Caspian-Caucasian Front

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The Caspian-Caucasian Front (Russian : Каспийско-Кавказский фронт) was a front of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War, formed on 8 December 1918 as a branch of the Southern Front. The Front was disbanded on 13 March 1919 and the troops transferred to form a separate 11th Army.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although, nowadays, nearly three decades after the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia, the rise of state-specific varieties of this language tends to be strongly denied in Russia, in line with the Russian World ideology.

Front (military formation) military formation in some countries; originates in the Russian Empire

A front is a type of military formation that originated in the Russian Empire, and has been used by the Polish Army, the Red Army, the Soviet Army, and Turkey. It is roughly equivalent to an army group in the military of most other countries. It varies in size but in general contains three to five armies. It should not be confused with the more general usage of military front, describing a geographic area in wartime.

Red Army 1917–1946 ground and air warfare branch of the Soviet Unions military

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, frequently shortened to Red Army was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established immediately after the 1917 October Revolution. The Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Beginning in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; taking the official name of "Soviet Army", until its dissolution in December 1991.

Contents

Operations

The Caspian-Caucasian Front covered the Lower Volga, the Northern and Western coasts of the Caspian Sea and the Northern Caucasus. The Front headquarters were located in Astrakhan.

The task of the Front was to have the 11th Army continue the offensive against the Armavir -Tikhoretsk line held by the White troops of Denikin, while the 12th Army was to launch an offensive against Petrovsk - Derbent.

Armavir, Russia City in Krasnodar Krai, Russia

Armavir is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the left bank of the Kuban River. Population: 188,832 (2010 Census); 193,964 (2002 Census); 160,983 (1989 Census); 144,000 (1969). Armavir was formerly the second-largest industrial center of Krasnodar Krai, after Krasnodar.

Tikhoretsk Town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia

Tikhoretsk is a town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. Population: 61,823 (2010 Census); 65,005 (2002 Census); 67,105 (1989 Census).

Anton Denikin Russian general

Anton Ivanovich Denikin was a Russian Lieutenant General in the Imperial Russian Army (1916) and afterwards a leading general of the White movement in the Russian Civil War.

The troops of the 11th Army were not able to carry out the assigned tasks, as they were opposed by considerable enemy forces. The 12th Army was also forced to conduct defensive battles in the districts of Kizlyar and west of Guryev. In January 1919, the troops of the 11th Army were defeated in the Northern Caucasus Operation (1918–1919) and in February they retreated over the Manych River into the region of Astrakhan.

Kizlyar Town in Dagestan, Russia

Kizlyar is a town in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the border with the Chechen Republic in the delta of the Terek River 221 kilometers (137 mi) northwest of Makhachkala, the capital of the republic. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 48,984.

Northern Caucasus Operation (1918–1919)

The Northern Caucasus Operation was fought between the White and Red Armies during the Russian Civil War between December 1918 and March 1919. The White Army captured the entire Northern Caucasus. The Red Army withdrew to Astrahan and the Volga delta.

Manych River river in Russia

The Manych is a river in the Black Sea-Caspian Steppe of Southern Russia. It flows through the western and central part of the Kuma–Manych Depression.

On February 4, 1919, the Stavropol Front was created to defend Astrakhan. In February 1919, the troops of the Front managed to secure Astrakhan and the mouth of the Volga and to prevent the union of Denikin's troops with the Ural white Cossacks.

The Front was disbanded on 13 March 1919.

Composition

11th Army (RSFSR)

The 11th Army was a field army of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War, which fought on the Caspian-Caucasian Front. It took a prominent part in the sovietization of the three republics of the southern Caucasus in 1920–21, when Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Georgia were brought within the orbit of Soviet Russia.

The 12th Army was a field army of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War, which was formed twice.

The Astrakhan-Caspian Military Flotilla was formed by the Bolsheviks in October 1918 for the purpose of defending the Lower Volga and northern parts of the Caspian Sea from the Volunteer Army. The existing flotilla, the so-called Military Fleet of the Astrakhan Krai had been operating in this region since April 1918 and consisted of 50 combat ships and 6 hydroplanes. It was reinforced by torpedo boats and submarines from Kronstadt in the fall of that year.

Commanders

Commander :

Chief of Staff :

Members of the Revolutionary Military Council:

Alexander Shliapnikov Russian politician and syndicalist

Alexander Gavrilovich Shliapnikov was a Russian communist revolutionary, metalworker, and trade union leader. He is best remembered as a memoirist of the October Revolution of 1917 and as the leader of one of the primary opposition movements inside the Russian Communist Party during the 1920s.

Source

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