|Author||Tomás António Gonzaga|
|Genre||Poetry, epistolary novel|
Cartas Chilenas (in English: Chilean Letters) is an unfinished series of satirical poems whose authorship is attributed to Luso-Brazilian Neoclassic poet Tomás António Gonzaga. The poems circulated in the city of Vila Rica (present-day Ouro Preto) via pamphlets for several years before the 1789 Minas Conspiracy, but were discontinued after the Conspiracy was dismantled, as Gonzaga was sent to exile in the Island of Mozambique. It is said that the Cartas Chilenas were loosely based on and inspired by Montesquieu's Persian Letters .
An unfinished creative work is a painting, novel, musical composition, or other creative work, that has not been brought to a completed state. Its creator may have chosen not to finish it, or may have been prevented from doing so by circumstances outside of their control, such as death. Such pieces are often the subject of speculation as to what the finished piece would have been like had the original creator completed the work. Sometimes artworks are finished by others and released posthumously. Unfinished works have had profound influences on their genres and have inspired others in their own projects. The term can also refer to ongoing work which could eventually be finished and is distinguishable from "incomplete work", which can be a work that was finished but is no longer in its complete form.
Neoclassicism is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity. Neoclassicism was born largely thanks to the writings of Johann Joachim Winckelmann, at the time of the rediscovery of Pompeii and Herculaneum, but its popularity spread all over Europe as a generation of European art students finished their Grand Tour and returned from Italy to their home countries with newly rediscovered Greco-Roman ideals. The main Neoclassical movement coincided with the 18th-century Age of Enlightenment, and continued into the early 19th century, laterally competing with Romanticism. In architecture, the style continued throughout the 19th, 20th and up to the 21st century.
Tomás António Gonzaga was a Portuguese-born Brazilian poet. One of the most famous Neoclassic colonial Brazilian writers, he was also the ouvidor and the ombudsman of the city of Ouro Preto, as well as the desembargador of the appeal court in Bahia. He wrote under the pen name Dirceu.
The poems were compiled for the first time and published in 1863. They were re-edited several times after that, reaching their present form in 1957 thanks to the extensive research of Portuguese philologist Manuel Rodrigues Lapa.
Cartas Chilenas is a satirical poem in the shape of an epistolary novel, indirectly written "in honor" of Luís da Cunha Meneses, then-governor of the Captaincy of Minas Gerais, and the Portuguese Crown. It begins with a fictional foreword, in which an anonymous Brazilian man explains how the book came into being: he obtained a copy of a series of letters from a man coming to Brazil from an unnamed Hispanic America country, and decided to translate these letters from Spanish to Portuguese in order to keep the Brazilian governors from making the same mistakes made by Fanfarrão Minésio, the tyrannic governor of Chile.
An epistolary novel is a novel written as a series of documents. The usual form is letters, although diary entries, newspaper clippings and other documents are sometimes used. Recently, electronic "documents" such as recordings and radio, blogs, and e-mails have also come into use. The word epistolary is derived from Latin from the Greek word ἐπιστολή epistolē, meaning a letter.
Minas Gerais is a state in the north of Southeastern Brazil. It ranks as the second most populous, the third by gross domestic product (GDP), and the fourth largest by area in the country. The state's capital and largest city, Belo Horizonte, is a major urban and finance center in Latin America, and the sixth largest municipality in Brazil, after the cities of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Brasilia and Fortaleza, but its metropolitan area is the third largest in Brazil with just over 5,500,000 inhabitants, after those of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Nine Brazilian presidents were born in Minas Gerais, the most of any state.
Hispanic America, also known as Spanish America, is the region comprising the Spanish-speaking nations in the Americas.
The thirteen letters were written as blank verse poems by "Critilo" (the assumed nom de plume of Tomás António Gonzaga), who lives in Santiago, Chile (actually Vila Rica, Minas Gerais), and are addressed to his friend, "Doroteu" (possibly Cláudio Manuel da Costa), who lives in Madrid. In each letter, "Critilo" describes life in Santiago under the despotic and corruption-filled régime of the Chilean governor, "Fanfarrão Minésio" (who is actually Luís da Cunha Meneses).
Blank verse is poetry written with regular metrical but unrhymed lines, almost always in iambic pentameter. It has been described as "probably the most common and influential form that English poetry has taken since the 16th century", and Paul Fussell has estimated that "about three quarters of all English poetry is in blank verse".
Santiago, is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas. It is the center of Chile's largest and most densely populated conurbation, the Santiago Metropolitan Region, whose total population is 7 million. The city is entirely located in the country's central valley. Most of the city lies between 500 m (1,640 ft) and 650 m (2,133 ft) above mean sea level.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty.
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Ouro Preto, formerly Vila Rica, is a city in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, a former colonial mining town located in the Serra do Espinhaço mountains and designated a World Heritage site by UNESCO because of its outstanding Baroque architecture.
Joaquim José da Silva Xavier, known as Tiradentes, was a leading member of the Brazilian revolutionary movement known as Inconfidência Mineira, whose aim was full independence from Portuguese colonial power and creation of a Brazilian republic.
Brazilian literature is the literature written in the Portuguese language by Brazilians or in Brazil, including works written prior to the country's independence in 1822. Throughout its early years, literature from Brazil followed the literary trends of Portugal, whereas gradually shifting to a different and authentic writing style in the course of the 19th and 20th centuries, in the search for truly Brazilian themes and use of the Portuguese language.
Antônio Frederico de Castro Alves was a Brazilian poet and playwright, famous for his abolitionist and republican poems. One of the most famous poets of the "Condorism", he won the epithet of "O Poeta dos Escravos".
Inconfidência Mineira was an unsuccessful separatist movement in Brazil in 1789. It was the result of a confluence of external and internal causes in what was then a Portuguese colony. The external inspiration was the independence of thirteen of the British colonies in North America following the American Revolutionary War, a development that impressed the intellectual elite of particularly the captaincy of Minas Gerais. The main internal cause of the conspiracy was the decline of gold mining in that captaincy. As gold became less plentiful, the region's gold miners faced increasing difficulties in fulfilling tax obligations to the crown, the tax over gold was one-fifth. When the captaincy could not satisfy the royal demand for gold, it was burdened with an additional tax on gold, called derrama.
Meneses, sometimes Menezes in Portuguese, was originally a noble surname which originated in Montes Torozos, a region in Tierra de Campos, northeast of Valladolid and southeast of Palencia. The ancestor of the Meneses lineage was Tello Pérez de Meneses. The family wealth and power grew remarkably in the 13th and 14th centuries, through several marriages with the Castilian and Portuguese royal families.
Inácio José de Alvarenga Peixoto (1744–1793) was a Colonial Brazilian Neoclassic poet and lawyer. He wrote under the pen name Eureste Fenício.
Cláudio Manuel da Costa was a Brazilian poet and musician, considered to be the introducer of Neoclassicism in Brazil. He wrote under the pen name Glauceste Satúrnio, and his most famous work is the epic poem Vila Rica, that tells the history of the homonymous city, nowadays called Ouro Preto.
Marília de Dirceu is a poetry book written by Luso-Brazilian Neoclassic poet Tomás António Gonzaga. It is divided in three parts — all of them published in different years. The first part, published in 1792, has 33 "lyres", and they tell mostly about Gonzaga's love by a woman named Marília. The second part, published in 1799, was written when Gonzaga was serving time in Ilha das Cobras because of his involvement with the unsuccessful Minas Conspiracy. Its 38 lyres focus now on Gonzaga's longing for freedom. The third part, published in 1802, has 9 lyres and 13 sonnets, and its authorship is disputed.
The Aqueduct of Santa Clara is the second largest Portuguese aqueduct system. Built between 1626 and 1714, it includes 999 arches stretching for 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) from the spring of Terroso in the municipality of Póvoa de Varzim to the Convent of Santa Clara in the municipality of Vila do Conde.
Almeida is a common surname in the Portuguese language, in Portugal, Brazil, and India. It was originally a toponym, derived from the town of Almeida.
The title duke of Terceira, de juro e herdade was created by decree of King Pedro IV of Portugal, on 8 November 1832. António José de Souza Manoel de Menezes Severim de Noronha, 7th Count of Vila Flor, de juro e herdade, and 1st Marquis of Vila Flor, was the first holder of the title.
The Brazilian Gold Rush was a gold rush that started in the 1690s, in the then Portuguese colony of Brazil in the Portuguese Empire. The gold rush opened up the major gold-producing area of Ouro Preto, then the aptly named Vila Rica. Eventually, the Brazilian Gold Rush created the world's longest gold rush period and the largest gold mines in South America.
The Conspiracy of the Tres Antonios (1781) was minor failed conspiracy against the Spanish colonial authorities in the captaincy-general of Chile, that was led by two Frenchmen, Antonio Gramusset and Antonio Berney, and a criollo, José Antonio de Rojas. It was so named because all three conspirators shared the same first name.
The Governorate General of Brazil was a colonial administration of the Portuguese Empire in Brazil. A governorate was equivalent in status to a viceroyalty, though the title viceroy didn't come into use until the early 18th century. They were ruled by a Governor General who reported to the Crown. The Governor General had direct authority over the constituent royal captaincies, and nominal but ill-defined authority over the donatary captaincies. One captaincy, that of Duarte Coelho in Pernambuco, was exempt by royal decree from the authority of the Governors General.
The Ministry of Justice and Public Security, previously known as Ministry of Justice and Minitry of Justice and Citizenship, is a cabinet-level federal ministry in Brazil. The current Minister of Justice and Public Security is Sérgio Moro.
Heinrich Wilhelm Ferdinand Halfeld, also known in Portuguese as Henrique Guilherme Fernando Halfeld, was a German engineer.