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Carroll Smith (1932–2003) was a successful professional race car driver, engineer, and author.
Carroll's books are highly regarded among amateur race drivers and engineers. He was representative of the club racing spirit: learning a craft and bringing together several disciplines in order to participate in a dangerous and often misunderstood sport.
Born and raised in the northeast United States, Carroll Smith began racing MGs while attending the University of Rochester.[ when? ] Entering SCCA events in Pensacola, Florida at the time, he was enlisted in the US Navy.
MG, the initials of Morris Garages, is a British automotive marque registered by the now defunct MG Car Company Limited, a British sports car manufacturer begun in the 1920s as a sales promotion sideline within W. R. Morris's Oxford city retail sales and service business by the business's manager, Cecil Kimber. Best known for its two-seat open sports cars, MG also produced saloons and coupés. Kimber was an employee of William Morris.
The University of Rochester, often simply referred to as Rochester, is a private research university in Rochester, New York. The university grants undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees.
The Sports Car Club of America (SCCA) is an American automobile club and sanctioning body supporting road racing, rallying, and autocross in the United States. Formed in 1944, it runs many programs for both amateur and professional racers.
Carroll moved to Europe[ when? ] where he befriended John Cooper. Driving a Formula Junior Cooper, he won his first race. After waning success in the Cooper cars, followed by a characteristically clear-eyed personal assessment that he lacked the ability to drive race cars at the highest levels, he returned to the United States and began working with Carroll Shelby and the Ford Motor Company on the GT40 Le Mans program. Smith oversaw the preparation on the cars that won the 1966 and 1967 24 Hours of Le Mans.
John Newton Cooper CBE was a co-founder, with his father Charles Cooper, of the Cooper Car Company. Born in Surbiton, Surrey, United Kingdom, he became an auto racing legend with his rear-engined chassis design that would eventually change the face of the sport at its highest levels, from Formula One to the Indianapolis 500.
Formula Junior is an open wheel formula racing class first adopted in October 1958 by the CSI. The class was intended to provide an entry level class where drivers could use inexpensive mechanical components from ordinary automobiles. The idea to form the new class came from Count Giovanni "Johnny" Lurani who saw the need of a class for single-seater racing cars where younger drivers could take their first steps. It is often speculated that this class was founded as a reaction to Italy's lack of success in the 500cc Formula Three, and although Italian marques dominated the first year of the formula, they were soon overtaken by British constructors.
Carroll Hall Shelby was an American automotive designer, racing driver, and entrepreneur. Shelby is best known for his involvement with the AC Cobra and Mustang for Ford Motor Company, which he modified during the late 1960s and early 2000s. He established Shelby American Inc. in 1962 to manufacture and market performance vehicles, as well as Carroll Shelby Licensing in 1988 which grew into Carroll Shelby International.
After winning Le Mans with the GT40 cars from 1966 to 1969 (inclusive), FIA rules changes caused Ford to cancel the GT40 program. Smith moved to work with American Under-2.5 Liter Trans-Am champion Tony Adamowicz to work on his F5000 car in 1969. Smith led the team to the championship that year. In his many writings, Adamowicz credits Smith with successfully focusing his driving and tuning efforts.
The Trans-Am Series is an automobile racing series held in North America.
Formula 5000 was an open wheel, single seater auto-racing formula that ran in different series in various regions around the world from 1968 to 1982. It was originally intended as a low-cost series aimed at open-wheel racing cars that no longer fit into any particular formula. The '5000' denomination comes from the maximum 5.0 litre engine capacity allowed in the cars, although many cars ran with smaller engines. Manufacturers included McLaren, Eagle, March, Lola, Lotus, Elfin, Matich and Chevron.
After that victory, he began working on Prepare to Win.Smith later consulted for the Ferrari Formula One team and in 1977 he was team manager for the Moffat Ford Dealer Team in Australia; the team winning both the Australian Touring Car Championship and the Bathurst 1000 endurance race. In later life Smith exercised his interest in racing by running vintage cars. Carroll was an active and avid Society of Automotive Engineers member.
Scuderia Ferrari S.p.A. is the racing division of luxury Italian auto manufacturer Ferrari and the racing team that competes in Formula One racing. The team is also nicknamed "The Prancing Horse", with reference to their logo. It is the oldest surviving and most successful Formula One team, having competed in every world championship since the 1950 Formula One season.
The Australian Touring Car Championship (ATCC) is a touring car racing award held in Australia since 1960. The series itself is no longer contested, but the title lives on, with the winner of the Virgin Australia Supercars Championship awarded the trophy and title of Australian Touring Car Champion.
The Bathurst 1000 is a 1,000-kilometre (620 mi) touring car race held annually on the Mount Panorama Circuit in Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia. It is currently run as a championship event for Supercars.
Smith succumbed to pancreatic cancer in 2003 at his home in Northern California, leaving his daughter Dana, his son Christopher, and his fiancée Ginger. Carroll's former wife, Jane, died on October 15, 1994 after a fall from a balcony in their home while she was gardening. Carroll himself notes: "She went doing what she liked best, enjoying the ocean view and gardening...secure in the love of her family and friends and in the respect of her co-workers and students."
Pancreatic cancer arises when cells in the pancreas, a glandular organ behind the stomach, begin to multiply out of control and form a mass. These cancerous cells have the ability to invade other parts of the body. There are a number of types of pancreatic cancer. The most common, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, accounts for about 85% of cases, and the term "pancreatic cancer" is sometimes used to refer only to that type. These adenocarcinomas start within the part of the pancreas which makes digestive enzymes. Several other types of cancer, which collectively represent the majority of the non-adenocarcinomas, can also arise from these cells. One to two percent of cases of pancreatic cancer are neuroendocrine tumors, which arise from the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas. These are generally less aggressive than pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Smith's books were well received by drivers and mechanics alike because of their affable, direct, and clear writing style. After writing a series of books about different aspects of racing car preparation, tuning and engineering practice, each with ... to Win in the title, he wrote the Nuts, Bolts, Fasteners, and Plumbing Handbookabout the fasteners and plumbing parts often used in cars. When Smith announced the forthcoming book, he proclaimed his intent to title it Screw to Win, which (he claimed) the publisher then disallowed. His readers and fans, naturally, refer to the book by just that title.
The Ford GT40 is a high-performance endurance racing car with the Mk I, Mk II, and Mk III model cars being based upon the British Lola Mk6, and were designed and built in England, while the GT40 Mk IV model was designed and built in the United States. The range was powered by a series of American-built engines modified for racing. The GT40 won the 24 Hours of Le Mans four consecutive times, from 1966 to 1969, including a 1-2-3 finish in 1966. In 1966, with Henry Ford II personally in attendance at Le Mans, the Mk II GT40 provided Ford with the first overall Le Mans victory for an American manufacturer, and the first victory for an American manufacturer at a major European race since Jimmy Murphy´s triumph with Duesenberg at the 1921 French Grand Prix. The Mk IV GT40 that won Le Mans in 1967 is the only car designed and built entirely in the United States to achieve the overall win at Le Mans.
Victor Henry Elford is a former sportscar racing, rallying and Formula One driver from England. He participated in 13 World Championship F1 Grands Prix, debuting on 7 July 1968. He scored a total of 8 championship points.
Steven James Richards is a New Zealand-Australian racing driver, currently competing in the Porsche Carrera Cup Australia championship.
Kenneth Henry Miles was a British born, naturalised American sports car racing engineer and driver best known for his motorsport career in the US, and with American teams on the international scene.
A locknut, also known as a lock nut, locking nut, prevailing torque nut, stiff nut or elastic stop nut, is a nut that resists loosening under vibrations and torque. Elastic stop nuts and prevailing torque nuts are of the particular type where some portion of the nut deforms elastically to provide a locking action. The first type used fiber instead of nylon and was invented in 1931.
A nyloc nut, also referred to as a nylon-insert lock nut, polymer-insert lock nut, or elastic stop nut, is a kind of locknut with a nylon collar insert that resists turning.
Henry Leslie "Harry" Firth was an Australian racing driver and team manager. Firth was a leading race and rally driver during the 1950s and 1960s and continued as an influential team manager with first the Ford works team and then the famed Holden Dealer Team (HDT) well into the 1970s. Firth’s nickname was "the fox", implying his use of cunning ploys as a team manager.
A well nut is a type of fastener used to blindly fasten a piece and to seal the bolt hole. They are often referred to by the proprietary name Rawlnut or Rawl nut ;the name they are known by in the UK.
A split beam nut, also known as a split hex nut or slotted beam nut, is a locknut with slots cut in the top that separate the outside end into two or more sections that are bent slightly inward, making the thread diameter undersized in the slotted portion. As the nut is threaded on, these sections are forced back out to their original position and increase the friction between the nut and the fastener, creating the locking action.
A distorted thread locknut, is a type of locknut that uses a deformed section of thread to keep the nut from loosening from vibrations or rotation of the clamped item. They are broken down into four types: elliptical offset nuts, centerlock nuts, toplock nuts and partially depitched (Philidas) nuts.
A rivet nut, also known as a blind rivet nut, threaded insert or rivnut, is a one-piece internally threaded and counterbored tubular rivet that can be anchored entirely from one side. There are two types: one is designed to form a bulge on the back side of the panel as a screw is tightened in its threads. The other is similarly drawn in using a screw, but is drawn into the sleeve instead of creating a bulge.
A speed nut, aka sheet metal nut or Tinnerman nut, is a type of locknut with two sheet metal prongs that act as one thread. They are made from spring steel.
A barrel nut is a specialized nut, and is commonly used in aerospace and ready-to-assemble furniture applications.
An internal wrenching nut,, is a cylindrical nut that is internally threaded on one side and has an Allen socket on the other side; the outside of the nut is smooth or has knurling on it.
A jet nut, also known as a k-nut, is a special type of hex locknut that is commonly used in the aerospace and automotive racing industries.
A self-aligning nut, also known as a spherical nut or leveling nut, is a type of nut that is used in applications where the fastener is not perpendicular to the surface the nut anchors to. It achieves this action by using a flanged nut inside a specially shaped dished-out washer. They are commonly used in the aerospace industry. If this nut were not used the object would have to be spot faced perpendicular to the fastener.
A plate nut, also known as a nut plate, anchor nut or anchor plate, is a stamped sheet metal nut that is usually riveted to a workpiece. They have a long tube that is internally threaded and a plate with two clearance holes for rivets. The most popular versions have two lugs and they exist as fixed anchor nuts and as floating anchor nuts. The latter allows the nut to move slightly and so enlarges the positioning tolerances of the mounted parts. They were originally developed for the aerospace industry, but are now also common in automotive racing. These nuts are made up of variety of soft and hard materials. The choice of material depends on environment to which nut is subjected. Soft materials like copper or brass are used when nut is used in electrical application. Hard materials are used when nut is subjected to high stress environment. Sometimes stainless steel or nickel-plated nuts are used in order to increase corrosion resistance.
A swage nut or self-clinching nut is a type of nut or threaded insert that is used on sheet metal.
A bearing surface in mechanical engineering is the area of contact between two objects. It usually is used in reference to bolted joints and bearings, but can be applied to a wide variety of engineering applications.
Broadspeed Engineering Ltd was a British automobile tuning and engineering company that operated from Sparkbrook, Birmingham, England, principally during the 1960s and 1970s. It was started and run by Ralph Broad, and first became well known for its success in campaigning MkI BMC Minis during the early 1960s. The company also offered a variety of different road- and race-tuning packages for BMC and Ford engines.