Castle Howard

Last updated

Castle Howard
Castle Howard and garden.jpg
South (garden) face of Castle Howard
Type Stately home
Location North Yorkshire, England
Coordinates 54°7′17″N0°54′21″W / 54.12139°N 0.90583°W / 54.12139; -0.90583 Coordinates: 54°7′17″N0°54′21″W / 54.12139°N 0.90583°W / 54.12139; -0.90583
OS grid reference SE 71635 70088
Built1701–1811
Architect John Vanbrugh
Architectural style(s) English Baroque
OwnerCastle Howard Estate Limited [1]
Website castlehoward.co.uk
Listed Building – Grade I
Official nameCastle Howard and East Court
Designated25 January 1954
Reference no. 1316030
Official nameCastle Howard
Designated10 May 1984
Reference no. 1001059
North Yorkshire UK location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Location of Castle Howard in North Yorkshire

Castle Howard is a stately home in North Yorkshire, England, within the civil parish of Henderskelfe, located 15 miles (24 km) north of York. It is a private residence and has been the home of the Carlisle branch of the Howard family for more than 300 years. Castle Howard is not a fortified structure, but the term "castle" is sometimes used in the name of an English country house that was built on the site of a former castle.

Contents

The house is familiar to television and film audiences as the fictional "Brideshead", both in Granada Television's 1981 adaptation of Evelyn Waugh's Brideshead Revisited and in a two-hour 2008 adaptation for cinema. Today, it is part of the Treasure Houses of England group of heritage houses.

History

In 1577, the 4th Duke of Norfolk's third son, Lord William Howard, married his step-sister Elizabeth Dacre, youngest daughter of the 4th Baron Dacre. She brought with her the sizable estates of Henderskelfe in Yorkshire and Naworth Castle in what was then Cumberland, now Cumbria. [2]

Castle Howard was commissioned by the 3rd Earl of Carlisle, who was a male-line descendant of Lord William Howard. The site selected was part of the Henderskelfe estate. The creation of Castle Howard, began in 1699, with the start of design work by John Vanbrugh. It was completed with the decoration of the Long Gallery in 1811. [3]

The house is surrounded by a large estate which, at the time of the 7th Earl of Carlisle, covered over 13,000 acres (5,300 ha) and included the villages of Welburn, Bulmer, Slingsby, Terrington and Coneysthorpe. [4] The estate was served by its own railway station, Castle Howard station, from 1845 to the 1950s. [5]

While attending Girton College during the early Edwardian era, Lady Dorothy Georgiana Howard, the daughter of the 9th Earl and "Radical Countess" of Carlisle, befriended six of her fellow students, including the future archaeologist Gisela Richter and future candidate for Roman Catholic Sainthood Anna Abrikosova. All six were invited by Lady Dorothy to Castle Howard as guests during holidays. [6]

After the death of the 9th Earl in 1911, Castle Howard was inherited by his fifth son, Geoffrey Howard, with later earls having Naworth Castle as their northern country house. Henry 'Chips' Channon, the diarist and future Conservative MP, visited Castle Howard in August 1923 and recounted in his diary that 'The house is uncomfortable in the extreme and is badly kept up. Everywhere there are signs of decaying magnificence.' Channon added that 'The galleries are reminiscent of the Vatican with their hundreds of busts and statues of emperors and gods. The great library is an enormous narrow red room the length of the house and is hung with enough paintings to found a museum.' [7]

In 1952, Castle Howard was opened to the public by its then-owner, Lord Howard of Henderskelfe, a younger son of Geoffrey Howard. It is now owned by a Howard family company, Castle Howard Estate Limited, [1] and managed by the Hon. Nicholas Howard (the second son of Lord Howard of Henderskelfe) and his wife, Victoria. [8]

House

A view of John Vanbrugh's complete project for Castle Howard, from the north, published in the third volume of Vitruvius Britannicus in 1725. Some details, including the West Wing, were not built. Click on the image for an explanation. Castlehowardbig.jpg
A view of John Vanbrugh's complete project for Castle Howard, from the north, published in the third volume of Vitruvius Britannicus in 1725. Some details, including the West Wing, were not built. Click on the image for an explanation.

The 3rd Earl of Carlisle first spoke to William Talman, a leading architect, but commissioned Vanbrugh, a fellow member of the Kit-Cat Club, to design the building. Castle Howard was that gentleman-dilettante's first foray into architecture, but he was assisted by Nicholas Hawksmoor. [3]

Vanbrugh's design evolved into a Baroque structure with two symmetrical wings projecting to either side of a north–south axis. The crowning central dome was added to the design at a late stage, after building had begun. Construction began at the east end, with the East Wing constructed from 1701 to 1703, the east end of the Garden Front from 1701 to 1706, the Central Block (including dome) from 1703 to 1706, and the west end of the Garden Front from 1707 to 1709. All are exuberantly decorated in Baroque style, with coronets, cherubs, urns and cyphers, with Roman Doric pilasters on the north front and Corinthian on the south. Many interiors were decorated by Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini. [3]

A view of Castle Howard in 1819, from the north-west, showing the contrasting Palladian West Wing at right, which was built in the mid-18th century. Castle Howard from Jones' Views (1819) - north west view.JPG
A view of Castle Howard in 1819, from the north-west, showing the contrasting Palladian West Wing at right, which was built in the mid-18th century.

The Earl then turned his energies to the surrounding garden and grounds. Although the complete design is shown in the third volume of Colen Campbell's Vitruvius Britannicus , published in 1725, the West Wing was not yet started when Vanbrugh died in 1726, despite his remonstration with the Earl. The house remained incomplete on the death of the 3rd Earl in 1738, but the remaining construction finally started at the direction of the 4th Earl. However, Vanbrugh's design was not completed: the West Wing was built in a contrasting Palladian style to a design by the 3rd Earl's son-in-law, Sir Thomas Robinson. The new wing remained incomplete, with no first floor or roof, at the death of the 4th Earl in 1758; although a roof had been added, the interior remained undecorated by the death of Robinson in 1777. Rooms were completed stage by stage over the following decades, but the whole was not completed until 1811 under Charles Heathcote Tatham. [3]

A large part of the house was destroyed by a fire which broke out on 9 November 1940. The dome, the central hall, the dining room and the state rooms on the east side were entirely destroyed. Antonio Pellegrini's ceiling decoration, the Fall of Phaeton, was lost when the dome collapsed. In total, twenty pictures (including two Tintorettos) and several valuable mirrors were lost. The fire took the Malton and York Fire Brigades eight hours to bring under control. [9]

Some of the devastated rooms have been restored over the following decades. In 1960–61 the dome was rebuilt, and in the following couple of years Pellegrini's Fall of Phaeton was recreated on the underside of the dome. [3] The East Wing remains a shell, although it has been re-roofed. [3]

In 2009 an underwater ground-source heat recovery system was installed under the castle's lake that halved the heating bill. [10]

According to figures released by the Association of Leading Visitor Attractions, over 269,000 people visited Castle Howard in 2019. [11]

Gardens

Atlas Fountain by John Thomas, with the main house behind Castle Howard with fountain.jpg
Atlas Fountain by John Thomas, with the main house behind
Temple of the Four Winds TOTFW.jpg
Temple of the Four Winds

Castle Howard has extensive and diverse gardens. [12] There is a large formal garden immediately behind (i.e., on the south side of) the house. The house is prominently situated on a ridge and this was exploited in the development of an English landscape park, which adjoins and opens out from the formal garden. The gardens are Grade I listed on the National Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. [13]

Two major garden buildings are set in this landscape: the Temple of the Four Winds at the end of the garden, and the Mausoleum in the park. There is also a lake on either side of the house. There is a woodland garden, Ray Wood (formerly Wray Wood), immediately east of the house, and a walled garden which contains decorative rose and flower gardens. The Ray Wood walls date from the 18th century and were restored in 2007. [14] Further buildings outside the preserved gardens include Nicholas Hawksmoor's Pyramid, restored in 2015, an obelisk, and several follies and eyecatchers in the form of fortifications which have been restored in recent years. In nearby Pretty Wood, there are two more monuments, The Four Faces and a smaller pyramid by Hawksmoor. [15]

Located on the estate, but operating separately from the house and gardens and run by an entirely independent charitable trust, is the 127 acres (51 ha) Yorkshire Arboretum. [16]

Listed status

The house is Grade I listed [17] and there are many other listed structures on the estate, several of which are on the Heritage at Risk Register. [18]

Castle Howard as film location

Castle Howard appeared in film as Brideshead in both the 1981 television serial and 2008 film adaptations of Evelyn Waugh's novel Brideshead Revisited . [19]

It featured in Peter Ustinov's 1965 film Lady L [20] and it appeared as the Kremlin, in Galton and Simpson's 1966 film The Spy with a Cold Nose . [21] It was then used as the exterior set for Lady Lyndon's estate in Stanley Kubrick's 1975 film Barry Lyndon [22] and it appeared in the 1995 mini-series The Buccaneers . [20]

In 2003, a Time Team episode tried to discover traces of the old settlement of Henderskelf that had been demolished to make way for the castle. [23] It was also used for the 2006 film Garfield: A Tail of Two Kitties . [24]

Rooms (Great Hall Entrance, Turquoise Drawing Room) were used for indoor scenes in the 2013 TV series Death Comes to Pemberley . [25] The castle and its grounds were used as the setting for the 2015 Bollywood film Shaandar [26] and in the 2016 ITV series Victoria . [20] The castle and mausoleum were used as the setting for the video for the 2018 Arctic Monkeys song "Four Out of Five". [27]

The castle was used as the setting for Clyvedon House, the family seat of the Duke of Hastings, in the Netflix series Bridgerton (2020). [20]

CastleHoward-LakeSide.jpg
Panorama of Castle Howard's northern facade (swipe left or right)

See also

Related Research Articles

Nicholas Hawksmoor was an English architect. He was a leading figure of the English Baroque style of architecture in the late-seventeenth and early-eighteenth centuries. Hawksmoor worked alongside the principal architects of the time, Christopher Wren and John Vanbrugh, and contributed to the design of some of the most notable buildings of the period, including St Paul's Cathedral, Wren's City of London churches, Greenwich Hospital, Blenheim Palace and Castle Howard. Part of his work has been correctly attributed to him only relatively recently, and his influence has reached several poets and authors of the twentieth century.

The Treasure Houses of England group is a heritage consortium. It was founded in the early 1970s by nine of the foremost stately homes in England still in private ownership, with the aim of marketing and promoting themselves as tourist venues.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Blenheim Palace</span> Country house in Oxfordshire, England

Blenheim Palace is a country house in Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England. It is the seat of the Dukes of Marlborough and the only non-royal, non-episcopal country house in England to hold the title of palace. The palace, one of England's largest houses, was built between 1705 and 1722, and designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">John Vanbrugh</span> English architect and dramatist

Sir John Vanbrugh was an English architect, dramatist and herald, perhaps best known as the designer of Blenheim Palace and Castle Howard. He wrote two argumentative and outspoken Restoration comedies, The Relapse (1696) and The Provoked Wife (1697), which have become enduring stage favourites but originally occasioned much controversy. He was knighted in 1714.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wentworth Woodhouse</span> Grade I listed country house in South Yorkshire, England

Wentworth Woodhouse is a Grade I listed country house in the village of Wentworth, in the Metropolitan Borough of Rotherham in South Yorkshire, England. It is currently owned by the Wentworth Woodhouse Preservation Trust. The building has more than 300 rooms, although the precise number is unclear, with 250,000 square feet (23,000 m2) of floorspace. It covers an area of more than 2.5 acres (1.0 ha), and is surrounded by a 180-acre (73 ha) park, and an estate of 15,000 acres (6,100 ha).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Frogmore</span> Famous garden in England

Frogmore is an estate within the Home Park, adjoining Windsor Castle, in Berkshire, England. It comprises 33 acres (130,000 m2), of primarily private gardens managed by the Crown Estate. It is the location of Frogmore House, a royal retreat, and Frogmore Cottage. The name derives from the preponderance of frogs which have always lived in this low-lying and marshy area near the River Thames. This area is part of the local flood plain.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Earl of Carlisle</span> Title in the Peerage of England

Earl of Carlisle is a title that has been created three times in the Peerage of England.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Seaton Delaval Hall</span> Grade I listed building in Northumberland, United Kingdom

Seaton Delaval Hall is a Grade I listed country house in Northumberland, England, near the coast just north of Newcastle upon Tyne. Located between Seaton Sluice and Seaton Delaval, it was designed by Sir John Vanbrugh in 1718 for Admiral George Delaval; it is now owned by the National Trust.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Claremont (country house)</span> Country House in Elmbridge, Surrey

Claremont, also known historically as 'Clermont', is an 18th-century Palladian mansion less than a mile south of the centre of Esher in Surrey, England. The buildings are now occupied by Claremont Fan Court School, and its landscaped gardens are owned and managed by the National Trust. Claremont House is a Grade I listed building.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Easton Neston house</span> Country house near Towcester, Northamptonshire, England

Easton Neston is a large grade I listed country house in the parish of Easton Neston near Towcester in Northamptonshire, England. It was built by William Fermor, 1st Baron Leominster (1648–1711), in the Baroque style to the design of the architect Nicholas Hawksmoor. Easton Neston is thought to be the only mansion which was solely the work of Hawksmoor. From about 1700, after the completion of Easton Neston, Hawksmoor worked with Sir John Vanbrugh on many buildings, including Castle Howard and Blenheim Palace, and often provided technical knowledge to the less qualified Vanbrugh. Hawksmoor's work was always more classically severe than Vanbrugh's. However, Easton Neston predates this partnership by some six years.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Carlisle</span>

Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Carlisle, PC was a British nobleman, peer, and statesman.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Naworth Castle</span> Castle in Cumbria, England

Naworth Castle, also known or recorded in historical documents as "Naward", is a castle in Cumbria, England, near the town of Brampton. It is adjacent to the A69, about 2 miles (3.2 km) east of Brampton. It is on the opposite side of the River Irthing to, and just within sight of, Lanercost Priory. It was the seat of the Barons Dacre and is now that of their cognatic descendants, the Earls of Carlisle. It is a Grade I listed building.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Robin Hood's Well</span> Historic site in Burghwallis, South Yorkshire

Robin Hood's Well is a historic building beside the A1(M) motorway in Skellow, South Yorkshire, England. It was originally built in 1710 as a well house over a spring alongside the old Great North Road, but the structure was moved to its present location alongside the Doncaster By-Pass in what is known as Barnsdale.

Major George Anthony Geoffrey Howard, Baron Howard of Henderskelfe, JP was a British politician, soldier and media man.

William Etty was an English architect and craftsman, best known for designing Holy Trinity Church, Leeds and (probably) Holy Trinity Church, Sunderland.

Thomas Dacre, 4th Baron Dacre of Gilsland, 8th Baron Greystoke was an English Member of Parliament and after his father's death a peer and major landowner in the counties of Cumberland, Yorkshire and Northumberland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Duchess of Kent's Mausoleum</span> Historic site in Surrey, England

The Duchess of Kent's Mausoleum is a mausoleum for Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duchess of Kent, the mother of Queen Victoria. It is situated in Frogmore Gardens in the Home Park, Windsor. It was listed Grade I on the National Heritage List for England in October 1975. The bridge leading to the island from the mausoleum is listed Grade II.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Henderskelfe Castle</span> Ruined castle in England

Henderskelfe Castle, or Henderskelf Castle in older texts, was a Medieval castle in the English county of North Yorkshire. It stood on what is now the site of Castle Howard, a large stately home.

References

  1. 1 2 Castle Howard Estate Limited
  2. "William Howard of Naworth Castle". Tudor Place. Retrieved 10 September 2022.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "The Building of Castle Howard". www.castlehoward.co.uk. Archived from the original on 15 April 2010. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
  4. 'The Pride of Yorkshire' exhibition leaflet, Castle Howard, 2010
  5. Butt, R. V. J. (October 1995). The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt, platform and stopping place, past and present (1st ed.). Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN   978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC   60251199. OL   11956311M.
  6. Gisela M. Richter (1972), My Memoirs: Recollections of an Archaeologist's Life, Published in Rome, pages 8–9.
  7. Channon, Henry (1967). Rhodes James, Robert (ed.). Chips: The Diaries of Sir Henry Channon. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN   978-1-85799-493-3.
  8. "First interview with Castle Howard's new chatelaine, Victoria Howard". The Times. 1 October 2017. Retrieved 10 September 2022.
  9. Hull Daily Mail, Monday 11 November 1940 p. 3
  10. "'Brideshead' house Castle Howard goes green" . The Daily Telegraph . 31 August 2010. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
  11. "ALVA – Association of Leading Visitor Attractions". www.alva.org.uk. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
  12. Edward W. Leeuwin: Echoes of Arcadia. Rituals in the Arcadian Landscape of Castle Howard. In: Die Gartenkunst 16 (1/2004), p. 73–84. ISSN 0935-0519
  13. Historic England. "Castle Howard (1001059)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  14. "Stately home walls boost". York Press. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  15. Historic England. "Castle Howard Pyramid in Pretty Wood (1149012)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 11 September 2022.
  16. "Home". Yorkshire Arboretum. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  17. Historic England. "Castle Howard and East Court (1316030)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  18. "The Mausoleum and bastion wall with gates and railings, Kirk Hill, Castle Howard Estate, Henderskelfe - Ryedale". Historic England: Heritage at Risk Register. Retrieved 11 September 2022.
  19. "Brideshead Revisited". Filmed in Yorkshire. Retrieved 10 September 2022.
  20. 1 2 3 4 "New exhibition celebrates Castle Howard on screen". Historic Houses. 5 May 2022. Retrieved 10 September 2022.
  21. "The Spy with a Cold Nose". British Film Locations. Retrieved 10 September 2022.
  22. "Barry Lyndon". Movie Locations. Retrieved 10 September 2022.
  23. "Time Team digs up Castle Howard". Gazette and Herald. 24 April 2002. Retrieved 10 September 2022.
  24. "Garfield: A Tail of Two Kitties". British Film Locations. Retrieved 10 September 2022.
  25. "Death Comes to Pemberley". Screen Yorkshire. Retrieved 10 September 2022.
  26. "Visit Britain the Shaandaar way!". Be On The Road. 22 October 2015. Retrieved 10 September 2022.
  27. "Band film video at Castle Howard". York Press. 14 May 2018. Retrieved 10 September 2022.