 1975, trois morts rue Toullier à Paris. Un carnage signé Carlos. L'ancien terroriste est jugé à partir d'aujourd'hui pour des faits qui lui ont valu une condamnation par contumace en 1992" Archived 30 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine , Liberation Newspaper, France.
  29. "The Week in Colombia". 26 November 1976.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  30. Death on Small Wings, ISBN   1-904440-78-9.
  31. Bassam Abu-Sharif and Uzi Mahnaimi. The Best of Enemies, p. 164.
  32. Regnery, Alfred S. "Book Inspired Counter-Revolution", published in Human Events, 22 October 2001
  33. "The Securitate Arsenal for Carlos," Ziua , Bucharest, 2004
  34. "Carlos condamné à la réclusion criminelle à perpétuité et 18 ans de sûreté". AFP, 16 December 2011.
  35. Cummings, Richard H. (22 April 2009). Cold War Radio: The Dangerous History of American Broadcasting in Europe, 1950-1989. ISBN   9780786453009.
  36. 1 2 3 "Grand Chamber judgment Ramirez Sanchez v. France". HUDOC (Press release). European Court of Human Rights. 4 July 2006. Archived from the original on 14 August 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
  37. Mayer, Jane, The Dark Side: The Inside Story of How the War on Terror Turned Into a War on American Ideals , 2008. p. 37.
  38. Follain (1998), pp. 274–276.
  39. "HUDOC - European Court of Human Rights". cmiskp.echr.coe.int. Archived from the original on 7 June 2012.
  40. "Carlos The Jackal Ends His 20-day Hunger Strike" Archived 28 October 2011 at Wikiwix, Orlando Sentinel . 24 November 1998. Retrieved on 20 May 2010.
  41. Carta de Hugo Chávez a Ilich Ramírez Sánchez alias «El Chacal» Archived 4 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine .
  42. Blanco y Negro - secundaria Archived 22 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine .
  43. La familia de Carlos "El Chacal" espera más gestos de Chávez Archived 2 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine .
  44. 1 2 Willsher, Kim (7 November 2011). "'Carlos the Jackal' goes on trial in France". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 9 November 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
  45. "My Love for Carlos the Jackal Archived September 14, 2014, at the Wayback Machine ." The Age . 25 March 2004. Retrieved on 20 May 2010.
  46. "Carlos the Jackal faces new trial" Archived 20 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine , BBC. 4 May 2007. Retrieved on 20 May 2010.
  47. Nacional y Política - eluniversal.com Archived 27 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine .
  48. "Venezuela's Hugo Chavez defends 'Carlos the Jackal'" Archived 26 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine , BBC News, 21 November 2009
  49. "Carlos the Jackal was 'revolutionary': Chavez". Agence France-Presse. 28 November 2009. Archived from the original on 17 April 2010.
  50. "'Carlos The Jackal' convicted, sentenced to life in prison". CNN. Archived from the original on 3 May 2010.
  51. "'Carlos the Jackal' jailed over 1974 Paris grenade attack". Sky News. 28 March 2017.
  52. Carlos the Jackal faces new trial Archived 20 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine .
  53. "Cold War Mastermind Carlos the Jackal on Trial in France". Fox news. UK. 7 November 2011. Archived from the original on 8 November 2011.
  54. Associated Press. "Paris court sentences Carlos the Jackal to life in prison for 4 deadly attacks in 1980s". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 23 December 2018. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
  55. "Perpétuité requise en appel contre Carlos pour quatre attentats". liberation.fr. Archived from the original on 27 June 2013.
  56. "CARLOS THE JACKAL LOSES APPEAL IN FRENCH BOMBINGS". AP. Archived from the original on 30 June 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  57. Le terroriste Carlos renvoyé aux assises pour l'attentat du drugstore Saint-Germain Archived 8 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine Libération, 7 October 2014
  58. "'Carlos the Jackal' must face trial for 1974 attack: appeal court". AFP. 4 May 2016. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017.
  59. "Carlos the Jackal to face trial in France over 1974 bombing". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 March 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
  60. "'Carlos the Jackal' jailed over 1974 Paris grenade attack". Sky News. Archived from the original on 28 March 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
  61. Wolin, Richard (21 July 2010). "The Counter-Thinker". The New Republic. Archived from the original on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  62. Salas, Antonio (2010). El Palestino. Archived from the original on 25 June 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2012.

Further reading