|3rd President of Turkey|
27 May 1950 –27 May 1960
|Prime Minister||Adnan Menderes|
|Preceded by||İsmet İnönü|
|Succeeded by||Cemal Gürsel|
|3rd Prime Minister of Turkey|
1 November 1937 –25 January 1939
|President|| Mustafa Kemal Atatürk |
Abdülhalik Renda (Acting)
|Preceded by||İsmet İnönü|
|Succeeded by||Refik Saydam|
|Leader of the Democrat Party|
7 June 1946 –9 June 1950
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Adnan Menderes|
|Member of the Grand National Assembly|
28 June 1923 –14 May 1950
|Constituency||Izmir (1923, 1927, 1931, 1935, 1939, 1943, 1946)|
|Born||16 May 1883|
Gemlik, Ottoman Empire
|Died||22 August 1986 103) (aged|
|Political party|| Democrat Party (1946–1961)|
Republican People's Party (1923–1945)
Committee of Union and Progress (1908–1922)
|Spouse(s)||Reşide Bayar (1886–1962)|
Mahmut Celâl Bayar (16 May 1883 – 22 August 1986)was a Turkish politician, who was the third President of Turkey from 1950 to 1960; previously he was Prime Minister of Turkey from 1937 to 1939. Bayar, as the Turkish President, was decorated with the Legion of Merit by the President of the United States, as a result of Turkey's participation in the Korean War. He is considered to be the longest-lived former head of state and was the longest-lived state leader until 8 December 2008 (when he was surpassed by Chau Sen Cocsal Chhum). Celal Bayar died on 22 August 1986 at the age of 103 after a brief illness.
Bayar was born on 16 May 1883 at Umurbey, a village of Gemlik, Bursaas the son of a religious leader and teacher who migrated from Lom, Ottoman Bulgaria. After school, he worked as a clerk, first in the court in Gemlik and in Ziraat Bankası. Then, in 1906, he was employed in the Deutsche Orientbank in Bursa.
In 1908, Bayar joined the volunteer’s troop of the Committee of Union and Progress, a political organization of Young Turks. He served as the secretary-general of the newly founded Bursa branch and later of the İzmir branch of the party.
In 1919, Bayar was elected to the Ottoman Parliament in Istanbul as deputy of Saruhan (today Manisa). As he disagreed with the new constitution determined by the Sultan, in 1920 he went to Ankara to join Mustafa Kemal and the Turkish Independence Movement. He became an active member of the "Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti" (Association for Defence of Rights of Anatolia and Rumelia), another political organization formed after World War I. He became the deputy of Bursa in the newly established Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The same year, he served as Deputy Minister of the Economy and on 27 February 1921 he was appointed as the Minister of the Economy. He led the negotiation commission during Çerkes Ethem's uprising. In 1922, Bayar was a member of the Turkish delegation during the Lausanne Peace Conference as an advisor to İsmet İnönü. After the elections in 1923, he served as the deputy of İzmir in the Parliament. On 6 March 1924 Celâl Bayar was appointed Minister of Exchange Construction and Settlement (until 7 July 1924).On 26 August 1924, Atatürk founded the Türkiye İş Bankası in Ankara by using as capital the gold bullion sent by the Muslims in India to support the Turkish War of Independence. He was the Managing Director of what was the largest Turkish commercial bank until 1932.
On 1 November 1937 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk appointed Bayar as Prime Minister of the 9th Government of Turkey after İsmet İnönü left the government. He continued to serve as prime minister when Atatürk died and İnönü became president in 1938 (10th government of Turkey). Differences of opinion with Inönü led him to resign from the position on 25 January 1939.
Until 1945, he was a member of Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi (the Republican People's Party), a republican party which most often during the Atatürk era had been the sole legal party. Then on 7 January 1946, he founded Demokrat Parti (the Democratic Party), a socially conservative economically liberal party, along with Adnan Menderes, Fuat Köprülü and Refik Koraltan.The DP won, with 408 of 487 seats, a majority in the first free general elections in Turkish history on 14 May 1950. The parliament elected Bayar as president of Turkey on the 22 May 1950. He was subsequently re-elected in 1954 and 1957, serving for 10 years as president. In that period, Adnan Menderes was his prime minister. It was under his presidency that the anti-Greek Istanbul Pogrom took place on 6–7 September 1955.
On 27 May 1960 the armed forces staged a coup d’etat. On 10 June they sent Celal Bayar along with Adnan Menderes and some other government and party members to a military court on the tiny island of Yassiada in the Sea of Marmara. He and 15 other party members were tried for violating the constitution and sentenced to death by a kangaroo court appointed by the junta on 15 September 1961. The ruling military committee approved the death sentence for Menderes, Zorlu and Polatkan, but the punishment for Bayar and other 12 party members was commuted to life imprisonment. Bayar was sent to a prison in Kayseri, but he was released on 7 November 1964 due to ill health.
Bayar was pardoned in 1966.Full political rights were restored to him in 1974, but he declined an invitation to become a life member of the Senate, on the grounds that one can represent the people only if elected. He died on 22 August 1986 in Istanbul at the age of 103 after a brief illness. From 24 April 1978, when former Paraguay President Federico Chávez died, until his own death Bayar was the world's oldest living former head of state.
Bayar was the father of three children: Refii (1904–1940), Turgut (1911–1983) and Nilufer (1921– ).
Refii Bayar was the General Manager of "Milli Reasurans," a reinsurance company, from 1929 to 1939, was the founder of "Halk Evleri", an educational government entity in Istanbul, and was a journalist and published the Halk newspaper between 1939 and 1941 with Cemal Kutay.
Nilüfer Gürsoy married Ahmet İhsan Gürsoy (1913–2008), who was the Kütahya deputy for the Democratic Party between 1946 and 1960, the Bursa deputy for the Justice Party between 1965 and 1969 and İstanbul deputy for the Democratic Party between 1973 and 1975 and then for the Justice Party between 1975 and 1980.
In 1954, Bayar was awarded the Grand Cross Special Class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany (Sonderstufe des Großkreuzes des Verdienstordens der Bundesrepublik Deutschland). January 27, 1954 Bayar received the Legion of Merit Award from the USA and Order of the Yugoslav Star.In 1954, Bayar was awarded an honorary doctorate by the University of Belgrade. In 1958, the Freie Universität Berlin (Free University Berlin) awarded him an honorary doctorate. The Celal Bayar University, which was established in 1992 in Manisa, is named after him.
Celal Bayar married Reşide in 1904 when he was 21 and she 18 years old.They had three children.
| Prime Minister of Turkey |
| President of Turkey |
|Party political offices|
|New political party|| Leader of the Democratic Party |
| Oldest living state leader |
Adnan Menderes was a Turkish politician. He was the Turkish Prime Minister between 1950–1960. He was one of the founders of the Democrat Party (DP) in 1946, the fourth legal opposition party of Turkey. He was tried and hanged under the military junta after the 1960 coup d'état, along with two other cabinet members, Fatin Rüştü Zorlu and Hasan Polatkan. One of the accusations brought against him was of him ordering the Istanbul Pogrom against citizens of Greek ethnicity. He was the last Turkish political leader to be executed after a military coup and is also one of the three political leaders of the Turkish Republic to have had a mausoleum built in his honor.
Hatırla Sevgili was a popular but controversial Turkish TV series. The series started on October 27, 2006 on the Turkish TV channel ATV, aired on Friday evenings at 22:15 hrs local time. After 68 episodes, the final one was aired on June 6, 2008.
The 8th government of Turkey was a government in the history of Turkey. It is also called the seventh İnönü government.
Events in the year 1960 in Turkey.
Events in the year 1959 in Turkey.
Events in the year 1958 in Turkey.
Events in the year 1957 in Turkey.
Events in the year 1956 in Turkey.
Events in the year 1955 in Turkey.
Events in the year 1954 in Turkey.
Events in the year 1953 in Turkey.
Events in the year 1952 in Turkey.
Events in the year 1951 in Turkey.
Events in the year 1950 in Turkey.
Events in the year 1945 in Turkey.
Events in the year 1946 in Turkey.
Events in the year 1937 in Turkey.
Events in the year 1938 in Turkey.
The 5th Grand National Assembly of Turkey existed from 8 February 1935 to 3 April 1939. There were 444 MPs in the parliament all of which were the members of the Republican People’s Party (CHP). 5th parliament was the first Turkish parliament in which women deputies were elected.
The 7th Grand National Assembly of Turkey existed from 28 February 1943 to 5 August 1946. There were 492 MPs in the parliament all of which were the members of the Republican People’s Party (CHP). But towards the end of the term some issued from CHP to form Democrat Party (DP)