The Caspian-Caucasian Front (Russian : Каспийско-Кавказский фронт) was a front of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War, formed on 8 December 1918 as a branch of the Southern Front. The Front was disbanded on 13 March 1919 and the troops transferred to form a separate 11th Army.
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although, nowadays, nearly three decades after the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia, the rise of state-specific varieties of this language tends to be strongly denied in Russia, in line with the Russian World ideology.
A front is a type of military formation that originated in the Russian Empire, and has been used by the Polish Army, the Red Army, the Soviet Army, and Turkey. It is roughly equivalent to an army group in the military of most other countries. It varies in size but in general contains three to five armies. It should not be confused with the more general usage of military front, describing a geographic area in wartime.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, frequently shortened to Red Army was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established immediately after the 1917 October Revolution. The Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Beginning in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; taking the official name of "Soviet Army", until its dissolution in December 1991.
The Caspian-Caucasian Front covered the Lower Volga, the Northern and Western coasts of the Caspian Sea and the Northern Caucasus. The Front headquarters were located in Astrakhan.
The task of the Front was to have the 11th Army continue the offensive against the Armavir -Tikhoretsk line held by the White troops of Denikin, while the 12th Army was to launch an offensive against Petrovsk - Derbent.
Armavir is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the left bank of the Kuban River. Population: 188,832 (2010 Census); 193,964 (2002 Census); 160,983 (1989 Census); 144,000 (1969). Armavir was formerly the second-largest industrial center of Krasnodar Krai, after Krasnodar.
Tikhoretsk is a town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. Population: 61,823 (2010 Census); 65,005 (2002 Census); 67,105 (1989 Census).
Anton Ivanovich Denikin was a Russian Lieutenant General in the Imperial Russian Army (1916) and afterwards a leading general of the White movement in the Russian Civil War.
The troops of the 11th Army were not able to carry out the assigned tasks, as they were opposed by considerable enemy forces. The 12th Army was also forced to conduct defensive battles in the districts of Kizlyar and west of Guryev. In January 1919, the troops of the 11th Army were defeated in the Northern Caucasus Operation (1918–1919) and in February they retreated over the Manych River into the region of Astrakhan.
Kizlyar is a town in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the border with the Chechen Republic in the delta of the Terek River 221 kilometers (137 mi) northwest of Makhachkala, the capital of the republic. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 48,984.
The Northern Caucasus Operation was fought between the White and Red Armies during the Russian Civil War between December 1918 and March 1919. The White Army captured the entire Northern Caucasus. The Red Army withdrew to Astrahan and the Volga delta.
The Manych is a river in the Black Sea-Caspian Steppe of Southern Russia. It flows through the western and central part of the Kuma–Manych Depression.
On February 4, 1919, the Stavropol Front was created to defend Astrakhan. In February 1919, the troops of the Front managed to secure Astrakhan and the mouth of the Volga and to prevent the union of Denikin's troops with the Ural white Cossacks.
The Front was disbanded on 13 March 1919.
The 11th Army was a field army of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War, which fought on the Caspian-Caucasian Front. It took a prominent part in the sovietization of the three republics of the southern Caucasus in 1920–21, when Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Georgia were brought within the orbit of Soviet Russia.
The 12th Army was a field army of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War, which was formed twice.
The Astrakhan-Caspian Military Flotilla was formed by the Bolsheviks in October 1918 for the purpose of defending the Lower Volga and northern parts of the Caspian Sea from the Volunteer Army. The existing flotilla, the so-called Military Fleet of the Astrakhan Krai had been operating in this region since April 1918 and consisted of 50 combat ships and 6 hydroplanes. It was reinforced by torpedo boats and submarines from Kronstadt in the fall of that year.
Chief of Staff :
Members of the Revolutionary Military Council:
Alexander Gavrilovich Shliapnikov was a Russian communist revolutionary, metalworker, and trade union leader. He is best remembered as a memoirist of the October Revolution of 1917 and as the leader of one of the primary opposition movements inside the Russian Communist Party during the 1920s.
The Caspian Flotilla is the flotilla of the Russian Navy in the Caspian Sea.
The Red Banner Caucasus Army was a Soviet army existing from 1921 to 1935. The army was named the Independent Caucasus Army on its creation, and carried this name until August 1923, when it was renamed the Red Banner Caucasus Army. It ceased to exist on May 17, 1935 when it was redesignated as the Transcaucasian Military District in connection with the overall reorganization of the Red Army.
The Armed Forces of South Russia or AFSR were formed on 8 January 1919, it incorporated many of the smaller formations of the White Army in South of Russia, including the Volunteer Army . Besides that, the AFSR included the Don Army, the Crimean-Azov Army, the Forces of Northern Caucasus and the Turkestan Army.
The Turkestan Front was a front of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War, which was formed on the territory of Turkestan Military District by Order of the Republic of Turkestan on February 23, 1919. It was formed a second time by the directive of the Commander-in-Chief on August 11, 1919 on the territory of Samara, Astrakhan, Orenburg Province and Ural region by renaming the Southern group of armies from the Eastern Front of the RSFSR. Its headquarters were in Samara and by 1920 the Turkestan Front counted some 114,000 soldiers.
The North Caucasus Operation was a strategic offensive conducted by the Caucasian Front of the Red Army against the White Armed Forces of South Russia in the North Caucasus region between 17 January and 7 April 1920. It took place on the Southern Front of the Russian Civil War and was a Soviet attempt to destroy White resistance.
The Southern Front was a front of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War, formed twice.
The Southeastern Front was a front of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War which existed between 30 September 1919 and 16 January 1920. The Front headquarters were located in Saratov.
The 8th Army was a field army of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War which existed from 26 September 1918 until 20 March 1920.
The Caucasian Front was a front of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War which existed between January 16, 1920 and May 29, 1921, and was the continuation of the Southeastern Front. The Front headquarters were located in Millerovo, and then in Rostov-on-Don. Its task was completing the liquidation of the North Caucasian group of Denikin's Army and conquering the Caucasus.
The 9th Army was a field army of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War which existed from October 3, 1918 until June 22, 1921.
The Taman Army was an armed group within the Red Army, operating in the south of Russia during the Russian Civil War. It existed from August 27, 1918 to February 1919. The name derives from the Taman Peninsula, where the army was formed.
The 10th Army was a field army of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War which existed from October 3 1918 until July 1920. It was formed from the troops operating in the area of Tsaritsyn and Kamyshin. On May 4, 1920 it was renamed the 10th Terek Army. It was dissolved in July 1920. It was part of the Southern Front, the South-Eastern Front and the Caucasian Front.
The 49th Rifle Division was an infantry division of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War, formed twice.
The August counter-offensive of the Southern Front was an offensive during the Russian Civil War by the troops of the Southern Front of the Red Army against the White Guard troops of Anton Denikin (AFSR). Combat operations were conducted by two offensive groups, the main blow was aimed towards the Don region. The troops of the Red Army were unable to carry out the assigned task, but their actions delayed the subsequent offensive of Denikin's army.
The Advance on Moscow was a military campaign of the White Armed Forces of South Russia (AFSR), launched against the RSFSR in July 1919 during the Russian Civil War. The goal of the campaign was the capture of Moscow, which, according to the chief of the White Army Anton Denikin, would play a decisive role in the outcome of the Civil War and bring the Whites closer to the final victory. After initial successes, in which the city of Oryol (Orel) at only 360 km from Moscow was taken, Denikin's overextended Army was decisively defeated in a series of battles in October and November 1919.
The Ural Separate Army was a military formation of the White Army during the Russian Civil War, which operated in the Volga region and the Southern Urals and was formed on December 28, 1918 from units of the Ural Cossack Army and other military units within the Urals Region.