Celebes warty pig

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Sulawesi warty pig
Sus celebensis.png
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Suidae
Genus: Sus
S. celebensis
Binomial name
Sus celebensis

Verrucophorus celebensis

The Celebes warty pig (Sus celebensis), also called Sulawesi warty pig or Sulawesi pig, is a species in the pig genus ( Sus ) that lives on Sulawesi in Indonesia. It survives in most habitats and can live in altitudes of up to 2,500 m (8,000 ft). It has been domesticated and introduced to a number of other islands in Indonesia.



The Celebes warty pig is a medium-sized pig, and quite variable in size and appearance. Although a number of subspecies have been recognised, it is now regarded as a monotypic taxon. It is the only pig species that has been domesticated apart from the wild boar; being semi-domesticated may have had an influence on the variability of its appearance. [2] This pig has a head-and-body length of between 80 and 130 cm (30 and 50 in) and a long tail, with males generally being larger than females. The back is rounded and the legs short. The colour is greyish-black, sometimes tinged with red or yellow on the flanks. There are three pairs of facial warts and a fringe of pale bristles on the snout and more bristles on the cheeks. The crown and nape are topped by a short crest of dark bristles, while a dark mid-dorsal stripe extends from the crest towards the tufted tail. [3] Young pigs have longitudinal stripes, but these fade as the piglets grow. [2]

Distribution and habitat

The Celebes warty pig occurs in Sulawesi, being plentiful in central, eastern and south-eastern parts of the island but uncommon in the northeastern and southern parts. [1] It also occurs naturally on the nearby smaller islands of Buton, Muna, Kabeana, Peleng, Lembeh and the Togian Islands. Besides this, it has been domesticated and introduced to various other islands, has hybridised with Sus scrofa , and has become feral in some places, giving rise to a number of different pig populations. [1] It inhabits various habitat types including rainforest, swamp, cultivated land and grassland, at altitudes up to 2,500 m (8,000 ft). [1]


This pig tends to move around in small groups of up to nine individuals, led by a dominant male and including several females and their offspring. Foraging takes place mainly in the early morning and the evening; the diet consists mainly of roots, shoots, leaves and fallen fruit, but also includes carrion, invertebrates and small vertebrates. Breeding takes place throughout the year. Gestation periods are probably between four and five months, and litter sizes can be up to eight, but in one study, averaged about two. [2] The most important natural predator is the reticulated python. [1]

Conservation status

The chief threats faced by this pig are an expanding human population, deforestation, with conversion of the land to agricultural use, and hunting for human consumption. Even in areas such as national parks, where the species is protected, hunting still occurs and the meat is traded in local markets. This over-hunting and loss of habitat has led the International Union for Conservation of Nature to assess the pig's conservation status as being "near threatened". [1]

Cave art

A cave painting of a Celebes warty pig in the Leang Tedongnge cave on Sulawesi has been dated to an age of at least 45,500 years ago, making it the oldest known cave painting. [4] A layer of calcite over the painting was dated using uranium-series isotope dating to give a minimum age for the painting. The image was made using red ochre, and is accompanied by images of human hands made by blowing ochre on to the cave wall around the hands. The painting depicts a male pig, including the male's pair of facial warts. It was first seen by Westerners in 2017. [5]


At one point in time there may have been a portion of the land which shifted upward resulted in increased diversification. The researchers found out that the Sulawesi who roam the island today were preceded by other ancestors who once expanded from the innermost area of the island to the outermost part of it.

Related Research Articles

<i>Sus</i> (genus) Genus of even-toed ungulates

Sus is the genus of wild and domestic pigs, within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae. Sus include domestic pigs and their ancestor, the common Eurasian wild boar, along with other species. Sus species, like all suids, are native to the Eurasian and African continents, ranging from Europe to the Pacific islands. Suids other than the pig are the babirusa of Indonesia, the pygmy hog of South Asia, the warthogs of Africa, and other pig genera from Africa. The suids are a sister clade to peccaries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sulawesi</span> One of Greater Sunda Islands Indonesia

Sulawesi, also known as Celebes, is one of the four Greater Sunda Islands. It is governed by Indonesia. The world's eleventh-largest island, it is situated east of Borneo, west of the Maluku Islands, and south of Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago. Within Indonesia, only Sumatra, Borneo, and Papua are larger in territory, and only Java and Sumatra have larger populations.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wild boar</span> Species of mammal

The wild boar, also known as the wild swine, common wild pig, Eurasian wild pig, or simply wild pig, is a suid native to much of Eurasia and North Africa, and has been introduced to the Americas and Oceania. The species is now one of the widest-ranging mammals in the world, as well as the most widespread suiform. It has been assessed as least concern on the IUCN Red List due to its wide range, high numbers, and adaptability to a diversity of habitats. It has become an invasive species in part of its introduced range. Wild boars probably originated in Southeast Asia during the Early Pleistocene and outcompeted other suid species as they spread throughout the Old World.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cave painting</span> Paintings, often prehistoric, on cave walls and ceilings

Cave paintings are a type of parietal art, found on the wall or ceilings of caves. The term usually implies prehistoric origin, and the oldest known are more than 40,000 years old, found in the caves in the district of Maros. The oldest are often constructed from hand stencils and simple geometric shapes. However, more recently, in 2021, cave art of a pig found in an Indonesian island, and dated to over 45,500 years ago, has been reported.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">North Sulawesi babirusa</span> Species of mammal

The North Sulawesi babirusa is a pig-like animal native to Sulawesi and some nearby islands in Indonesia. It has two pairs of large tusks composed of enlarged canine teeth. The upper canines penetrate the top of the snout, curving back toward the forehead. The North Sulawesi babirusa is threatened from hunting and deforestation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">West Sulawesi</span> Province of Indonesia

West Sulawesi is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the western side of Sulawesi island. It covers an area of 16,787.18 km2, and its capital is Mamuju. The 2010 Census recorded a population of 1,158,651, while that in 2020 recorded 1,419,228.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Babirusa</span> Genus of mammals in the swine family

The babirusas, also called deer-pigs, are a genus, Babyrousa, in the swine family found in the Indonesian islands of Sulawesi, Togian, Sula and Buru. All members of this genus were considered part of a single species until 2002, the babirusa, B. babyrussa, but following that was split into several species. This scientific name is restricted to the Buru babirusa from Buru and Sula, whereas the best-known species, the north Sulawesi babirusa, is named B. celebensis. The remarkable "prehistoric" appearance of these mammals is largely due to the prominent upwards incurving canine tusks of the males, which actually pierce the flesh in the snout.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Visayan warty pig</span> Species of mammal

The Visayan warty pig is a critically endangered species in the pig genus (Sus). It is endemic to six of the Visayan Islands in the central Philippines. It is known by many names in the region with most translating into 'wild pig': baboy ilahas, baboy talonon, baboy sulop, and baboy ramo.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Philippine warty pig</span> Species of mammal

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Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park is a 2,871 km2 (1,108 mi2) national park on Minahassa Peninsula on Sulawesi island, Indonesia. Formerly known as Dumoga Bone National Park, it was established in 1991 and was renamed in honour of Nani Wartabone, a local resistance fighter who drove the Japanese from Gorontalo during World War II. The park has been identified by Wildlife Conservation Society as the single most important site for the conservation of Sulawesi wildlife and is home to many species endemic to Sulawesi.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Javan warty pig</span> Species of mammal

The Javan warty pig, also called Javan wild pig, is an even-toed ungulate in the family Suidae. It is endemic to the Indonesian islands Java and Bawean, and is considered extinct on Madura. It is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 1996.

Oryzias celebensis, the Celebes medaka, fish in the family Adrianichthyidae. It is endemic to rivers, streams and lakes on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi and one river in East Timor.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Buru babirusa</span> Species of mammal

The Buru babirusa is a wild pig-like animal native to the Indonesian islands of Buru, the two Sula Islands of Mangole and Taliabu. It is also known as the Moluccan babirusa, golden babirusa or hairy babirusa. Traditionally, this relatively small species included the other babirusas as subspecies, but it has been recommended treating them as separate species based on differences in their morphology. As also suggested by its alternative common names, the Buru babirusa has relatively long thick, gold-brown body-hair – a feature not shared by the other extant babirusas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prehistoric Indonesia</span>

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Warty pig may refer to:

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sulawesi lowland rain forests</span> Ecoregion in Sulawesi, Indonesia

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sulawesi montane rain forests</span> Ecoregion in Sulawesi, Indonesia

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  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Burton, J.; Mustari, A.; Rejeki, I. (2020). "Sus celebensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2020: e.T41773A44141588. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T41773A44141588.en . Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  2. 1 2 3 Oliver, William L.R. & SSC Pigs and Peccaries Specialist Group (1993). Pigs, Peccaries, and Hippos: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN. pp. 155–162. ISBN   978-2-8317-0141-7.
  3. Huffman, Brent (18 February 2017). "Sus celebensis: Sulawesi Warty Pig" . Retrieved 9 September 2019.
  4. Brumm, Adam; Oktaviana, Adhi Agus; Burhan, Basran; Hakim, Budianto; Lebe, Rustan; Zhao, Jian-xin; Sulistyarto, Priyatno Hadi; Ririmasse, Marlon; Adhityatama, Shinatria; Sumantri, Iwan; Aubert, Maxime (2021-01-01). "Oldest cave art found in Sulawesi". Science Advances. 7 (3): eabd4648. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abd4648 . ISSN   2375-2548. PMC   7806210 . PMID   33523879.
  5. Agence France-Presse (13 January 2021). "World's oldest known cave painting found in Indonesia". The Guardian . Retrieved 13 January 2021.

Frantz, L., Rudzinski, A., Nugraha, A., Evin, A., Burton, J., Hulme-Beaman, A., Linderholm, A., Barnett, R., Vega, R., Irving-Pease, E. K., Haile, J., Allen, R., Leus, K., Shephard, J., Hillyer, M., Gillemot, S., van den Hurk, J., Ogle, S., Atofanei, C., Thomas, M. G., … Larson, G. (2018). Synchronous diversification of Sulawesi's iconic artiodactyls driven by recent geological events. Proceedings. Biological sciences, 285(1876), 20172566. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2017.2566