Caroline Haslett

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Caroline Haslett

DBE
Caroline Haslett CBE as Director of EAW.jpg
Caroline Haslett c.1924, when she became director of the Electrical Association for Women
Born
Caroline Harriet Haslett

(1895-08-17)17 August 1895
Worth, Sussex, England
Died4 January 1957(1957-01-04) (aged 61)
Bungay, Suffolk , England
Nationality English
OccupationElectrical engineer; business woman; educator
Known forFeminism; electrifying the home to liberate women from domestic drudgery. She was the leading professional woman of her age.
Title Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire

Dame Caroline Harriet Haslett DBE, JP (17 August 1895 – 4 January 1957) was an English electrical engineer, electricity industry administrator and champion of women's rights. [1] [2]

Contents

She was the first secretary of the Women's Engineering Society and the founder and editor of its journal, The Woman Engineer. [3] She was co-founder, alongside Laura Annie Willson and with the support of Margaret, Lady Moir, of the Electrical Association for Women, which pioneered such 'wonders', as they were described in contemporary magazines, [4] [5] as the All-Electric House in Bristol in 1935. She became the first director of the Electrical Association for Women in 1925. Her chief interest was in harnessing the benefits of electrical power to emancipate women from household chores, so that they could pursue their own ambitions outside the home. [6] In the early 1920s, few houses had electric light or heating, let alone electrical appliances; the National Grid was not yet in existence.

'Way is being made by electricity for a higher order of women – women set free from drudgery, who have time for reflection; for self-respect. We are coming to an age when the spiritual and higher state of life will have freer development, and this is only possible when women are liberated from soul-destroying drudgery ... I want [every woman] to have leisure to acquaint herself more profoundly with the topics of the day.'

Caroline Haslett [7]

Early life

Born in Worth (now part of Crawley, West Sussex), Caroline Haslett was the eldest daughter of Robert Haslett, a railway signal fitter [8] and activist for the co-operative movement, and his wife, Caroline Sarah, formerly Holmes. [1] After attending school in Haywards Heath, she undertook a business secretarial course in London, where she also joined the Suffragette movement. [9] Through a contact of her mother's she took up employment with the Cochran boiler Company as a clerk and joined the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU). [3] Transferring to the Cochran workshops during World War I she acquired basic engineering training in London and in Annan, Dumfriesshire; from that time she became a pioneer for women in the electrical and professional world.

Career

In 1919 Haslett left Cochran's to become the first secretary of the Women's Engineering Society (WES) and first editor of The Woman Engineer magazine, which she continued to edit until 1932. [1]

In June 1920 she helped to found Atalanta Ltd, an engineering firm for women.

In 1924 she was approached by Mrs Mabel Lucy Matthews about an idea she had to popularise the domestic use of electricity to lighten the burden on women. [10] The Institution of Electrical Engineers and the Electrical Development Association had turned the proposal down, but Haslett saw its possibilities. She was very enthused by the concept and persuaded Lady Katharine Parsons, then president of WES, to host a meeting to discuss it.

In November 1924 she co-founded and became the first director of the Electrical Association for Women, of which she remained a director until 1956, when she was obliged to retire because of ill health; from 1924 to 1956 she edited The Electrical Age, the EAW's journal. [9]

Haslett was a member of the Women's Provisional Club for Professional and Businesswomen (founded in 1924) alongside architect Gertrude Leverkus, Eleanor Rathbone, Dr Louisa Martindale and Lady Rhondda. [8] She was also an executive member of the Six Point Group, [11] founded by Lady Rhondda in 1921, to press for changes in the law of the United Kingdom on six points of equality for women: political, occupational, moral, social, economic and legal. [12]

In 1925 the Women's Engineering Society came to national attention when it organised a special conference at Wembley, in association with the First International Conference of Women in Science, Industry and Commerce. [13] The conference was opened by the Duchess of York (later Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother) and was chaired by Nancy, Lady Astor, the first woman to take her seat in the House of Commons. This event also introduced Caroline Haslett to a wider public. She remained secretary of WES until 1929, when she became honorary secretary, and she was the society's president from 1940 to 1941 (succeeding shipyard director Edith Mary Douglas, and succeeded by electrical engineer Gertrude Entwistle). [1] [14]

Haslett was the sole woman delegate to the World Power Conference in Berlin in 1930 and represented Britain at later power conferences. During the next 20 years her public activities were extraordinary, as described by her friend Margaret Partridge, electrical engineer and another president of WES: 'She was a member of council of the British Institute of Management 1946–54, of the Industrial Welfare Society, of the National Industrial Alliance, of the Administrative Staff College, and of King's College of Household and Social Science; a governor of the London School of Economics, of Queen Elizabeth College, and of Bedford College for Women; a member of the Central Committee on Women's Training and Employment; a member of council and vice-president of the Royal Society of Arts 1941–55; and president of the British Federation of Business and Professional Women. She was a member of the Women's Consultative Committee and the Advisory Council of the Appointments Department, Ministry of Labour; a member of the Correspondence Committee on Women's Work of the International Labour Office; and the first woman to be made a Companion of the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE).' [15]

Plaque commemorating the life of Caroline Haslett in Haslett Avenue East, Three Bridges, Crawley, West Sussex Dame Caroline Haslett (3752247652).jpg
Plaque commemorating the life of Caroline Haslett in Haslett Avenue East, Three Bridges, Crawley, West Sussex

In 1932 the National Safety First Association (the forerunner of the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents) extended its activities to home safety, and Caroline Haslett was appointed as chair of the Home Safety Committee, a post she held until 1936. She became the first woman vice-president of the association in 1937. [16]

In March 1940, the Woman Power Committee was created, from conversations between by Haslett and Lady Astor, with the intention of creating an organisation which had protecting the interests of British women during the war at it core. Until that point the government's labour policy for women had been weak and discriminatory over equal rights and pay. Women MPs from across the political parties backed the development of the organisation, although there were later complications around the involvement of Unions. [17]

During the Second World War she was the only woman member (and the only safety expert) on the 20-person committee convened by the IEE to examine the requirements for electrical installations in post-war Britain, part of a larger scheme of Post-War Building Studies. [18] An important part of those recommendations was a new plug and socket standard, the first requirement for which was To ensure the safety of young children it is of considerable importance that the contacts of the socket-outlet should be protected by shutters or other like means, or by the inherent design of the socket outlet. The result was BS 1363. The report also recommended the ring circuit system, which would become standard [18]

Haslett became vice-president of the International Federation of Business and Professional Women in 1936 and president of the organisation in 1950; and she was the first woman to chair a government working party – the Board of Trade's Hosiery Industry Working Party 1945–46. [15] For many years she was a member of the Royal Institute of International Affairs and the Royal Institution. She was appointed to Crawley New Town Development Corporation 1947–56; [19] and served as vice-president (1948) and first female chairman (1953–54) of the British Electrical Development Association. She represented the UK government on business missions in the US, Canada and Scandinavia, and after the Second World War she took a leading role in conferences organised for women in Germany by the British and American authorities. [1]

Haslett was an effective networker and used invitations to lunch as a starting point for many useful working relationships. This included Maie Casey, artist and patron of the Australian Women’s Pilot Association, who was married to Richard G Casey, Governor-General of Australia. Haslett threw a lunch in her honour at the Forum Club in 1942. [20]

In Margaret Partridge's view, the crowning achievement of Haslett's multifaceted career occurred in 1947, when she was appointed a member of the British Electricity Authority (BEA), later the Central Electricity Authority, which was formed to run the industry under national ownership. [15] In 1949 the BEA named one of the ships in its collier fleet Dame Caroline Haslett in honour of its first woman member. [1] Haslett took a personal interest in the collier and its crew and her photograph hung in the officers' mess. For her Christmas card in 1952 she commissioned a drawing of the ship lying at the wharf off Battersea Power Station by Mrs JP Gibson whose drawing was so good that it was remarked that 'you could almost smell the mud!' [21] The BEA set up the Caroline Haslett Trust to provide scholarships and travelling fellowships for its members. [1]

Publications

Caroline Haslett's publications include:

She edited The EAW Electrical Handbook for the Electrical Association for Women, first published in 1934, which went into seven editions by 1961. She was also the author of numerous journal articles and conference papers.

Honours

In recognition of Haslett's services to women she was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1931, and in 1947, in recognition of her work for the Board of Trade and the Ministry of Labour, she was created a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire. [15] She was elected a Companion of the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE) in 1932.

In 1945, Haslett's portrait was created by Ethel Léontine Gabain as part of a series commissioned by the War Artists Advisory Committee, it is now held by the Imperial War Museum. [22]

From 1950 until her death she was a Justice of the Peace for the County of London.

Final years

She retired to live at the home of her sister (and biographer) Rosalind Messenger at Bungay, in Suffolk, where she died from a coronary thrombosis on 4 January 1957. [21] In her will she requested that her body be cremated by electricity. This is understood to have been carried out at the City of London Crematorium. [23]

Commemoration

Caroline Haslett Combined School Caroline Haslett Combined School - geograph.org.uk - 209528.jpg
Caroline Haslett Combined School

A blue plaque has been erected to honour her memory by Crawley Arts Council and EDF Energy. It is located in a road named after her: Haslett Avenue East, in Three Bridges, Crawley, West Sussex.

Caroline Haslett Primary School in Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, is also named after her.

An exhibition about her life and work, the Caroline Haslett Memorial Project was held in April and May 2019 at the Hawth Theatre in Crawley. [24]

Related Research Articles

The Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (RoSPA) is a British charity that aims to save lives and prevent life-changing injuries which occur as a result of accidents. In the past, it has successfully campaigned on issues of road safety, including playing an integral role in the introduction of drink-drive legislation, the compulsory wearing of seatbelts and the ban on handheld mobile phones while driving, as well as on issues of occupational health and safety.

Dame Margaret Kate Weston, DBE, FMA was a British museum curator who was the director of the Science Museum, London, between 1973 and 1986. She began her career as an electrical engineer before joining the Science Museum in 1955. Weston oversaw the expansion of the museum into the Science Museum Group, including the foundation of the National Railway Museum in York and the National Museum of Photography, Film and Television in Bradford. She also played a key role in acquiring Concorde 002, which is now housed at the Fleet Air Arm Museum in Yeovilton.

Elizabeth Cadbury

Dame Elizabeth Mary Cadbury was a British philanthropist. Her husband was George Cadbury, the chocolate manufacturer.

Womens Engineering Society Womens engineering organisation

The Women's Engineering Society is a United Kingdom professional learned society and networking body for women engineers, scientists and technologists. It was the first professional body set up for women working in all areas of engineering, predating the Society of Women Engineers by around 30 years.

International Federation of Business and Professional Women is a worldwide organization committed to networking among and empowering women worldwide. BPW International serves as a forum for professional business women with branches in over 100 countries with a membership of over a quarter of a million, developing the professional, leadership and business potential of women on all levels through advocacy, mentoring and skill building. Their economic empowerment programs and projects around the world promote equal participation of women and men in decision-making roles at all levels. BPW International has consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and participatory status with the Council of Europe.

Margaret, Lady Moir Engineer and campaigner

Margaret, Lady Moir, OBE was a Scottish lathe operator, engineer, a workers' relief organiser, an employment campaigner, and a founder member of the Women's Engineering Society (WES). She went on to become vice-president and president of WES, and in 1931 president of the Electrical Association for Women (EAW), in which role she gave full expression to her belief that 'the dawn of the all-electric era' was at hand. She had no doubt about the importance of this development in freeing women to pursue careers outside the home:

'It is essential that women become electrically minded. By this I mean that they must not only familiarize themselves with electric washing machines, fires and cookers, but possess sufficient technical knowledge to enable them to repair fuses and make other minor adjustments. Only by doing so will women learn to value electricity's cheapness and utility, and regard it as a power to rescue them from all unnecessary household labours.'

Gertrude Lilian Entwisle British electrical engineer

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Elizabeth Laverick Radar and electrical engineer

Elizabeth Laverick was a British engineer who became technical director of Elliott Automation Radar Systems. Laverick was the first female deputy secretary of the Institution of Electrical Engineers and president of the Women's Engineering Society. She was the first woman to receive a PhD in a scientific curriculum at Durham University, and was appointed an OBE in 1993.

Margaret Partridge Electrical engineer

Margaret Mary Partridge was an electrical engineer, contractor and founder member of the Women's Engineering Society (WES) and the Electrical Association for Women (EAW). Her business worked with WES to identify and employ female apprentices, including Beatrice Shilling. Partridge also helped campaign to change the International Labour Organisation convention on night work for women in 1934, after Shilling was found working on her own in a power station at night, thus contravening the existing regulations.

Isabel Helen HardwichMInstP was an English electrical engineer, an expert in photometry, and fellow and president of the Women's Engineering Society.

Annette Ashberry, also known as Anne Ashberry, was a British engineer, gardener and author, and the first woman elected to the Society of Engineers.

Rose Winslade British engineer and governor of university college, Nairobi

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The Electrical Association for Women (EAW) was a feminist and educational organisation founded in Great Britain in 1924 to promote the benefits of electricity in the home.

Katharine Parsons Engineer, founder and second President of the Womens Engineering Society

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Marjorie Bell BSc, GradIEE, CEng, MIISO, MIOSH, HonMWES was a British electrical engineer and factory inspector. Bell had a number of jobs and ran her own clothing factory before becoming the first woman to study electronic engineering at the Northampton Institute. After graduation, she became a lecturer and demonstrator of electrical appliances. She became a factory inspector in 1936 and worked across the country, receiving a medal for her work during the Second World War. Afterwards Bell worked as an inspector in Mandatory Palestine at the time of the 1947–1948 civil war. Upon her return to the United Kingdom she was promoted to district inspector and received the Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal.

Edith Mary Douglas British engineer, shipyard director

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Edna Mosley

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Lesley Scott Souter was the first female electrical engineering student at the University of Glasgow, graduating in 1940.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Citrine; Symons, Eleanor (2011) [2004]. "Haslett, Caroline Harriet". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/33751.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  2. Haines, Catharine M.C. (2001). "Haslett, Caroline". International Women in Science: A Biographical Dictionary to 1950 . ABC-CLIO. pp.  127–29. ISBN   1576070905.
  3. 1 2 'Dame Caroline Haslett: Outstanding Woman Engineer', The Times , 5 January 1957
  4. "The all-electric house in Bristol". Design for To-Day: 5–8. January 1936.
  5. "Dame Caroline Haslett". BBC Woman's Hour.
  6. 1 2 Law, Cheryl (2000), Women, A Modern Political Dictionary, London, UK: I. B. Tauris.
  7. Electricity and women – the EAW in the inter-war years, University of Westminster
  8. 1 2 Robinson, Jane, 1959- (2020). Ladies can't climb ladders : the pioneering adventures of the first professional women. London. ISBN   978-0-85752-587-1. OCLC   1127181285.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. 1 2 Messenger, Rosalind (1967), The Doors of Opportunity, A Biography of Dame Caroline Haslett DBE Companion IEE, London, UK: Femina Books, p. 25
  10. Heald, Henrietta (2019). Magnificent women and their revolutionary machines. London. ISBN   978-1-78352-660-4. OCLC   1080083743.
  11. LONSDALE, SARAH. (2020). REBEL WOMEN BETWEEN THE WARS : fearless writers and adventurers. [Place of publication not identified]: MANCHESTER UNIV Press. ISBN   978-1-5261-3711-1. OCLC   1134634316.
  12. Clay, Catherine (31 August 2018). Time and Tide: The Feminist and Cultural Politics of a Modern Magazine. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN   978-1-4744-1820-1.
  13. "Engineering Timelines – Caroline Haslett – The Women's Engineering Society". engineering-timelines.com. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  14. "The Woman Engineer Vol 4". www2.theiet.org. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  15. 1 2 3 4 "Death of Dame Caroline Haslett". The Woman Engineer. VIII (4). Spring 1957. Archived from the original on 9 December 2019. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
  16. Messenger, Rosalind (1967), The Doors of Opportunity, A Biography of Dame Caroline Haslett DBE Companion IEE, London, UK: Femina Books, pp. 76–77
  17. Smith, Harold (1981). "The Problem of "Equal Pay for Equal Work" in Great Britain during World War II". The Journal of Modern History. 53 (4): 652–672. doi:10.1086/242371. ISSN   0022-2801. JSTOR   1880448. S2CID   143969631.
  18. 1 2 "Post-War Building Studies No. 11 Electrical Installations", HMSO, London 1944
  19. "Commons Chamber - Tuesday 23 May 1950 - Hansard - UK Parliament". hansard.parliament.uk. Retrieved 29 September 2021.
  20. "How to build a network: lessons from the correspondence of Caroline Haslett". IET Archives Blog. 1 February 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  21. 1 2 Messenger, Rosalind (1967), The Doors of Opportunity, A Biography of Dame Caroline Haslett DBE Companion IEE, London: Femina Books, pp. 187–188
  22. "Miss Caroline Haslett, CBE : Director of the Women's Electrical Association". Imperial War Museums. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  23. "Dame Caroline Haslett". BBC – Radio 4 Woman's Hour. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
  24. "The Hawth Crawley Feb-May 2019". Issuu. Retrieved 1 May 2019.