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Cattleya labiata Orchi 1013.jpg
Cattleya labiata
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Epidendroideae
Subtribe: Laeliinae
Genus: Cattleya
Type species
Cattleya labiata
Synonyms [1]
  • SophroniaLindl.
  • SophronitisLindl.
  • MaeleniaDumort.
  • LophoglotisRaf.
  • × SophrocattleyaRolfe
  • EunannosPorta & Brade
  • HoffmannseggellaH.G.Jones
  • DungsiaChiron & V.P.Castro
  • × HadrocattleyaV.P.Castro & Chiron
  • × HadrodungsiaV.P.Castro & Chiron
  • Hadrolaelia(Schltr.) Chiron & V.P.Castro
  • × MicrocattleyaV.P.Castro & Chiron
  • Microlaelia(Schltr.) Chiron & V.P.Castro
  • CattleyellaVan den Berg & M.W.Chase
  • SchluckebieriaBraem
  • × BrasicattleyaCampacci
  • BrasilaeliaCampacci
  • ChironiellaBraem

Cattleya ( /ˈkætliə/ ) [2] is a genus of orchids from Costa Rica south to Argentina. [1] The genus is abbreviated C in trade journals. [3]



Epiphytic or terrestrial orchids with cylindrical rhizome from which the fleshy noodle-like roots grow. Pseudobulbs can be conical, spindle-shaped or cylindrical; with upright growth; one or two leaves growing from the top of them. The leaves can be oblong, lanceolate or elliptical, somewhat fleshy, with smooth margin. The inflorescence is a terminal raceme with few or several flowers. Flowers have sepals and petals free from each other; the lip or labellum (lowermost petal), usually has a different coloration and shape from the rest of the flower and covers in part the flower column forming a tube. There are four polliniums (bag-like organs that contain pollen). The fruit is a capsule with many small seeds. [4] [5] [6]


The genus was named in 1824 by John Lindley after horticulturalist William Cattley. Cattley obtained a specimen of then unnamed Cattleya labiata from William Swainson who had discovered the new plant in Pernambuco, Brazil, in 1817. The plant successfully bloomed under the care of Cattley and it became the type specimen from which Lindley described C. labiata. [7]

Currently accepted species and subgeneric division within genus Cattleya are: [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13]

Subgenus Cattleya

Section Cattleya

ImageNameDistributionElevation (m)
Cattleya dowiana var. aurea 'Maestranza' (Linden) B.S.Williams & T.Moore, Orchid Album 2 t. 84 (1883) (48470977042).jpg C. aurea S. Panama to Colombia300 - 1000 meters
Cattleya dowiana (17344397479).jpg C. dowiana Costa Rica250 - 1200 meters
A and B Larsen orchids - Cattleya gaskelliana 876-9.jpg C. gaskelliana Colombia to Trinidad700 - 1000 meters
Cattleya iricolor Orchi 021.jpg C. iricolor Ecuador to Peru400 - 1220 meters
Cattleya jenmanii Rolfe, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1906 85 (1906) (49221659452) (cropped).jpg C. jenmanii Venezuela to Guyana300 - 600 meters
Cattleya labiata Orchi 1013.jpg C. labiata Brazil600 - 900 meters
Cattleya luteola 'No2' Lindl., Gard. Chron. 1853 774 (1853) (41995788111).jpg C. luteola N. Brazil, Ecuador to Bolivia100 - 1200 meters
Cattleya mendelii Orchi 2012-09-14 020.jpg C. mendelii NE. Colombia1300 - 1800 meters
Cattleya mooreana (15346290357).jpg C. mooreana Peruaround 990 meters
Caularthron bicornutum - fl.jpg C. mossiae N. Venezuela900 - 1500 meters
Cattleya percivaliana 'Jabon' (Rchb.f.) O'Brien Gard. Chron., n.s., 20- 404 (1883) (38372342694).jpg C. percivaliana Colombia to W. Venezuela1300 - 2000 meters
Cattleya quadricolor (38149175695).jpg C. quadricolor Colombia600 - 1500 meters
C. rex Peru to N Boliviaaround 1350 meters
Cattleya schroederae (34349388642).jpg C. schroederae NE. Colombia.
Cattleya trianae, the national flower of Columbia (10909657333).jpg C. trianae Colombiaaround 1200 meters
Cattleya warneri T.Moore ex R.Warner, Select Orchid. Pl. t. 8 (1862) (46699509212) (cropped).jpg C. warneri E. Brazil400 - 900 meters
Cattleya warscewiczii fma. clara suave lunata 'Monos Nutibara' Rchb.f., Bonplandia (Hannover) 2- 112 (1854) (35156784005).jpg C. warscewiczii Colombia500 - 1700 meters
Series Cattleyodes
ImageNameDistributionElevation (m)
Cattleya crispa Lindley.jpg C. crispa SE. Brazil800 - 1500 meters
C. grandis Brazil - SE. Bahia to N. Espírito Santo.
Laelia lobata1.jpg C. lobata SE. Brazil.
Sop perrini.jpg C. perrinii SE. Brazil700 - 900 meters
Cattleya purpurata fma. sanguinea 'Mentz' (Lindl. & Paxton) Rollisson ex Lindl., Gard. Chron. 1855 319 (1855) (42929804561).jpg C. purpurata SE. & S. Brazil
A and B Larsen orchids - Laelia tenebrosa 925-4.jpg C. tenebrosa Brazil - SE. Bahia to Espírito Santo.
C. virens SE. Brazil1000 - 1500 meters
Cattleya xanthina (Espirito Santo, Brasil) (Lindl.) Van den Berg, Neodiversity 3- 12 (2008) (35756189832).jpg C. xanthina Brazil - Bahia to Espírito Santo.
Series Hadrolaelia
ImageNameDistributionElevation (m)
Cattleya alaorii (s-wild) (Brieger & Bicalho) Van den Berg, Neodiversity 3- 4 (2008) (32091365561).jpg C. alaorii Brazil - Bahia200 - 600 meters
Cattleya bicalhoi fma. coerulea 'Chojamaru' Van den Berg, Neodiversity 3- 4 (2008) (26737176929).jpg C. bicalhoi Brazil - S. Minas Gerais to Rio de Janeiro500 - 2000 meters
Cattleya jongheana (Rchb.f.) Van den Berg, Neodiversity 3 8 (2008) (26476434407).jpg C. jongheana Brazil - Minas Gerais1300 - 1600 meters
Cattleya praestans rchb.f. van den berg.jpg.jpg C. praestans SE. Brazil300 - 500 meters
Hadrolaelia pumila Imperatriz.JPG C. pumila SE. & S. Brazil600 - 1300 meters
Cattleya sincorana 'Black Willow' (Schltr.) Van den Berg, Neodiversity 3- 11 (2008) (34363216995).jpg C. sincorana Brazil - Bahia1100 - 1500 meters
Series Microlaelia
ImageNameDistributionElevation (m)
Microlaelia lundii flower.jpg C. lundii Bolivia to Argentina740 - 1000 meters
Series Parviflorae
ImageNameDistributionElevation (m)
C. alvarenguensis Brazil - Minas Geraisaround 800 meters
Cattleya alvaroana (11763085833).jpg C. alvaroana Brazil - Rio de Janeiro
Cattleya angereri Orchi 003.jpg C. angereri Brazil - Minas Gerais1000-1300 meters
Cattleya blumenscheinii (Pabst) Van den Berg, Neodiversity 3- 4 (2008). (39333106224).jpg C. blumenscheinii Brazil - Minas Geraisaround 1200 meters
C. bradei Brazil - Minas Gerais1100 - 1400 meters
C. briegeri Brazil - Minas Geraisaround 1370 meter
C. campacii Brazil
Hoffmannseggella caulescens.jpg C. caulescens Brazil - Minas Gerais600 - 1200 meters
Laelia cinnabarina 01.jpg C. cinnabarina Brazil - S. Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro800 - 1500 meters
Cattleya colnagoi (11762787953).jpg C. colnagoi Brazil - Minas Gerais
C. conceicionensis Brazil - Minas Gerais800 - 1200 meters
Cattleya crispata Orchi 168.jpg C. crispata Brazil - Minas Gerais400 - 1200 meters
Cattleya endsfeldzii2a.jpg C. endsfeldzii Brazil - Minas Gerais900 meters
Cattleya esalqueana Orchi 012.jpg C. esalqueana Brazil - Minas Gerais1100 - 1300 meters
C. flavasulina Brazil - Minas Gerais900 - 1440 meters
Cattleya fournieri Orchi 1015.jpg C. fournieri Brazil - Minas Gerais1100 - 1800 meters
Cattleya ghillanyi fma. flamea '-1806' (Pabst) Van den Berg, Neodiversity 3 7 (2008) (40973783720).jpg C. ghillanyi Brazil - Minas Gerais
C. gloedeniana Brazil - São Pauloaround 1600 meters
C. gracilis Brazil - Minas Gerais: Serra do Cipó
C. guanhanensis Brazil - Minas Geraisaround 1100 meters
Cattleya harpophylla Orchi 016.jpg C. harpophylla Brazil - Minas Gerais to Espírito Santo500 - 900 meters
C. hatae Brazil - Minas Gerais1000 - 1100 meters
C. hegeriana Brazil - Rio de Janeiro1000 - 1200 meters
C. hispidula Brazil - Minas Geraisaround 1200 meters
Sop mixta.jpg C. hoehnei Brazil - Espírito Santoaround 800 meters
C. itambana Brazil - Minas Gerais1500 to 2200 meters
C. kautskyana Brazil - Espírito Santo600 - 1000 meters
C. kettieana Brazil - Minas Gerais1500 - 2000 meters
Cattleya kleberi 'Lemon Yellow' (F.E.L.Miranda) Van den Berg, Neodiversity 5 13 (2010) (48000446356).jpg C. kleberi Brazil - Minas Geraisaround 1100 meters
C. liliputana Brazil - Minas Gerais: Serra do Ouro Branco1200 - 1400 meters
C. locatellii Brazil - Minas Gerais
Sop longipes.jpg C. longipes SE. Brazil - Serra do Cipó1300 - 2000 meters
Cattleya luetzelburgii Orchi 005.jpg C. luetzelburgii Brazil - Bahia1100 - 1700 meters.
C. macrobulbosa Brazil - Espírito Santoaround 1600 meters
Cattleya marcaliana Orchi 053.jpg C. marcaliana Brazil - Bahia200 - 300 meters
C. milleri Brazil - Minas Gerais800 - 1300 meters
Cattleya mirandae Orchi 032.jpg C. mirandae Brazil - Minas Geraisaround 1300 meters
Cattleya munchowiana (F.E.L.Miranda) Van den Berg, Neodiversity 3 10 (2008) (42346340371).jpg C. munchowiana Brazil - Espírito Santo1100 - 1300 meters
Cattleya neokautskyi Van den Berg, Neodiversity 3 10 (2008) (41114245832).jpg C. neokautskyi SE. Brazil600 - 1000 meters.
Cattleya pabstii Orchi 027.jpg C. pabstii Brazil - Minas Gerais1200 meters
C. pendula Brazil - Minas Gerais
Cattleya pfisteri Orchi 024.jpg C. pfisteri Brazil - Bahiaaround 1300 meters
C. presidentensis Brazil - Minas Gerais1000 - 1300 meters
Cattleya sp. aff. reginae (36382505655).jpg C. reginae Brazil - Minas Gerais1200 - 2000 meters
Cattleya rupestris (Lindl.) Van den Berg, Neodiversity 3 11 (2008) (26248496577).jpg C. rupestris Brazil - Minas Gerais
C. sanguiloba Brazil – Bahia
C. tereticaulis Brazil - Minas Gerais
C. vandenbergii Brazil - Minas Gerais
Cattleya vasconcelosiana (Campacci) Van den Berg, Phytotaxa 186 84 (2014) (30017905018).jpg C. vasconcelosiana Brazil - Minas Geraisaround 1100 meters
C. verboonenii Brazil - Rio de Janeiro
C. viridiflora Brazil - Minas Gerais
Series Sophronitis
ImageNameDistributionElevation (m)
C. acuensis Brazil - Rio de Janeiro1800 - 2100 meters
C. alagoensis Brazil - Alagoas300 - 500 meters
Cattleya brevipedunculata (Brazil) (Cogn.) Van den Berg, Neodiversity 3- 5 (2008) (37604122515).jpg C. brevipedunculata Brazil - Minas Gerais1220 - 2000 meters
Cattleya cernua (Lindl.) Van den Berg, Neodiversity 5 13 (2010) (44597776830).jpg C. cernua Brazil to NE. Argentina2 - 100 meters
Cattleya coccinea '1980s' Lindl., Edwards's Bot. Reg. 22 t. 1919 (1836) (46224838001).jpg C. coccinea Brazil to NE. Argentina650 - 1670 meters
C. dichroma Brazil - Rio de Janeiro1200 - 1525 meters
Sophronitis mantiqueirae Orchi 068.jpg C. mantiqueirae SE. Brazil1200 - 1890 meters
C. pygmaea Brazil - Espírito Santo915 - 1067 meters
Cattleya wittigiana (Barb.Rodr.) Van den Berg, Neodiversity 3 12 (2008) (40011443525).jpg C. wittigiana Brazil - Espírito Santo700 - 2000 meters

Section Lawrenceanae

ImageNameDistributionElevation (m)
Cattleya lawrenceana.jpg C. lawrenceana Venezuela, Guyana, N. Brazil250 - 2400 meters
Cattleya lueddemanniana "tipo".JPG C. lueddemanniana N. Venezuela0 - 500 meters
Cattleya eldorado Orchi 002.jpg C. wallisii N. Brazil

Subgenus Cattleyella

ImageNameDistributionElevation (m)
Cattleyella araguaiensis Orchi 033.jpg C. araguaiensis Brazil395 - 610 meters

Subgenus Intermediae

ImageNameDistributionElevation (m)
A and B Larsen orchids - Cattleya aclandiae DSCN0548.JPG C. aclandiae Brazil100 - 400 meters
Cattleya amethystoglossa Orchi 0011.jpg C. amethystoglossa Brazilaround 600 meters
Cattleya bicolor Orchi 2012-09-21 074.jpg C. bicolor SE. Brazil
Cattleya dormaniana (Brazil) (Rchb.f.) Rchb.f., Gard. Chron., n.s., 17- 216 (1882) (37827599194).jpg C. dormaniana Brazil600 - 100 meters
Cattleya elongata.jpg C. elongata Brazil900 - 1500 meters
Cattleya forbesii 'Prazer' Lindl., Coll. Bot. t. 37 (1826) (43353536482).jpg C. forbesii Brazilaround 200 meters
Cattleya granulosa Lindl. - Flickr - Alex Popovkin, Bahia, Brazil (14).jpg C. granulosa Brazil600 - 900 meters
Cattleya guttata (Brazil) Lindl., Edwards's Bot. Reg. 17- t. 1406 (1831) (24491178747).jpg C. guttata Brazil.
A and B Larsen orchids - Cattleya harrisoniana 75-1.jpg C. harrisoniana SE. Brazil
Cattleya intermedia Orchi 039.jpg C. intermedia SE. & S. Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay
Cattleya kerrii.jpg C. kerrii Brazil
Cattleya loddigesii 2013-03-22 6361.jpg C. loddigesii SE. Brazil to NE. Argentina.
Cattleya nobilior.jpg C. nobilior WC. Brazil to Bolivia170 - 700 meters
A and B Larsen orchids - Cattleya porphyroglossa DSCN3206.JPG C. porphyroglossa Brazil.
Cattleya schilleriana.jpg C. schilleriana Brazil0 - 800 meters.
Cattleya schofieldiana Orchi 027.jpg C. schofieldiana Brazilaround 900 meters
Cattleya tenuis 53.jpg C. tenuis NE. Brazil1000 - 1200 meters.
Cattleya tigrina Orchi 017.jpg C. tigrina SE. & S. Brazil0 - 100 meters.
Cattleya velutina Orchi 1070.jpg C. velutina Brazil
Cattleya violacea (Kunth) Lindl., Gard. Chron. 1842 472 (1842) (29029280518).jpg C. violacea lowland Amazon rainforest & Guyana200 - 700 meters
Cattleya walkeriana tipo, 'Dona nega' x 'Cambara' (27501615169).jpg C. walkeriana WC. & SE. Brazil0 - 2000 meters.

Subgenus Maximae

ImageNameDistributionElevation (m)
Cattleya maxima 'La Negra' Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 116 (1833) (43195894741).jpg C. maxima Venezuela to Peru10 - 1500 meters

Natural hybrids

Currently accepted natural hybrids are: [13]


This section is incomplete.

Hybrids of Cattleya and other genera are placed in the following nothogenera:


Cattleya mossiae fo. coerulea Cattleya mossiae forma coerulea Grito.jpg
Cattleyamossiae fo. coerulea
Cattleyas need light, but not direct sunlight; in case of intense sunlight, shade must be provided. [14]
Day temperatures must be between 25-30 °C (77-86 °F) and night temperatures not lower than 10-12 °C (50-53.6 °F). [14]
Must be between 40-70% with good ventilation; however plants must not be exposed to air currents. [15]
Water only if substrate is dry. It can be done once a week, but it all depends on the environmental conditions and the season. [15]
Cattleyas can survive without fertilizing. However, it is advisable to use nitrogen-based fertilizers without urea ; fertilizers must be applied during the growth season. [15] To avoid salt accumulation in the substrate, water thoroughly between fertilizer applications. [15]

Related Research Articles

<i>Brassavola</i> genus of plants

Brassavola is a genus of 21 orchids. They were named in 1813 by the Scottish botanist Robert Brown. The name comes from the Italian nobleman and physician Antonio Musa Brassavola. This genus is abbreviated B. in trade journals.

<i>Oncidium</i> Genus of orchids

Oncidium, abbreviated as Onc. in the horticultural trade, is a genus that contains about 330 species of orchids from the subtribe Oncidiinae of the orchid family (Orchidaceae). As presently conceived, it is distributed across much of South America, Central America, Mexico and the West Indies, with one species (O. ensatum) extending into Florida. Common names for plants in this genus include dancing-lady orchid and golden shower orchid.

<i>Laelia</i> genus of plants

Laelia is a small genus of 25 species in the orchid family (Orchidaceae). Laelia species are found in areas of subtropical or temperate climate in Central and South America, but mostly in Mexico. Laelia is abbreviated L. in the horticultural trade.

<i>Prosthechea</i> genus of plants

Prosthechea is a genus in the orchid family (Orchidaceae). The name is derived from the Greek word prostheke (appendix), referring to the appendage on the back of the column. Appendage orchid is a common name for this genus.

<i>Leptotes</i> (plant) Genus of orchids

Leptotes, abbreviated Lpt in horticultural trade, is a genus of orchids formed by nine small species that grow in the dry jungles of south and southeast Brazil, and also in Paraguay or Argentina. They are small epiphytic plants of caespitose growth that sometimes resemble little Brassavola, as they share the same type of thin terete leaves, though they are more closely related to Loefgrenianthus.

Laeliinae Subtribe of orchids

Laeliinae is a Neotropical subtribe including 40 orchid genera, such as Brassavola, Laelia and Cattleya. The genus Epidendrum is the largest within this subtribe, containing about 1500 species. This is followed by the genus Encyclia, with over 120 species.

<i>Pseudolaelia</i> genus of plants

Pseudolaelia is a small genus belonging to the orchid family (Orchidaceae), the entire genus endemic to Brazil. The abbreviation used in the horticultural trade is Pdla.

<i>Adamantinia</i> monotypic genus of orchids

Adamantinia is a monotypic genus of orchids, described in 2004 by Cássio van den Berg and Cezar Neubert Gonçalves. The name is a reference to Chapada Diamantina, Brazil, where this species comes from.

<i>Guarianthe</i> genus of plants

Guarianthe, abbreviated Gur. in the horticultural trade, is a small genus of epiphytic orchids, growing in wet forests in Mexico, Central America, Colombia, Venezuela and Trinidad. It was separated from the bifoliate Cattleyas in 2003, based on phylogenetic studies of nuclear DNA sequence data

Flora of Colombia plants endemic to Colombia

The Flora of Colombia is characterized by 130,000 species of plants that have been described within Colombian territory.

This page lists orchid species according to their respective distribution range.

<i>Cattleya amethystoglossa</i> species of plant

Cattleya amethystoglossa is a bifoliate species of orchid from the genus Cattleya.

<i>Cattleya bicolor</i> species of plant

Cattleya bicolor is a species of orchid found in Brazil.

<i>Cattleya walkeriana</i> species of plant

Cattleya walkeriana is a species of orchid. It differs from most species of Cattleya by having inflorescences which arise from the rhizome instead of from the apex of the pseudobulb. In its native habitat it grows as either an epiphyte or a lithophyte, sometimes in full sun. Pseudobulbs are relatively short, bulbous or fusiform, with one or two ovate leaves at the apex. Inflorescence is one- or few-flowered, about 8" (20 cm) tall. Flowers are 4-5" (9-12 cm) across.

<i>Cattleya warscewiczii</i> species of plant

Cattleya warscewiczii, a labiate Cattleya, is a species of orchid.

<i>Cattleya crispa</i> species of plant

Cattleya crispa is a species of orchid indigenous to the Tijuca Mountains north of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, noted for its crisped and ruffled petals and lip. It is the type species for both the subgenus Cattleya subg. Crispae and its section Cattleya sect. Crispae.

<i>Leptotes bicolor</i> Species of orchid

Leptotes bicolor is a species of orchid native to Paraguay and southern Brazil. It is the type species of the genus Leptotes. Its flowers and fruits are used as a substitute for vanilla in milk and ice cream.

Ischnogyne is a genus of flowering plants from the orchid family, Orchidaceae. It contains only one known species, Ischnogyne mandarinorum, native to China.

Cássio van den Berg is a Brazilian botanist. He is noted for work in orchid classification and evolution, especially great changes in the generic circumscriptions of ornamental orchids in the genus Cattleya, based on DNA studies for the subtribe Laeliinae. Based on this studies, he proposed a fusion of the genera Cattleya, Laelia, and Sophronitis. In Laeliinae, the studies pointed out to the separation of subtribe Ponerinae, and the transfer of Dilomilis and Neocogniauxia to Pleurothallidinae. He also worked in the taxonomy of other orchid genera, such as Acianthera, Baptistonia, Bulbophyllum, Cymbidium, Encyclia, Galeandra, Isabelia and Pleione. In 2004, he described a new genus of Laeliinae, Adamantinia Van den Berg & C.N.Gonç. Currently he is full professor and curator of the Laboratory of Plant Molecular Systematics. at Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil.

William Cattley was a British merchant and horticulturist. He was significantly involved with the trade between Britain and Russia, including the importation of grain to England. He also collected, and had others collect on his behalf, plants from locations throughout the world. He was particularly fond of orchids.


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  2. Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  3. "Alphabetical list of standard abbreviations of all generic names occurring in current use in orchid hybrid registration as at 31st December 2007" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society.
  4. Buzatto, Cristiano Roberto; Ferreira, Priscila Porto Alegre; Welker, Cassiano Aimberê Dorneles; Seger, Guilherme Dubal dos Santos; Hertzog, Anelise; Singer, Rodrigo B. (2010). "O gênero Cattleya Lindl. (Orchidaceae: Laeliinae) no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil". Revista Brasileira de Biociências (in Portuguese). 8 (4). ISSN   1980-4849.
  5. Withner, C. (1988). The Cattleyas and Their Relatives. Volume 1: The Cattleyas. Timber Press. pp. 29–30. ISBN   9780881920994.
  6. Schweinfurth, C., "Orchidaceae, Orchids of Peru", Fieldiana, Botany 30(3): 535
  7. "Cattleya, Queen of the Orchids: The Showy Cattleya, Queen of the Orchids, BEGINNERS' HANDBOOK - XV". Retrieved 29 June 2017.
  8. Van den Berg, Cássio (2014). "Reaching a compromise between conflicting nuclear and plastid phylogenetic trees: a new classification for the genus Cattleya (Epidendreae; Epidendroideae; Orchidaceae)". Phytotaxa. 186 (2): 75. doi: 10.11646/phytotaxa.186.2.2 . ISSN   1179-3163.
  9. "Laelia gracilis - IOSPE PHOTOS". Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  10. "Cattleya hispidula - IOSPE PHOTOS". Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  11. "Cattleya gracilis (Pabst) Van den Berg — The Plant List". Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  12. van den Berg, Cássio (2016). "Nomenclatural notes on Laeliinae-VI. Further combinations in Cattleya (Orchidaceae)". Neodiversity. 9 (1): 4–5. doi:10.13102/neod.91.2.[ permanent dead link ]
  13. 1 2 "Cattleya - World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew". Archived from the original on 8 September 2009. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  14. 1 2 Schoser, Gustav (1993). Orchid Growing Basics . Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. p.  64. ISBN   9780806903620.
  15. 1 2 3 4 "Cattleyas for the Beginner - Part 1". Retrieved 3 July 2017.