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Carlotism was a political movement that took place in the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata between 1808 and 1812; it intended to make Carlota Joaquina, Infanta of Spain and Queen Consort of Portugal, its monarch.
The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata was the last to be organized and also the shortest-lived of the Viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire in America.
Doña Carlota Joaquina of Spain, was by birth a member of the Spanish branch of the House of Bourbon and Infanta of Spain and by marriage Queen consort of Portugal and the Algarves.
After Napoleon's invasion of Spain, Fernando VII, Carlota's younger brother, was forced to abdicate and give the throne to Joseph Bonaparte. Most Spanish did not consider him a legitimate king and Carlota, an ambitious woman, seemed to like a possible option to keep the royal line safe.
Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte, born Giuseppe di Buonaparte was a French diplomat and nobleman, the older brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily, and later King of Spain. After the fall of Napoleon, Joseph styled himself Comte de Survilliers.
Carlota was living in Brazil by then, after the nobility of Portugal moved from Portugal to the Americas because of Napoleón's invasion of Portugal.
Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populated city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, and the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas; it is also one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe. It is bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments.
Carlotism found strong resistance from many parties involved: the viceroys, other Spanish authorities in the Americas, part of the Criollos, and the British. The plans were never applied, and supporters of it would later turn to independence.
The Criollo are Latin Americans who are of full or near full Spanish descent, distinguishing them from both multi-racial Latin Americans and Latin Americans of post-colonial European immigrant origin. Historically, they were a social class in the hierarchy of the overseas colonies established by Spain beginning in the 16th century, especially in Hispanic America, comprising the locally born people of Spanish ancestry. Although Criollos were legally Spaniards, in practice, they ranked below the Iberian-born Peninsulares. Nevertheless, they had preeminence over all the other populations: Amerindians, enslaved Africans and peoples of mixed descent.
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Dona Maria I was Queen of Portugal from 1777 until her death. Known as Maria the Pious in Portugal and Maria the Mad in Brazil, she was the first undisputed queen regnant of Portugal and the first monarch of Brazil. With Napoleon's European conquests, her court, then under the direction of her son João, the Prince Regent, moved to Brazil, then a Portuguese colony. Later on, Brazil would be elevated from the rank of a colony to that of a kingdom, with the consequential formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
The military history of Portugal is as long as the history of the country, from before the emergence of the independent Portuguese state.
Infanta Maria Teresa of Braganza was the firstborn child of John VI of Portugal and Carlota Joaquina of Spain, and heir presumptive to the throne of Portugal between 1793 and 1795, until her short-lived brother António Pio was born.
Infanta Maria Francisca of Braganza ; full name: Maria Francisca de Assis da Maternidade Xavier de Paula e de Alcântara Antónia Joaquina Gonzaga Carlota Mónica Senhorinha Sotera e Caia de Bourbon e Bragança; 22 April 1800 – 4 September 1834) was a Portuguese infanta (princess) daughter of King John VI of Portugal and his spouse Carlota Joaquina of Spain.
Maria Isabel of Braganza was an Infanta of Portugal who became the Queen of Spain as the second wife of Ferdinand VII of Spain.
Infanta Isabel Maria of Braganza ; Queluz, 4 July 1801 – Benfica, then Belém, 22 April 1876 was a Portuguese infanta (princess) daughter of King John VI of Portugal and his wife Carlota Joaquina of Spain. She acted as regent for two years.
Infanta Maria da Assunção of Braganza ; Queluz, 25 June 1805 – Santarém, 7 January 1834) was a Portuguese infanta (princess) daughter of King John VI of Portugal and his wife Carlota Joaquina of Borbón.
The history of the kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, from the First Treaty of San Ildefonso and the beginning of the reign of Queen Maria I in 1777, to the end of the Liberal Wars in 1834, spans a complex historical period in which several important political and military events led to the end of the absolutist regime and to the installation of a constitutional monarchy in the country.
Don Pedro Carlos was an Infante of Spain and Portugal.
Carlota Joaquina, Princess of Brazil is a 1995 Brazilian film directed and written by Carla Camurati. It stars Marieta Severo as Carlota Joaquina, Marco Nanini as Dom João VI and Marcos Palmeira as Dom Pedro I.
Giuseppe Troni was an Italian court painter. He was initially a pupil of his father, Alessandro Trono, but completed his studies in Rome. He was portrait painter to the court of Naples, and later to the court in Turin.
The Portuguese conquest of the Banda Oriental was the armed-conflict that took place between 1816 and 1820 in the Banda Oriental, for control of what today comprises the whole of the Republic of Uruguay, the northern part of the Argentine Mesopotamia and southern Brazil. The four-year armed-conflict resulted in the annexation of the Banda Oriental into the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves as the Brazilian province of Cisplatina.
The May Revolution was a series of revolutionary political and social events that took place during the early nineteenth century in the city of Buenos Aires, capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a colony of the Spanish Crown which at the time contained the present-day nations of Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay. The consequence of the revolution was that the head of the Viceroyalty, Viceroy Cisneros, was ousted from office, and role of government was assumed by the Primera Junta. There are many reasons, both local and international, that promoted such developments.
The April Revolt, in the history of Portugal, was an absolutist political revolt that took place in April 1824. It succeeded the Vilafrancada (1823) and foreshadowed the Portuguese Civil War (1828–1834).
D. Francisco Antonio of Braganza, Prince of Beira was the first son of D. João Maria and D. Carlota Joaquina, the Prince and Princess of Brazil.
The Palace of Ramalhão is a neoclassical Palace in Sintra, Portugal. The palace has its origins in a small farm that was enlarged into a palace by Luis Garcia de Bivar in 1470. It was at this palace where D. Carlota Joaquina of Spain frequently stayed after 1802, and where she was exiled after refusing to swear to the Constitution of 1822. The building is decorated in a Louis XVI neoclassical style. The palace interior includes exotic frescos attributed to the painter Manuel da Costa, one of the decorators of the Palace of Queluz.
The Descendants of John VI of Portugal, of the House of Braganza, would play a role in Portuguese imperial affairs, global royalty, and major historical events of their time. John's marriage to Carlota Joaquina of Spain, which was not a content one, produced many children which would be key players in the world at their time
Carla Camurati is a Brazilian actress and filmmaker. She became notorious for acting in several Rede Globo telenovelas in the 1980s. She also acted on children's theater, starred in films—including Eternamente Pagú for which she won the Best Actress Award of Festival de Gramado—and was cover of the Brazilian edition of Playboy. In 1995, she debuted as a director with Carlota Joaquina, Princess of Brazil, an important mark in the period of Cinema of Brazil known as "Retomada". She was the director of Fundação Theatro Municipal do Rio de Janeiro that administers the Teatro Municipal from 2007 to 2014.