Cartagena, Colombia

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Cartagena
City
Cartagena de Indias
Montaje Cartagena, Colombia.jpg
Top: Bocagrande Harbour. Second row: View of Santa Cruz Manga Island, Heredia Theatre. Third row: ClockTower (Torre del Reloj), Pilar Republicano, San Felipe Barajas Castle (Castillo de San Felipe de Barajas) (above), Charleston Hotel (below). Bottom: City Skyline.
Flag of Cartagena.svg
Flag
Escudo de Cartagena de Indias.svg
Seal
Nicknames: 
"The Magic City", "The Cosmopolitan City", "The City of Cartagena", "The Heroic", "The Rock Corral", " The Fantastic"
Motto(s): 
"Por Cartagena"
Colombia - Bolivar - Cartagena de Indias.svg
Colombia location map.svg
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Cartagena
Coordinates: 10°24′N75°30′W / 10.400°N 75.500°W / 10.400; -75.500 Coordinates: 10°24′N75°30′W / 10.400°N 75.500°W / 10.400; -75.500
CountryColombia
Department Bolívar
Region Caribbean
Foundation1 June 1533
Founded by Pedro de Heredia
Named for Cartagena, Spain
Government
  MayorWilliam Jorge Dau Chamat [1]
Area
  City572 km2 (221 sq mi)
Elevation
2 m (7 ft)
Population
 (2020 [2] )
  City914,552
  Rank Ranked 5th
  Density1,600/km2 (4,100/sq mi)
   Metro
1,028,736 [3]
Demonym(s) Cartagenero(s) (in Spanish)
Time zone UTC-5 (COT)
Postal code
130000
Area code(s) 57 + 5
HDI (2008)Increase2.svg 0.798 – High
Patron saints Saint Catherine and Saint Sebastian
Average temperature30 °C (86 °F)
Website www.cartagena.gov.co (in Spanish)
Official namePort, Fortresses and Group of Monuments, Cartagena
TypeCultural
Criteriavi, iv
Designated1984 (8th session)
Reference no. 285
State PartyColombia
Latin America and Europe

The city of Cartagena ( /ˌkɑːrtəˈnə/ KAR-tə-JEE-nə, also US: /-ˈhnə/ -HAY-nə), known in the colonial era as Cartagena de Indias (Spanish:  [kaɾtaˈxena ðe ˈindjas] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )), is a city and major port on the northern coast of Colombia in the Caribbean Coast Region. Founded in 1533, city's strategic location between the Magdalena and Sinú Rivers gave it easy access to the interior of New Granada and made it a main port for trade between Spain and its overseas empire, establishing its importance by the early 1540s. During the colonial era it was a key port for the export of Peruvian silver to Spain and for the import of enslaved Africans under the asiento system. It was defensible against pirate attacks in the Caribbean. [4]

Contents

Modern Cartagena is the capital of the Bolívar Department, and had a population of 1,028,736, according to the 2018 census, [2] making it the second-largest city in the region, after Barranquilla, and the fifth-largest city in Colombia. The urban area of Cartagena is also the fifth-largest urban area in the country. Economic activities include the maritime and petrochemicals industries, as well as tourism.

The present city—named after Cartagena, Spain—was founded on 1 June 1533; but settlement by various indigenous people in the region around Cartagena Bay dates from 4000 BC. During the Spanish colonial period Cartagena served a key role in administration and expansion of the Spanish empire. It was a center of political, ecclesiastical, and economic activity. [5] In 1984, Cartagena's colonial walled city and fortress were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

History

According to descriptions that survive, the homes of the prehistoric inhabitants of the city may have looked very similar to these Taino culture huts in Baconao Reconstruction of Taino village, Cuba.JPG
According to descriptions that survive, the homes of the prehistoric inhabitants of the city may have looked very similar to these Taíno culture huts in Baconao

Pre-Columbian era: 4000 BC – 1500 AD

The Puerto Hormiga Culture, found in the Caribbean coast region, particularly in the area from the Sinú River Delta to the Cartagena Bay, appears to be the first documented human community in what is now Colombia. Archaeologists estimate that around 4000 BC, the formative culture was located near the boundary between the present-day departments of Bolívar and Sucre. In this area, archaeologists have found the most ancient ceramic objects of the Americas, dating from around 4000 BC. The primary reason for the proliferation of primitive societies in this area is thought to have been the relative mildness of climate and the abundance of wildlife, which allowed the hunting inhabitants a comfortable life. [6] [7] [8]

Archaeological investigations date the decline of the Puerto Hormiga culture and its related settlements to around 3000 BC. The rise of a much more developed culture, the Monsú, who lived at the end of the Dique Canal near today's Cartagena neighborhoods Pasacaballos and Ciénaga Honda at the northernmost part of Barú Island, has been hypothesized. The Monsú culture appears to have inherited the Puerto Hormiga culture's use of the art of pottery and also to have developed a mixed economy of agriculture and basic manufacture. The Monsú people's diet was based mostly on shellfish and fresh and salt-water fish. [9]

The development of the Sinú society in what is today the departments of Córdoba and Sucre, eclipsed these first developments around the Cartagena Bay area. Until the Spanish colonization, many cultures derived from the Karib, Malibu and Arawak language families lived along the Colombian Caribbean coast. In the late pre-Columbian era, the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta was home to the Tayrona people, whose language was closely related to the Chibcha language family. [10] [11]

Around 1500 the area was inhabited by different tribes of the Carib language family, more precisely the Mocanae sub-family.

Mocana villages of the Carib people around the Bay of Cartagena included: [12]

  • on sandy island facing the ocean in what is present-day downtown: Kalamarí (Calamari)
  • on the island of Tierrabomba: Carex
  • on Isla Barú, then a peninsula: Bahaire
  • on present-day Mamonal, the eastern coast of the exterior bay: Cospique
  • in the suburban area of Turbaco: Yurbaco Tribe

Heredia found these settlements, "...largely surrounded with the heads of dead men placed on stakes." [13] :481

Some subsidiary tribes of the Kalamari lived in today's neighborhood of Pie de la Popa, and other subsidiaries from the Cospique lived in the Membrillal and Pasacaballos areas. Among these, according to the earliest documents available, the Kalamari had preeminence. These tribes, though physically and administratively separated, shared a common architecture, such as hut structures consisting of circular rooms with tall roofs, which were surrounded by defensive wooden palisades. [14]

First sightings by Europeans: 1500–1533

Rodrigo de Bastidas traveled to the Pearl Coast and the Gulf of Uraba in 1500–01. On 14 February 1504, Ferdinand V contracted Juan de la Cosa's voyage to Uraba. However, Juan de la Cosa died in 1510 along with 300 of Alonso de Ojeda's men, after an armed confrontation with indigenous people, and before Juan de la Cosa could get possession of the Gulf of Urabá area. Similar contracts were signed in 1508 with Diego de Nicuesa for the settlement of Veragua and with Alonso de Ojeda for the settlement of Uraba, "where gold had already been obtained on earlier voyages," according to Floyd. [15] [13]

After the failed effort to find Antigua del Darién in 1506 by Alonso de Ojeda and the subsequent unsuccessful founding of San Sebastián de Urabá in 1517 by Diego de Nicuesa, the southern Caribbean coast became unattractive to colonizers. They preferred the better known Hispaniola and Cuba. [16]

Although the royal control point for trade, the Casa de Contratación gave permission to Rodrigo de Bastidas (1460–1527) to again conduct an expedition as adelantado to this area, Bastidas explored the coast and sighted the Magdalena River Delta in his first journey from Guajira to the south in 1527, a trip that ended in the Gulf of Urabá, the location of the failed first settlements. De Nicuesa and De Ojeda noted the existence of a big bay on the way from Santo Domingo to Urabá and the Panama isthmus, and that encouraged Bastidas to investigate. [17] [18] [19] [20]

Colonial era: 1533–1717

Pedro de Heredia, founder of the city and explorer of its hinterland Don Pedro de Heredia - SLAVE Market - Casco Antiquo - Cartagena de las Indias, COLOMBIA (156022450).jpg
Pedro de Heredia, founder of the city and explorer of its hinterland
Map of the city recently established and without walls (c.1550) Boazio-Sir Francis Drake in Cartagena.jpg
Map of the city recently established and without walls (c.1550)
The historic center is surrounded by 11 kilometers of defensive walls. These were complemented by fortifications along the coast, making Cartagena a militarily impregnable city. The walls, made in several stages, were designed to protect the city from continual pirate attacks, with construction beginning in 1586. 64 - Carthagene - Decembre 2008.jpg
The historic center is surrounded by 11 kilometers of defensive walls. These were complemented by fortifications along the coast, making Cartagena a militarily impregnable city. The walls, made in several stages, were designed to protect the city from continual pirate attacks, with construction beginning in 1586.
The Convento de Santo Domingo, founded in 1551, is the oldest church in Cartagena. In 1588, two years after Francis Drake's assault on the city, the church was granted 500 pesos by a royal decree to proceed with repairs of the building, which was not affected by the English attacks. It was occupied by the Dominican religious order until the 19th century. Iglesia y Convento de Santo Domingo 3.JPG
The Convento de Santo Domingo, founded in 1551, is the oldest church in Cartagena. In 1588, two years after Francis Drake's assault on the city, the church was granted 500 pesos by a royal decree to proceed with repairs of the building, which was not affected by the English attacks. It was occupied by the Dominican religious order until the 19th century.
Iglesia de San Pedro Claver. The body of Saint Peter Claver is located in its main altar. Iglesia de San Pedro Claver, Cartagena, Colombia (4980511743).jpg
Iglesia de San Pedro Claver. The body of Saint Peter Claver is located in its main altar.

Under contract to Queen Joanna of Castile, Pedro de Heredia entered the Bay of Cartagena with three ships, a lighter, 150 men, and 22 horses, on 14 January 1533. He soon found the village of Calamari abandoned. Proceeding onwards to Turbaco, where Juan de la Cosa had been mortally wounded 13 years earlier, Heredia fought an all-day battle before claiming victory. Using India Catalina as a guide, Heredia embarked on a three-month exploration expedition. He returned to Calamari in April 1533 with gold pieces, including a solid gold porcupine weighing 132 pounds. In later expeditions, Heredia raided the Sinú tombs and temples of gold. His rule as governor of Cartagena lasted 22 years, before perishing on his return to Spain in 1544. [12] :14–17 [13] :479–85

Cartagena was founded on 1 June 1533 by the Spanish commander, Pedro de Heredia, in the former location of the indigenous Caribbean Calamarí village. The town was named after the port city of Cartagena, in Murcia in southeast Spain, where most of Heredia's sailors had resided. [21] King Philip II gave Cartagena the title of "city" (ciudad) in 1574, adding "most noble and loyal" in 1575. [12] :23

The city's increasing importance as a port for the export of Peruvian silver from Potosí to Spain, made it an obvious target for pirates and corsairs, encouraged by France, England, and Holland. In 1544, the city was pillaged by 5 ships and 1000 men under the command of the French pirate Jean-François Roberval, who took advantage of the city still without walls. Heredia was forced to retreat to Turbaco until a ransom was paid. A defensive tower, San Felipe del Boqueron, was built in 1566 by Governor Anton Davalos. It was supposed to protect the anchorage and the Bahia de las Animas, a water lane into Plaza de lar Mar (current day Plaze de la Aduana), but the fort's battery had limited range. Then the French pirate Martin Cote struck in 1569 with 1000 men, ransacking the city. [12] :23–24 [22] :97–98

A few months after the disaster of the invasion of Cote, a fire destroyed the city and forced the creation of a firefighting squad, the first in the Americas. [23] [ full citation needed ]

In 1568, Sir John Hawkins of England tried to trick Governor Martín de las Alas into violating Spanish law, which forbade trade with foreigners, by opening a trade fair in the city to sell goods. This would have allowed Hawkins to ravage the port afterwards; the governor declined. Hawkins bombarded the city for 8 days, but failed to level it. [24] [25] [26] Then Francis Drake attacked in April 1586 with 23 ships and 3,000 men. Drake burned 200 houses and the cathedral, departing only after a ransom was paid a month later. [12] :24

Spain then commissioned Bautista Antonelli in 1586 to design a master scheme for defending its Caribbean ports. This included a second visit to Cartagena in 1594 when he drew up plans for a walled city. [22]

In 1610, the Holy Office of the Inquisition was established in Cartagena and The Palace of Inquisition was completed in 1770. Sentences were pronounced in the main city plaza, today's Plaza de Bolivar, during the Autos de Fe ceremonies. Crimes under its jurisdiction included those of heresy, blasphemy, bigamy and witchcraft. A total of 767 persons were punished, which ranged from fines, wearing a Sanbenito, life imprisonment, or even death for five unlucky souls. The Inquisition was abolished with independence in 1811. [12] :28

The Asiento contract signed by Britain and Spain in 1713. The contract granted exclusive rights to Britain to sell African slaves in the Spanish West Indies. 1713 Asiento contract.png
The Asiento contract signed by Britain and Spain in 1713. The contract granted exclusive rights to Britain to sell African slaves in the Spanish West Indies.

The first slaves were brought by Pedro de Heredia to work as "macheteros", clearing the underbrush. By the 17th Century, Cartagena had become an important New World slave market, centered about the Plaza de los Coches. Europeans began to bring slaves from Africa. Spain was the only European power that could not establish factories in Africa to purchase slaves and therefore the Spanish empire relied on the asiento system, awarding merchants (mostly from Portugal, France, England and the Dutch Empire) the license to trade enslaved people to their overseas territories. [27] [28] [29] [12] :30 [22] :135

Gov. Francisco de Murga made the Inner Bay an "impregnable lagoon", according to Segovia, which included the forts El Boquerón, Castillo Grande, Manzanillo, and Manga. Besides the walls built to defend the historic district of Calamari, Francisco de Murga enclosed Getsemani with protective walls starting in 1631. This included the battery of Media Luna of San Antonio, located between the bastions of Santa Teresa and Santa Barbara, which protected the only gate and causeway to the mainland. [22] :98, 130

The practice of Situado , is exemplified in the magnitude of the city's subsidy between 1751 and 1810, when the city received the sum of 20,912,677 Spanish reales. [30] [31] [ full citation needed ]

Hyacinthe Rigaud - Philippe V, roi d'Espagne (1683-1746) - Google Art Project.jpg
The policies of the Bourbon Dynasty in Spain, such as those of Philip V, stimulated the economic growth and consolidation of the Spanish America.
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Juan Díaz de Torrezar Pimienta as governor was the mastermind of the reconstruction of the city after the destruction of 1697

The Raid on Cartagena, in April 1697 during the Nine Years' War, by Sir Bernard Desjean, Baron de Pointis and Jean Baptiste Ducasse was a severe blow to Cartagena. The Baron's forces included 22 large ships, 500 canons, and 4000 troops, while Ducasse's forces consisted of 7 ships and 1,200 buccaneers. They quickly overwhelmed Sancho Jimeno de Orozco's force of 30 men in the San Luis de Bocachica fortification. Then, San Felipe de Barajas also fell and the city came under bombardment. When the Half Moon Gate was breached and Getsemani occupied, Governor Diego de los Rios capitulated. The Baron left after a month of plunder and Ducasse followed a week later. [12] :31–32

When King Philip II employed the Italian engineer Juan Bautista Antonelli to design a master plan of fortifications for Cartagena, construction would actually continue for the next two hundred years. On 17 March 1640, three Portuguese ships under the command of Rodrigo Lobo da Silva, ran aground in the Bocagrande Channel. This accelerated the formation of a sand bar, which soon connected the Bocagrande Peninsula to the island of Tierrabomba. The defense of the bay then shifted to two forts on either side of Bocachica, San Jose and San Luis de Bocachica . San Luis was replaced by San Fernando after the 1741 English raid. The next narrow passage was formed by the Island of Manzanillo, where San Juan del Manzanillo was constructed and Santa Cruz O Castillo Grande opposite on Cruz Grande at Punta Judio, both connected by a floating chain. Finally, there was San Felipe del Boqueron, later San Sebastian del Pastelillo. The city itself was circled with a ring of bastions connected by curtains. The island of Getsemani was also fortified. Protecting the city on the landward side, atop San Lazaro hill, was the Castillo San Felipe de Barajas [32] named in honor of Spain's King Philip IV and Governor Pedro Zapata de Mendoza, Marquis of Barajas' father, the Count of Barajas. Completed in 1654, the fort was expanded in the 18th Century, and included underground corridors and galleries. [12] :25–26 [33] [22] :76 [22] :69–72

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The final serious attempt to take the city and invade New Granada was made by Edward Vernon, who failed in one of the biggest military expeditions ever sent there
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Blas de Lezo the one-eyed, one-legged, one-handed Spanish mariner was one of those who defended the city in 1741

Viceregal era: 1717–1811

The 18th century began poorly for the city economically, as the Bourbon dynasty discontinued the Carrera de Indias convoys. However, with the establishment of the Viceroyalty of New Granada and the colonial struggle with England, Cartagena took on the stronghold as the "gateway to the Indies of Peru". By 1777, the city included 13,700 inhabitants with a garrison of 1300. The population reached 17,600 in 1809. [22] :31–33, 36

The reconstruction after the Raid on Cartagena (1697) was initially slow, but with the end of the War of the Spanish Succession around 1711 and the competent administration of Juan Díaz de Torrezar Pimienta, the walls were rebuilt, the forts reorganized and restored, and the public services and buildings reopened. By 1710, the city was fully recovered. At the same time, the slow but steady reforms of the restricted trade policies in the Spanish Empire encouraged the establishment of new trade houses and private projects. During the reign of Philip V of Spain the city had many new public works projects either begun or completed, among them the new fort of San Fernando, the Hospital of the Obra Pía and the full paving of all the streets and the opening of new roads.[ citation needed ]

In 1731, Juan de Herrera y Sotomayor founded the Military Academy of Mathematics and Practice of Fortifications in Cartagena. He is also known for designing the Puerta del Reloj starting in 1704. [22] :43, 138–39

1741 attack

Siege of Cartagena de Indias of 1741, where Spanish Empire forces of 2,800 men, commanded by Blas de Lezo, defeated the British fleet and armies of 23,600 soldiers under Admiral Edward Vernon. The failed siege was decisive for the victory of the War of Jenkins' Ear, in which the British wanted to take over various lands of Spanish America. Defensa de Cartagena de Indias por la escuadra de D. Blas de Lezo, ano 1741.jpg
Siege of Cartagena de Indias of 1741, where Spanish Empire forces of 2,800 men, commanded by Blas de Lezo, defeated the British fleet and armies of 23,600 soldiers under Admiral Edward Vernon. The failed siege was decisive for the victory of the War of Jenkins' Ear, in which the British wanted to take over various lands of Spanish America.

Starting in mid-April 1741, the city endured a siege by a large English armada under the command of Admiral Edward Vernon. The engagement, referred to as Battle of Cartagena de Indias, was part of the larger War of Jenkins' Ear. The English armada included 50 warships, 130 transport ships, and 25,600 men, including 2,000 North American colonial infantry. The Spanish defense was under the command of Sebastián de Eslava and Don Blas de Lezo. The British were able to take the Castillo de San Luis at Bocachica and land marines on the island of Tierrabomba and Manzanillo. The North Americans then took La Popa hill. [12] :33–35

Following a failed attack on San Felipe Barajas on April 20, 1741, which left 800 British dead and another 1,000 taken prisoner, Vernon lifted the siege. By that time he had many sick men from tropical diseases. An interesting footnote to the battle was the inclusion of George Washington's half brother, Lawrence Washington, amongst the British colonial troops. Lawrence later named his Mount Vernon estate in honor of his commander. [12] :35–36

Silver Age (1750–1808)

Mestiza of Cartagena de Indias (Colombia) circa 1799.jpg
Mestiza of Cartagena de Indias by Antonio Rodríguez Onofre, circa 1799.
Criollo of Cartagena de Indias (Colombia) circa 1796.jpg
Criollo of Cartagena de Indias by Antonio Rodríguez Onofre, circa 1796.

In 1762, Antonio de Arebalo published his Defense Plan, the Report on the estate of defense on the avenues of Cartagena de Indias. This engineer continued the work to make Cartagena impregnable, including the construction from 1771 to 1778, of a 3400 yards long underwater jetty across the Bocagrande called the Escollera. Arebalo had earlier completed San Fernando, and the fort-battery of San Jose in 1759, then added El Angel San Rafael on El Horno hill as added protection across the Bocachica. [22] :55, 81–94

After Vernon, what is called the 'Silver Age' of the city (1750–1808) began. This time was one of permanent expansion of the existing buildings, massive immigration from all the other cities of the Viceroyalty, increase of the economic and political power of the city and a population growth spurt not equaled since that time. Political power that was already shifting from Bogotá to the coast completed its relocation, and the Viceroys decided to reside in Cartagena permanently. [ citation needed ] The inhabitants of the city were the richest of the colony, the aristocracy erected noble houses on their lands to form great estates, libraries and printing establishments were opened, and the first café in New Granada was even established. The good times of steady progress and advancement in the second half of the 18th century came to an abrupt end in 1808 with the general crisis of the Spanish Empire that came from the Mutiny of Aranjuez and all its consequences.[ citation needed ]

Among the censuses of the 18th century was the special Census of 1778, imposed by the governor of the time, D. Juan de Torrezar Diaz Pimienta – later Viceroy of New Granada – by order of the Marquis of Ensenada, Minister of Finance – so that he would be provided numbers for his Catastro tax project, which imposed a universal property tax he believed would contribute to the economy while at the same time increasing royal revenues dramatically. The Census of 1778, besides having significance for economic history, required each house to be described in detail and its occupants enumerated, making the census an important tool [35] The census revealed what Ensenada had hoped. However, his enemies in the court convinced King Charles III to oppose the tax plan.

1811 to the 21st century

Postal showing the Dock of los Pegasos and the Torre del Reloj Publico, in Cartagena de Indias, circa 1910. Dock of los Pegasos and Torre del Reloj Publico 1910, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia.jpg
Postal showing the Dock of los Pegasos and the Torre del Reloj Público, in Cartagena de Indias, circa 1910.

For more than 275 years, Cartagena was under Spanish rule. With Napoleon's imprisonment of Charles IV and Ferdinand VII, and the start of the Peninsular War, the Latin American wars of independence soon followed. In Cartagena, on June 4, 1810, Royal Commissioner Antonio Villavicencio and the Cartagena City Council banished the Spanish Governor Francisco de Montes on suspicions of sympathy for the French emperor and the French occupation forces which overthrew the king. A Supreme Junta was formed, along with two political parties, one led by Jose Maria Garcia de Toledo representing the aristocrats, and a second led by Gabriel and German Piñeres representing the common people of Getsemani. Finally on November 11, a Declaration of Independence was signed proclaiming "a free state, sovereign and independent of all domination and servitude to any power on Earth". [12] :49–51 The support for a declaration of independence by working class leader and artisan Pedro Romero was key in pushing the Junta to adopting it. [36]

Spain's reaction was to send a "pacifying expedition" under the command of Pablo Morillo, The Pacifier, and Pascual de Enrile, which included 59 ships, and 10,612 men. The city was placed under siege on August 22, 1815. The city was defended by 3000 men, 360 cannons, and 8 ships plus ancillary small watercraft, under the command of Manuel del Castillo y Rada and Juan N. Enslava. However, by that time, the city was under the rule of the Garcia de Toledo Party, having exiled German and Gabriel Pineres, and Simon Bolivar. By December 5, about 300 people per day died from hunger or disease, forcing 2000 to flee on vessels provided by the French mercenary Louis Aury. By that time, 6000 had died. Morillo, in retaliation after entering the city, shot nine of the rebel leaders on February 24, 1816, at what is now known as the Camellon de los Martires. These included José María García de Toledo and Manuel del Castillo y Rada. [12] :55–60

Finally, a patriot army led by General Mariano Montilla, supported by Admiral José Prudencio Padilla, laid siege to the city from August 1820 until October 1821. A key engagement was the destruction of almost all of the royalist ships anchored on Getsemani Island on June 24, 1821. After Governor Gabriel Torres surrendered, Simon Bolivar the Liberator, bestowed the title "Heroic City" onto Cartagena. The Liberator spent 18 days in the city from July 20–28, 1827, staying in the Government Palace in Proclamation Square and the guest of a banquet hosted by Jose Padilla at his residence on Calle Larga. [12] :60, 67

Unfortunately, the toll of war, in particular from Morillo's siege long affected the city. With the loss of the funds it had received as the main colonial military outpost, and the loss of population, the city deteriorated. It suffered a long decline in the aftermath of independence, and was largely neglected by the central government in Bogotá. In fact, its population did not reach pre-1811 numbers until the start of the 20th century. [37]

These declines were also due to disease, including a devastating cholera epidemic in 1849. The Canal del Dique that connected it to the Magdalena River also filled with silt, leading to a drastic reduction in the amount of international trade. The rise of the port of Barranquilla only compounded the decline in trade. During the presidency of Rafael Nuñez, who was a Cartagena native, the central government finally invested in a railroad and other infrastructure improvements and modernization that helped the city to recover. [38]

Geography

Sanctuary of Saint Peter Claver. Peter Claver was a Spanish-born Jesuit priest who dedicated his life to helping the African slaves, giving them a sense of their own personal dignity. He became the patron saint of slaves, seafarers, the Republic of Colombia and ministry to Africans. Vitral de l a Iglesia y Claustro de San Pedro Claver. Cartagena. Colombia.JPG
Sanctuary of Saint Peter Claver. Peter Claver was a Spanish-born Jesuit priest who dedicated his life to helping the African slaves, giving them a sense of their own personal dignity. He became the patron saint of slaves, seafarers, the Republic of Colombia and ministry to Africans.

Location

Cartagena faces the Caribbean Sea to the west. To the south is the Cartagena Bay, which has two entrances: Bocachica (Small Mouth) in the south, and Bocagrande (Big Mouth) in the north. Cartagena is located at 10°25' North, 75°32' West (10.41667, −75.5333). [39]

Neighborhoods

Northern area

In this area is the Rafael Núñez International Airport, located in the neighborhood of Crespo, ten minutes' drive from downtown or the old part of the city and fifteen minutes away from the modern area. Zona Norte, the area located immediately north of the airport, contains the Hotel Las Americas, the urban development office of Barcelona de Indias, and several educational institutions.[ citation needed ] The old city walls, which enclose the centro or downtown area and the neighbourhood of San Diego, are located to the southwest of Crespo. On the Caribbean shore between Crespo and the old city lie the neighborhoods of Marbella and El Cabrero.

Downtown

Colonial Puerta del Reloj is the main gate of the City Walls Torre De Reloj27-09-14.jpg
Colonial Puerta del Reloj is the main gate of the City Walls
Typical balconies in the houses of the historic downtown Cartagena, Colombia 3.jpg
Typical balconies in the houses of the historic downtown

The Downtown area of Cartagena has varied architecture, mainly a colonial style, but republican and Italian style buildings, such as the Cathedral's bell tower, can be seen.

The main entrance to downtown is the Puerta del Reloj (Clock Gate), which exits onto the Plaza de los Coches (Square of the Carriages). [40] A few steps farther is the Plaza de la Aduana (Customs Square), next to the mayor's office. Nearby is San Pedro Claver Square and the church also named for Saint Peter Claver, where the body of the Jesuit saint ('Saint of the African slaves') is kept in a casket, as well as the Museum of Modern Art. [Note 1]

Nearby is the Plaza de Bolívar (Bolívar's Square) and the Palace of Inquisition. Plaza de Bolívar (formerly known as Plaza de La Inquisicion) is essentially a small park with a statue of Simón Bolívar in the center. This plaza is surrounded by balconied colonial buildings. Shaded outdoor cafes line the street.

The Office of Historical Archives devoted to Cartagena's history is not far away. Next to the archives is the Government Palace, the office building of the Governor of the Department of Bolivar. Across from the palace is the Cathedral of Cartagena, which dates back to the 16th century.

Another religious building of significance is the Iglesia de Santo Domingo in front of Plaza Santo Domingo (Santo Domingo Square). In the square is the sculpture Mujer Reclinada ("Reclining Woman"), a gift from the notable Colombian artist Fernando Botero. Nearby is the Tcherassi Hotel, a 250-year-old colonial mansion renovated by designer Silvia Tcherassi.

In the city is the Augustinian Fathers Convent and the University of Cartagena. This university is a center of higher education opened to the public in the late 19th century. The Claustro de Santa Teresa (Saint Theresa Cloister), which has been remodeled and has become a hotel operated by Charleston Hotels. It has its own square, protected by the San Francisco Bastion.

A 20-minute walk from downtown is the Castillo de San Felipe de Barajas, located in el Pie de la Popa (another neighborhood), one of the greatest fortresses built by the Spaniards in their colonies. The tunnels were all constructed in such a way as to make it possible to hear footsteps of an approaching enemy. Some of the tunnels are open for viewing today.

San Diego

San Diego was named after the local San Diego Convent, now known as the Beaux Arts University Building. In front of it is the Convent of the Nuns of the Order of Saint Clare, now the Hotel Santa Clara. In the surrounding area is Santo Toribio Church, the last church built in the Walled City. Next to it is Fernández de Madrid Square, honoring Cartagena's hero, José Fernández de Madrid, whose statue can be seen nearby.

Inside the Old City[ clarification needed ] is found Las Bóvedas (The Vaults), [43] a construction attached to the walls of the Santa Catalina Fortress. From the top of this construction the Caribbean Sea is visible.

Getsemaní

A view of the Colonial and traditional neighbourhood of Getsemani, usually found old houses painted with graffiti. Statues in Plaza de la Trinidad.jpg
A view of the Colonial and traditional neighbourhood of Getsemaní, usually found old houses painted with graffiti.

Once a district characterized by crime, Getsemani, just south of the ancient walled fortress, has become "Cartagena's hippest neighborhood and one of Latin America's newest hotspots", with plazas that were once the scene of drug dealing being reclaimed and old buildings being turned into boutique hotels. [44]

Bocagrande

The Bocagrande (Big Mouth) is an area known for its skyscrapers. The area contains the bulk of the city's tourist facilities, such as hotels, shops, restaurants, nightclubs and art galleries. It is located between Cartagena Bay to the east and the Caribbean Sea to the west, and includes the two neighborhoods of El Laguito (The Little Lake) and Castillogrande (Big Castle). Bocagrande has long beaches and much commercial activity is found along Avenida San Martín (Saint Martin Avenue). [45]

The beaches of Bocagrande, lying along the northern shore, are made of volcanic sand, which is slightly grayish in color. This makes the water appear muddy, though it is not. There are breakwaters about every 180 metres (200 yd).[ citation needed ]

On the bay side of the peninsula of Bocagrande is a seawalk. In the center of the bay is a statue of the Virgin Mary. The Naval Base is also located in Bocagrande, looking at the Bay.

69 - Carthagene - Decembre 2008.jpg
Bocagrande's skyline at twilight from the old town, in the year 2008.

Climate

Cartagena features a tropical wet and dry climate. Humidity averages around 90%, with rainy seasons typically in May–June and October–November. The climate tends to be hot and windy.

Climate data for Cartagena (Rafael Núñez International Airport) 1981–2010
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)40.0
(104.0)
38.0
(100.4)
38.0
(100.4)
38.0
(100.4)
40.0
(104.0)
39.8
(103.6)
39.0
(102.2)
38.0
(100.4)
39.6
(103.3)
39.0
(102.2)
40.0
(104.0)
38.0
(100.4)
40.0
(104.0)
Average high °C (°F)30.6
(87.1)
30.7
(87.3)
30.8
(87.4)
31.2
(88.2)
31.5
(88.7)
31.8
(89.2)
31.8
(89.2)
31.8
(89.2)
31.5
(88.7)
31.2
(88.2)
31.2
(88.2)
30.9
(87.6)
31.2
(88.2)
Daily mean °C (°F)26.7
(80.1)
26.8
(80.2)
27.1
(80.8)
27.8
(82.0)
28.3
(82.9)
28.5
(83.3)
28.3
(82.9)
28.4
(83.1)
28.3
(82.9)
28.0
(82.4)
27.9
(82.2)
27.2
(81.0)
27.8
(82.0)
Average low °C (°F)23.9
(75.0)
24.2
(75.6)
24.8
(76.6)
25.6
(78.1)
25.9
(78.6)
25.9
(78.6)
25.6
(78.1)
25.7
(78.3)
25.6
(78.1)
25.4
(77.7)
25.4
(77.7)
24.6
(76.3)
25.2
(77.4)
Record low °C (°F)19.0
(66.2)
19.0
(66.2)
19.0
(66.2)
19.5
(67.1)
19.0
(66.2)
19.0
(66.2)
20.0
(68.0)
18.0
(64.4)
18.5
(65.3)
19.0
(66.2)
19.0
(66.2)
18.5
(65.3)
18.0
(64.4)
Average rainfall mm (inches)1.9
(0.07)
0.5
(0.02)
1.9
(0.07)
22.0
(0.87)
120.3
(4.74)
101.5
(4.00)
119.4
(4.70)
128.9
(5.07)
144.5
(5.69)
238.8
(9.40)
156.9
(6.18)
50.4
(1.98)
1,087
(42.80)
Average rainy days001410131113151612398
Average relative humidity (%)81798081828281828283838281
Mean monthly sunshine hours 272.8240.1238.7210.0192.2189.0207.7198.4171.0170.5186.0241.82,518.2
Mean daily sunshine hours 8.88.57.77.06.26.36.76.45.75.56.27.86.9
Percent possible sunshine 75.966.663.856.649.349.552.951.446.846.253.267.756.7
Source: Instituto de Hidrologia Meteorologia y Estudios Ambientales [46] [47] [48]
Climate data for Cartagena
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Mean daily daylight hours12.012.012.012.013.013.013.012.012.012.012.012.012.2
Average Ultraviolet index 11121212121212121212111011+
Source: Weather Atlas [49]

Demographics

The Marquis of Ensenada was Minister for America and responsible for many policies, one of which resulted in the first modern census in the city in 1778. Marquis de Ensenada.jpg
The Marquis of Ensenada was Minister for America and responsible for many policies, one of which resulted in the first modern census in the city in 1778.
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1533200    
15642,400+1100.0%
15933,543+47.6%
16125,302+49.6%
16348,390+58.2%
164312,302+46.6%
169814,223+15.6%
170110,230−28.1%
173212,932+26.4%
176214,203+9.8%
177816,940+19.3%
179219,380+14.4%
YearPop.±%
180323,402+20.8%
181129,320+25.3%
18215,392−81.6%
18328,001+48.4%
18424,221−47.2%
18536,403+51.7%
18678,320+29.9%
18707,680−7.7%
188213,994+82.2%
189017,392+24.3%
190021,220+22.0%
191229,922+41.0%
YearPop.±%
191834,203+14.3%
192664,322+88.1%
193987,504+36.0%
1952123,439+41.1%
1967299,493+142.6%
1976312,520+4.3%
1985554,093+77.3%
1993725,072+30.9%
1999837,552+15.5%
2005893,033+6.6%
2018973,035+9.0%
58 - Carthagene - Decembre 2008.jpg
Panorama of Cartagena from the San Felipe de Barajas Fort, in the year 2008.

Economy

Port of Cartagena de Indias Cartagena2011-Skyline-Habour.jpg
Port of Cartagena de Indias

The main economic activities in Cartagena are industry, tourism, and commerce. The port of Cartagena is one of the largest of South America.

Industry

Other prominent companies include Cementos Argos, Miss Colombia, Kola Román, Indufrial, Amazon Pepper, Vikings SA, Distribuidora Ltda Refrigeration, Central Ingenio Colombia, Perfumery Lemaitre, Cartagena Refinery Cellux Colombiana SA, Flour Three Castles, Polyban International SA, SABMiller, Dow Chemical, Cemex, Dole, and Abocol.[ citation needed ].

Miss Colombia

In 1934, Miss Colombia was founded in Cartagena de Indias. Known as Concurso Nacional de Belleza de Colombia (National Beauty Contest of Colombia), it is a national beauty pageant in Colombia. The winner, Señorita Colombia, is sent to Miss Universe and the first runner-up, Señorita Colombia Internacional or Virreina, to Miss International.

There is also a local beauty contest held with many of the city's neighborhoods nominating young ladies to be named Miss Independence. [50]

Free zones

Free zones are areas within the local territory which enjoy special customs and tax rules. [51] [52] They are intended to promote the industrialization of goods and provision of services aimed primarily at foreign markets and also the domestic market.[ citation needed ]

Tourism

Panoramic view of Castillo de San Felipe de Barajas, just outside the walled city Panorama Castillo San Felipe de Barajas CTG 11 2019 2864.jpg
Panoramic view of Castillo de San Felipe de Barajas, just outside the walled city
Tower of the Metropolitan Cathedral Basilica of Saint Catherine of Alexandria Ciudad amurallada fog.jpg
Tower of the Metropolitan Cathedral Basilica of Saint Catherine of Alexandria

Tourism is a mainstay of the economy. The following are tourist sites that are within the walled city of Cartagena:

The city has a budding hotel industry with small boutique hotels being primarily concentrated in the Walled City and larger hotels in the beach front neighborhood of Bocagrande. The area of Getsemaní just outside the wall is also a popular place for small hotels and hostels. [57]

The following are tourist sites that are outside the city of Cartagena:

Infrastructure

Transportation

As the commercial and touristic hub of the country, the city has many transportation facilities, particularly in the seaport, air, and fluvial areas.[ citation needed ]

In 2003, [58] the city started building Transcaribe, a mass transit system. In 2015 the system began operating in the city. Taxis are also a prevalent form of public transportation and there is a bus terminal connecting the city to other cities along the coast and in Colombia. [59]

Roads

The city is linked to the northern part of the Caribbean Region through roads 90 and 90A, more commonly called Central Caribbean Road. This Road passes through Barranquilla, Santa Marta and Riohacha ending in Paraguachón, Venezuela and continues with Venezuelan numeration all the way to Caracas. Taxis in the city perimeter do not have fare meters.[ citation needed ]

The following roads are in the southeast portion of the city: [ clarification needed ] Road 25: Going through Turbaco and Arjona, and through the Montes de María when a fork divides it continuing to Sincelejo as National 25 and finally ending in Medellín, and to the east to Valledupar as number 80.

Road 25 A: Going also to Sincelejo, but avoiding the mountains, connects with Road 25 in the forementioned city.[ clarification needed ]

Air

The Rafael Núñez International Airport, is the busiest airport in Colombia's Caribbean region and the fourth in passenger traffic in the country. The code of the airport is CTG, having flights to almost all airports in Colombia including Bogota's El Dorado International Airport. Excessive operational costs and easier connection travel and better prices had led to the shifting of the Rafael Núñez's international connection passengers away from Bogota to the nearer Tocumen International Airport in Panama and Queen Beatrix International Airport in Aruba. Also more companies prefer to serve the Colombian market from Cartagena, due to better geographical and atmospheric conditions. [60]

Sea

Sunset over Cartagena Harbor as seen from La Popa Atardecer en Cartagena de Indias desde La Popa..jpg
Sunset over Cartagena Harbor as seen from La Popa

The open ports of the city are:

Private ports of the city:

Canals

Since the 17th century the bay has been connected to the Magdalena River by the Dique Canal, built by Governor Pedro Zapata de Mendoza. After Colombian independence, the canal was abandoned. Increasing centralization left the city without resources to maintain it. The last important maintenance work was done in the 1950s during Laureano Gómez's administration. Some improvements were made by local authorities in the 1980s. This was discontinued because of legal objections from the central government that decreed that the "maintenance" of the canal did not fall under the jurisdiction of the local government. From then on, maintenance of the canal has been delayed, though it is still functional. [63]

Cartagenian political leaders have argued that this state of affairs might change with a return to pre-independence funding and tax system. Under such systems the canal would be maintained properly and even expanded, benefiting the national economy. [64]

Waste disposal

Cartagena is one of the few cities in the world with a submarine emissary inaugurated in 2013. [65] The emissary is the third largest in the world. [66]

Education

The old city and the Convento de San Agustin to background, convent built in 16th-century, and since 1828 this building is occupied by the University of Cartagena which was founded in 1827. Currently, of the original structure of this convent remains only the cloister, the arches and the supporting walls. The tower is of Italian style and as the large interior garden and courtyard Calle de San agustin.JPG
The old city and the Convento de San Agustín to background, convent built in 16th-century, and since 1828 this building is occupied by the University of Cartagena which was founded in 1827. Currently, of the original structure of this convent remains only the cloister, the arches and the supporting walls. The tower is of Italian style and as the large interior garden and courtyard

Colleges and universities

Primary and secondary schools

International schools include:

Libraries

The city has many public and private libraries:

Divided in buildings across the city being assigned to the Faculties it serves accordingly each area. The main building is in C. de la Universidad 64 and the second biggest section is located in Av. Jose Vicente Mogollón 2839. [67]

Culture

Cartagena de Indias exterior del Teatro Heredia.jpg
Theatre Heredia was opened in 1911
Cartagena de Indias, interior del Teatro Heredia 2.jpg
Inside of the Theatre Heredia

Theatres and concert halls

The first carnivals and western theaters that served in New Granada operated on, what is today, Calle del Coliseo. This was an activity patronized by the Viceroy Manuel de Guirior and Antonio Caballero y Góngora, who, like their predecessors, spent most of the time of their mandates ruling in Cartagena.

Sport

The main football club in the city is Real Cartagena.

Museums and galleries

Museo del Oro museum, it contains an important collection of over 600 pieces, of gold and pottery, of the old Zenu indigenous culture Cartagena de Indias, museo del oro 1.jpg
Museo del Oro museum, it contains an important collection of over 600 pieces, of gold and pottery, of the old Zenú indigenous culture

World Heritage site

The port, the fortresses and the group of monuments of Cartagena were selected in 1984 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as significant to the heritage of the world, having the most extensive fortifications in South America. They are significant, too, for being located in a bay that is part of the Caribbean Sea. A system of zones divides the city into three neighborhoods: San Sebastian and Santa Catalina with the cathedral and many palaces where the wealthy lived and the main government buildings functioned; San Diego or Santo Toribio, where merchants and the middle class lived; and Getsemani, the suburban popular quarters. [71]

Festivities

Media appearances

Film

Television

Literature

Video games

Music

Famous people

Plaza de la Aduana square. Cartagena, la heroica Cartagena, la heroica.JPG
Plaza de la Aduana square. Cartagena, la heróica

19th century

20th century

See also

Notes

  1. Peter Claver was a Spanish who traveled to Cartagena in 1610. On 19 March 1616 he was ordained as a Jesuit priest. Peter cared for the African slaves for thirty-eight years, defending the life and the dignity of the slaves. After four years of sickness, Peter died in 1654. Two services were held for him: the official funeral, and a separate memorial attended by his African friends. In 1888, the Roman Catholic Church canonized Peter. He is now Known as the patron saint of African-Americans, slaves and the Republic of Colombia. [41] [42]

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Juan José Nieto Gil

Juan José Nieto Gil was a Colombian politician, Army general and writer. A Liberal party caudillo of Cartagena, he served interimly as Governor of the Province of Cartagena, and was later elected President of the Sovereign State of Bolívar from 1859 to 1864. In 1861, during the Colombian Civil War, he fought on the side of the Liberal rebels against the Administration of President Mariano Ospina Rodríguez, and acting in rebellion proclaimed himself President of the Granadine Confederation in his right as the Presidential Designate, relinquishing power four months later to the Liberal leader, General Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera y Arboleda, who led a successful coup d'état against the Conservative Government in Bogotá.

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Martín Yañéz Tafur was a Spanish conquistador who participated in the foundation of Cartagena, the Spanish conquest of the Muisca and the conquest of the Panche.

Juan de Albarracín

Juan de Albarracín was a Spanish conquistador who participated in the Spanish conquest of the Muisca and Panche people. He was captain of the brigs which sailed up the Magdalena River from the Caribbean coast in 1536 and later discovered the high quality salt that lead the Spanish conquistadors along the Camino de la Sal up the slopes of the eastern ranges of the Colombian Andes towards the Muisca Confederation.

Antonio de Lebrija (conquistador) Spanish conquistador

Antonio de Lebrija was born in 1507, in Alcántara, Extremadura, Spain; and died in 1540, in Brozas, also in Extremadura. He was a Spanish conquistador who participated in the Spanish conquest of the Muisca and the Chimila peoples. He was the treasurer of the conquest expedition which left Santa Marta in April 1536 following the high quality salt trail, the Camino de la Sal, along the Suárez River up the slopes of the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes towards the Muisca Confederation.

Puerta del Reloj, Cartagena

The Puerta del RelojSpanish pronunciation: [ˈpweɾta ðel ˈrelox], Torre del RelojSpanish pronunciation: [ˈtore ðel ˈrelox] or Boca del PuenteSpanish pronunciation: [ˈboka ðel ˈpwente] is the main city gate of the historic center of Cartagena de Indias, in Colombia and the original entrance of the fortified city. It is located between the squares Plaza de Independencia and Plaza de los Coches. The name "Puerta del Reloj" responds to the clock with which it was crowned at the beginning of the 18th century. While the name of Boca del Puente is due to the fact that during the colonial period, a drawbridge was raised at the foot of the channel of San Anastasio, which linked the walled city to the legendary Getsemaní neighborhood. In addition the bridge served like defense of the city, since in case of enemy attack, this one was raised to prevent the access of buccaneers and pirates.

References

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Further reading

Colonial history

  • Álvarez Alonso, Fermina. La Inquisición en Cartagena de Indias durante el siglo XVII. Madrid: Fundación Universitaria Española, 1999.
  • Bossa Herrazo, Donaldo. Nomenclatur cartagenero. 1981.
  • Böttcher, Nikolaus. “Negreros portugueses y la Inquisición de Cartagena de Indias, siglo XVII.” Memoria 9 (2003): 38–55.
  • Dorta, Enrique Marco. Cartagena de Indias: Puerto y plaza fuerte. 1960.
  • Escobar Quevedo, Ricardo. “Los Criptojudíos de Cartagena de Indias: Un eslabón en la diáspora conversa (1635–1649).” Anuario Colombiano de Historia Social y de la Cultura 29 (2002): 45–71.
  • Fals-Borda, Orlando. Historia doble de la costa. 4 vols. 1979–1986.
  • Goodsell, James Nelson. "Cartagena de Indias: Entrepôt for a New World, 1533–1597." PhD dissertation, Harvard University 1966.
  • Grahn, Lance R. "Cartagena and Its Hinterland in the Eighteenth Century" in Atlantic Port Cities: Economy, Culture, and Society in the Atlantic World, 1650–1850. Franklin W. Knight and Peggy K. Liss, eds. 1991, pp. 168–95.
  • Grahn, Lance R. "Cartagena" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. 1, pp. 581–82. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1996.
  • Greenow, Linda. Family, Household, and Home: A Microgeographic Analysis of Cartagena (New Granada) in 1777. 1976.
  • Greenow, Linda. "Urban form in Spanish American colonial cities: Cartagena de Indias, New Granada, in 1777." Department of Geography Suny-New Paltz, NY. Middle States Geographer (2007).
  • Lemaitre, Eduardo. Historia general de Cartagena. 4 vols. Bogota: Banco de la República, 1983.
  • McKnight, Kathryn Joy. "Confronted Rituals: Spanish Colonial and Angolan" Maroon" Executions in Cartagena de Indias (1634)." Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History 5.3 (2004).
  • Medina, José Toríbio. Historia del Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisicón de Cartagena de Indias. Santiago: Imprenta Elzeviriana, 1899.
  • Meisel, Adolfo. "Subsidy-Led Growth In A Fortified Port: Cartagena De Indias And The Situado, 1751–1810." Borradores de Economía 167 (2000).
  • Molino García, María Paulina. “La sede vacante en Cartagena de Indias, 1534–1700.” Anuario de Estudios Americanos 32 (1975): 1–23.
  • Newson, Linda A., and Susie Minchin. "Slave mortality and African origins: a view from Cartagena, Colombia, in the early seventeenth century." Slavery & Abolition 25.3 (2004): 18–43.
  • Olsen, Margaret M. Slavery and Salvation in Colonial Cartagena de Indias. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004.
  • Pacheco, Juan Manuel. “Sublevación portuguesa en Cartagena.” Boletín de historia y antigüedades 42 (1955): 557–60.
  • Rey Fajardo, José del. Los jesuitas en Cartagena de Indias, 1604–1767. Bogota: Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, 2004.
  • Rocha, Carlos Guilherme. "A disputa por poder em Cartagena das Índias: o embate entre o governador Francisco de Murga e o Tribunal do Santo Ofício (1629–1636)." (2013).
  • Ruiz Rivera, Julián B. “Cartagena de Indias: ¿Un cabildo cosmopolita en una ciudad pluriétnica?” In El municipio indiano: Relaciones interétnicas, económicas y sociales. Homenaje a Luis Navarro García, edited by Manuela Cristina García Bernal and Sandra Olivero Guidobono, 407–24. Seville: Universidad de Sevilla, 2009.
  • –––. “Gobierno, comercio y sociedad en Cartagena de Indias en el siglo XVII.” In Cartagena de Indias en el siglo XVII, edited by Haroldo Calvo Stevenson and Adolfo Meisel Roca, 353–76. Cartagena: Banco de la República, 2007.
  • –––. “Los regimientos de Cartagena de Indias.” In La venta de cargos y el ejercicio del poder en Cartagena de Indias, edited by Julián B. Ruiz Rivera y Ángel Sanz Tapia, 199–221. León: Universidad de León, 2007.
  • –––. Cartagena de Indias y su provincia: Una mirada a los siglos XVII y XVIII. Bogota: El Áncora Editores, 2005.
  • –––. “Municipio, puerto y provincia (1600–1650).” In Julián B. Ruiz Rivera, Cartagena de Indias y su provincia: Una mirada a los siglos XVII y XVIII, 203–24. Bogota: El Áncora Editores, 2005.
  • –––. “Vanquésel, casa de préstamos en Cartagena de Indias.” In Estudios sobre América: siglos XVI–XX, edited by Antonio Gutiérrez Escudero and María Luisa Laviana Cuetos, 673–89. Seville: Asociación Española de Americanistas, 2005.
  • –––. “Una banca en el mercado de negros de Cartagena de Indias.” Temas americanistas 17 (2004): 3–23.
  • –––. “Los portugueses y la trata negrera en Cartagena de Indias.” Temas americanistas 15 (2002): 19–41.
  • Salazar, Ricardo Raul. "Running Chanzas: Slave-State Interactions in Cartagena de Indias, 1580 to 1713." Diss. Harvard University, 2014.
  • Sánchez Bohórquez, José Enrique. “La Inquisición en América durante los siglos XVI–XVII: Los dominicos y el Tribunal de Cartagena de Indias.” In Praedicatores inquisitores, vol. 2, La Orden Dominicana y la Inquisición en el mundo ibérico e hispanoamericano, 753–808. Rome: Istituto Storico Domenicano, 2006.
  • Solano Alonso, Jairo. Salud, cultura y sociedad en Cartagena de Indias, siglos XVI y XVII In De la Roma Medieval a la Cartagena Colonial: El Santo Oficio de la Inquisición. Vol. I of Cincuenta Años de Inquisición en el Tribunal de Cartagena deIndias, 1610–1660, edited by Anna María Splendiani, et al. Bogotá: Centro EditorialJaveriano, 1997.. Barranquilla: Universidad del Atlántico, 1998.
  • Splendiani, Anna María, et al. eds. De la Roma Medieval a la Cartagena Colonial: El Santo Oficio de la Inquisición. Vol. I of Cincuenta Años de Inquisición en el Tribunal de Cartagena de Indias, 1610–1660, Bogotá: Centro Editorial Javeriano, 1997.
  • Tejado Fernández, Manuel. “El tribunal de Cartagena de Indias: La primera mitad del siglo XVII(1621–1650).” In Historia de la Inquisición en España y América, 3 vols., edited by Joaquín Pérez Villanueva and Bartolomé Escandell Bonet, I.1141–45. Madrid: Centro de Estudios Inquisitoriales, 1984.
  • –––. “La ampliación del dispositivo: Fundación del Tribunal de Cartagena de Indias.” In Historia de la Inquisición en España y América, 3 vols., edited by Joaquín Pérez Villanueva and Bartolomé Escandell Bonet, I.984–95. Madrid: Centro de Estudios Inquisitoriales, 1984.
  • –––. Aspectos de la vida social en Cartagena de Indias durante el seiscientos. Seville: Escuela de Estudios Hispano-Americanos, 1954.
  • –––. “Un foco de judaísmo en Cartagena de Indias durante el seiscientos.” Bulletin Hispanique 52 (1950): 55–72.
  • Vidal Ortega, Antonino. Cartagena de Indias y la región histórica del Caribe, 1580–1640. Seville: Escuela de Estudios Hispano-Americanos, 2002.
  • –––. “Portugueses negreros en Cartagena, 1580–1640,” in IV Seminario internacional de estudios del Caribe: Memorias, 135–54. Bogota: Fondo de Publicaciones de la Universidad del Atlántico, 1999.
  • Vila Vilar, Enriqueta. “Cartagena de Indias en el siglo XVII: Puerto negrero internacional.” In Redescubriendo el Nuevo Mundo: Estudios americanistas en homenaje a Carmen Gómez, edited by María Salud Elvás Iniesta and Sandra Olivero Guidobono, 63–74. Seville: Universidad de Sevilla, 2012.
  • –––. “Extranjeros en Cartagena (1593–1630).” Jahrbuch für Geschichte von Staat, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft Lateinamerikas 16 (1979): 147–84.
  • Von Germeten, Nicole. Violent Delights, Violent Ends: Sex, Race, & Honor in Colonial Cartagena de Indias. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2013.
  • Wethey, Harold E. "Enrique Marco Dorta, Cartagena de Indias. La ciudad y sus monumentos: Seville, Escuela de Estudios Hispano-americanos, 1951. pp. xxiii+ 322; 170 figs. 200 pesetas." (1952): 322–24.